Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
|Countess of Snowdon (more)|
21 August 1930|
Glamis Castle, Scotland, UK
|Died||9 February 2002
King Edward VII Hospital, London, UK
|Burial||Ashes interred at King George VI Memorial Chapel, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle|
|Spouse||Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon (m. 1960; div. 1978)|
|Issue||David Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley
Lady Sarah Chatto
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, CI, GCVO, GCStJ (Margaret Rose; 21 August 1930 – 9 February 2002), was the younger daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, and the only sibling of Queen Elizabeth II.
Margaret spent much of her childhood years in the company of her older sister and parents. Her life changed dramatically in 1936, when her paternal uncle, King Edward VIII, abdicated to marry the twice divorced American Wallis Simpson. Margaret's father became King, and her older sister became heir presumptive, with Margaret second in line to the throne. During World War II, the two sisters stayed at Windsor Castle, despite suggestions to evacuate them to Canada. During the war years, Margaret was considered too young to perform any official duties, and instead continued her education.
After the war, Margaret fell in love with Group Captain Peter Townsend. In 1952, Margaret's father died, her sister became sovereign, and Townsend divorced his first wife. Early the following year, he proposed to Margaret. Many in the government felt that he would be an unsuitable husband for the Queen's 22-year-old sister, and the Church of England refused to countenance a marriage to a divorced man. Margaret eventually abandoned her plans with him. In 1960, she accepted the proposal of the photographer Antony Armstrong-Jones, who was created Earl of Snowdon by the Queen. The couple had two children; they later divorced in 1978.
Margaret was often viewed as a controversial member of the royal family. Her divorce earned her negative publicity, and she was romantically associated with several men. Her health gradually deteriorated in the final two decades of her life. A heavy smoker for most of her adult life, she had a lung operation in 1985, a bout of pneumonia in 1993, and at least three strokes between 1998 and 2001. She died at King Edward VII Hospital on 9 February 2002.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Post-war years
- 3 Romance with Peter Townsend
- 4 Marriage
- 5 Royal duties
- 6 Private life
- 7 Illness and death
- 8 Legacy
- 9 Places named after her
- 10 Representation in other media
- 11 Titles, styles, honours and arms
- 12 Issue
- 13 Ancestry
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 External links
Margaret was born Her Royal Highness Princess Margaret Rose of York on 21 August 1930 at Glamis Castle in Scotland, her mother's ancestral home, and was affectionately known as ‘Margot’ within the royal family. The Home Secretary, J. R. Clynes, was present to verify the birth. The registration of her birth was delayed for several days to avoid her being numbered 13 in the parish register. At the time of her birth, she was fourth in the line of succession to the British throne. Her father was Prince Albert, Duke of York (later George VI), the second son of King George V and Queen Mary. As a grandchild of the Sovereign in the male line, Margaret Rose was styled Her Royal Highness from birth. Her mother was Elizabeth, Duchess of York, the youngest daughter of the 14th Earl and the Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne. The Duchess of York originally wanted the names Ann Margaret, as she explained to Queen Mary in a letter: "I am very anxious to call her Ann Margaret, as I think Ann of York sounds pretty, & Elizabeth and Ann go so well together." King George V disliked the name Ann, but approved of the alternative "Margaret Rose". She was baptised in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 30 October 1930 by Cosmo Lang, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Her godparents were: the Prince of Wales (her paternal uncle, for whom his brother the Prince George stood proxy); Princess Ingrid of Sweden (her paternal cousin, for whom another cousin Lady Patricia Ramsay stood proxy); the Princess Victoria (her paternal great-aunt); the Lady Rose Leveson-Gower (her maternal aunt); and the Hon David Bowes-Lyon (her maternal uncle).
Margaret's early life was spent primarily at the Yorks' residences at 145 Piccadilly (their town house in London) or Royal Lodge in Windsor. The Yorks were perceived by the public as an ideal family: father, mother and children, but unfounded rumours that Margaret was deaf and mute were not completely dispelled until Margaret's first main public appearance at her uncle Prince George's wedding in 1934. She was educated alongside her sister, Princess Elizabeth, by their Scottish governess Marion Crawford. Her education was mainly supervised by her mother, who in the words of Randolph Churchill "never aimed at bringing her daughters up to be more than nicely behaved young ladies". When Queen Mary insisted upon the importance of education, the Duchess of York commented, "I don't know what she meant. After all I and my sisters only had governesses and we all married well—one of us very well". Margaret was resentful about her limited education, especially in later years, aiming criticism at her mother. However, Margaret's mother told a friend that she "regretted" that her own daughters did not go to school like other children, and the employment of a governess rather than sending the girls to school may have been done only at the insistence of King George V.
Her grandfather, George V, died when Margaret was five, and her uncle succeeded as King Edward VIII. Less than a year later, on 11 December 1936, Edward abdicated to marry Wallis Simpson, a twice-divorced American, whom neither the Church of England nor the Dominion governments would accept as Queen. The Church would not recognise the marriage of a divorced woman with a living ex-husband as valid. Edward's abdication left a reluctant Duke of York in his place as King George VI, and Margaret unexpectedly became second in line to the throne with the style The Princess Margaret to indicate her status as a child of the sovereign. The family moved into Buckingham Palace; Margaret's room overlooked The Mall.
Margaret was a Brownie in the 1st Buckingham Palace Brownie Pack, formed in 1937. She was also a Girl Guide and later a Sea Ranger. She served as President of Girlguiding UK from 1965 until her death in 2002.
At the outbreak of World War II, Margaret and her sister were at Birkhall, on the Balmoral Castle estate, where they stayed until Christmas 1939, enduring nights so cold that drinking water in carafes by their bedside froze. They spent Christmas at Sandringham House, before moving to Windsor Castle just outside London for much of the remainder of the war. Viscount Hailsham wrote to Prime Minister Winston Churchill to advise the evacuation of the princesses to the greater safety of Canada, to which their mother famously replied "The children won't go without me. I won't leave without the King. And the King will never leave." Unlike other members of the royal family, Margaret was not expected to undertake any public or official duties during the war. She developed her skills at singing and playing the piano. Her contemporaries thought she was spoilt by her parents, especially her father, who allowed her to take liberties not usually permissible, such as being allowed to stay up to dinner at the age of 13. Marion Crawford despaired at the attention Margaret was getting, writing to friends "Could you this year only ask Princess Elizabeth to your party? ... Princess Margaret does draw all the attention and Princess Elizabeth lets her do that." Elizabeth, however, did not mind this, commenting, "oh, it's so much easier when Margaret's there—everybody laughs at what Margaret says". King George described Elizabeth as his pride and Margaret as his joy.
Following the end of the war in 1945, Margaret appeared on the balcony at Buckingham Palace with her family and Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Afterwards, both Elizabeth and Margaret joined the crowds outside the palace incognito chanting, "we want the King, we want the Queen!". On 15 April 1946, Margaret was confirmed into the Church of England.
On 1 February 1947, Margaret, Elizabeth and her parents embarked on a state tour of Southern Africa. The three-month-long visit was Margaret's first visit abroad, and she later claimed that she remembered "every minute of it". Margaret was chaperoned by Peter Townsend, the King's equerry. Later that year, Margaret was a bridesmaid at Elizabeth's wedding. In the next three years Elizabeth had two children, Charles and Anne, whose births shifted Margaret further down the line of succession.
In 1950, the former royal governess, Marion Crawford, published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years titled The Little Princesses, in which she described Margaret's "light-hearted fun and frolics" and her "amusing and outrageous ... antics". The royal family were appalled at what they considered Crawford's invasion of their privacy and breach of trust, as a result of which Crawford was ostracised from royal circles.
As a beautiful young woman, with an 18-inch waist and "vivid blue eyes", Margaret enjoyed socialising with high society and the young, aristocratic set, including Sharman Douglas, the daughter of the American ambassador, Lewis Williams Douglas. She was often featured in the press at balls, parties, and night-clubs. The number of her official engagements increased, which included a tour of Italy, Switzerland and France, and she joined a growing number of charitable organisations as President or Patron.
Her twenty-first birthday party was held at Balmoral in August 1951. The following month her father underwent surgery for lung cancer, and Margaret was appointed one of the Counsellors of State who undertook the King's official duties while he was incapacitated. Her father died five months later, in February 1952, and her sister became queen.
Romance with Peter Townsend
Margaret was grief-stricken by her father's death, and was prescribed sedatives to help her sleep. She wrote, "He was such a wonderful person, the very heart and centre of our happy family." She was consoled by her deeply held Christian beliefs. With her widowed mother, Margaret moved out of Buckingham Palace and into Clarence House, while her sister and her family moved out of Clarence House and into Buckingham Palace. Peter Townsend was appointed Comptroller of her mother's household.
By 1953, Townsend was divorced from his first wife; he proposed marriage to Margaret. He was 16 years her senior, and had two children from his previous marriage. Margaret accepted, and informed her sister, the Queen, of her desire to marry Townsend. The Queen's consent was required by the Royal Marriages Act 1772. As in 1936, the Church of England refused to countenance the remarriage of the divorced. Queen Mary had recently died, and Elizabeth was about to be crowned. After her coronation, she planned to tour the Commonwealth for six months. The Queen told Margaret, "Under the circumstances, it isn't unreasonable for me to ask you to wait a year." The Queen was counselled by her private secretary to post Townsend abroad, but she refused, instead transferring him from the Queen Mother's household to her own. The British Cabinet refused to approve the marriage, and newspapers reported that the marriage was "unthinkable" and "would fly in the face of Royal and Christian tradition". Churchill informed the Queen that the Dominion prime ministers were unanimously against the marriage, and that Parliament would not approve a marriage that would be unrecognised by the Church of England unless Margaret renounced her rights to the throne. Churchill arranged for Townsend to be posted to Brussels. Polls run by popular newspapers appeared to show that the public supported Margaret's personal choice, regardless of Church teaching or the government's opinion. For two years, press speculation continued. Margaret was told by clerics, incorrectly, that she would be unable to take communion if she married a divorced man. Finally, Margaret issued a statement:
I would like it to be known that I have decided not to marry Group Captain Peter Townsend. I have been aware that, subject to my renouncing my rights of succession, it might have been possible for me to contract a civil marriage. But mindful of the Church's teachings that Christian marriage is indissoluble, and conscious of my duty to the Commonwealth, I have resolved to put these considerations before others. I have reached this decision entirely alone, and in doing so I have been strengthened by the unfailing support and devotion of Group Captain Townsend.
Margaret married the photographer Antony Armstrong-Jones at Westminster Abbey on 6 May 1960. She reportedly accepted his proposal a day after learning from Peter Townsend that he intended to marry a young Belgian woman, Marie-Luce Jamagne, who was half his age and bore a striking resemblance to Princess Margaret. Margaret's announcement of her engagement, on 26 February 1960, took the press by surprise; she had taken care to conceal the romance from reporters.
The ceremony was the first royal wedding to be broadcast on television, and attracted viewing figures of 300 million worldwide. Despite the public enthusiasm, most foreign royal families of Europe disapproved of a king's daughter marrying a photographer. Queen Ingrid of Denmark was the only foreign royal to attend the wedding.
Margaret's wedding dress was designed by Norman Hartnell, and worn with the Poltimore tiara. The Princess had eight young bridesmaids, led by her niece, Princess Anne. The other bridesmaids were her goddaughter, Marilyn Wills, daughter of her cousin Jean Elphinstone and Major John Lycett Wills; Annabel Rhodes, daughter of her cousin Margaret Elphinstone and Denys Rhodes; Lady Virginia Fitzroy, daughter of Hugh Fitzroy, Earl of Euston; Sarah Lowther, daughter of Sir John Lowther; Catherine Vesey, daughter of Viscount de Vesci; and Lady Rose Nevill, daughter of the Marquess of Abergavenny. The Duke of Edinburgh escorted the bride and the best man was Dr Roger Gilliatt.
The honeymoon was spent aboard the royal yacht Britannia on a six-week Caribbean cruise. As a wedding present, Colin Tennant gave her a plot of land on his private Caribbean island, Mustique. The newly-weds moved into rooms in Kensington Palace.
In 1961, the Princess's husband was created Earl of Snowdon, whereupon she became formally styled HRH The Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon. The couple had two children (both born by Caesarean section at Margaret's request): David, Viscount Linley, born 3 November 1961, and Lady Sarah, born 1 May 1964.
The marriage widened Princess Margaret's social circle beyond the Court and aristocracy to include show business celebrities and bohemians. At the time, it was thought to reflect the breaking down of British class barriers. The Snowdons experimented with the styles and fashions of the 1960s.
Princess Margaret began her royal duties at an early age. She attended the silver jubilee of her grandparents, King George V and Queen Mary, aged five in 1935. She later attended her parents' coronation in 1937. Her first major royal tour occurred when she joined her parents and sister for a tour of South Africa in 1947. Her tour aboard Britannia to the British colonies in the Caribbean in 1955 created a sensation throughout the West Indies, and calypsos were dedicated to her. As colonies of the British Commonwealth of Nations sought nationhood, Princess Margaret represented the Crown at independence ceremonies in Jamaica in 1962 and Tuvalu and Dominica in 1978. Her visit to Tuvalu was cut short after an illness, which may have been viral pneumonia, and she was flown to Australia to recuperate. Other overseas tours included the United States in 1963, Japan in 1969 and 1979, the United States and Canada in 1974, Australia in 1975, the Philippines in 1980, Swaziland in 1981, and China in 1987. During an official visit to Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1964, she was allegedly bugged by the KGB.
The Princess's main interests were welfare charities, music and ballet. She was President of the National Society and of the Royal Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children and Invalid Children's Aid Nationwide (also called 'I CAN'). She was Grand President of the St John Ambulance Brigade and Colonel-in-Chief of Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps. She was also the president or patron of numerous organisations, such as the West Indies Olympic Association, the Girl Guides, Northern Ballet Theatre, and the London Lighthouse (an AIDS charity that has since merged with the Terrence Higgins Trust).
Reportedly, Margaret had her first extramarital affair in 1966, with Anthony Barton, a Bordeaux wine producer and her daughter's godfather. A year later she had a one-month liaison with Robin Douglas-Home, a nephew of British politician Alec Douglas-Home. Margaret claimed that her relationship with Douglas-Home was platonic, but her letters to him (which were later sold) were intimate. Douglas-Home, who suffered from depression, committed suicide 18 months after the split with Margaret. Claims that she was romantically involved with musician Mick Jagger, actor Peter Sellers, and Australian cricketer Keith Miller are unproven. According to Charlotte Breese, biographer of entertainer Leslie Hutchinson, he had a "brief liaison" with Margaret in 1955. A 2009 biography of actor David Niven had assertions, based on information from his widow and a good friend of Niven's, that he had had an affair with the princess. John Bindon, a Cockney actor who had spent time in prison, sold his story to the Daily Mirror, boasting of a close relationship with Margaret.
By the early 1970s, the Snowdons had drifted apart. In September 1973, Colin Tennant (later Baron Glenconner) introduced Margaret to Roddy Llewellyn. Llewellyn was seventeen years her junior. In 1974, she invited him as a guest to the holiday home she had built on Mustique. It was the first of several visits. Margaret described their relationship as "a loving friendship". Once, when Llewellyn left on an impulsive trip to Turkey, Margaret became emotionally distraught and took an overdose of sleeping tablets. "I was so exhausted because of everything", she later said, "that all I wanted to do was sleep." As she recovered, her ladies-in-waiting kept Lord Snowdon away from her, afraid that seeing him would distress her further.
In February 1976, a picture of Margaret and Llewellyn in swimsuits on Mustique was published on the front page of the News of the World tabloid. The press portrayed Margaret and Llewellyn as a predatory older woman and her toyboy lover. The following month, the Snowdons publicly acknowledged that their marriage had irretrievably broken down. Some politicians suggested removing Margaret from the Civil list. Labour MPs denounced her as "a royal parasite" and a "floosie". On 11 July 1978, the Snowdons' divorce was finalised. It was the first divorce of a senior royal since Princess Victoria of Edinburgh in 1901. In December 1978 Snowdon married Lucy Lindsay-Hogg.
In August 1979, Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma and members of his family were killed by a bomb planted by the Provisional Irish Republican Army. That October, while on a fund-raising tour of the United States on behalf of the Royal Opera House, Margaret was seated at a dinner reception in Chicago with columnist Abra Anderson and mayor Jane Byrne. Margaret told them that the royal family had been moved by the many letters of condolence from Ireland. The following day, Anderson's rival Irv Kupcinet published a claim that Margaret had referred to the Irish as "pigs". Margaret, Anderson and Byrne all issued immediate denials, but the damage was already done. The rest of the tour drew demonstrations, and Margaret's security was doubled in the face of physical threats.
In 1981, Llewellyn married Tatiana Soskin, whom he had known for ten years. Margaret remained close friends with them both. In January 1981, Margaret was a guest on the BBC Radio 4 programme Desert Island Discs.
Illness and death
The Princess's later life was marred by illness and disability. She had smoked cigarettes since at least the age of 15 and had continued to smoke heavily for many years. On 5 January 1985 she had part of her left lung removed; the operation drew parallels with that of her father over 30 years earlier. In 1991 she quit smoking, though she continued to drink heavily. In January 1993 she was admitted to hospital for pneumonia. She experienced a mild stroke in 1998 at her holiday home in Mustique. Early in the following year the Princess suffered severe scalds to her feet in a bathroom accident, which affected her mobility to the extent she required support when walking and sometimes used a wheelchair. In January and March 2001, further strokes were diagnosed, which had left her with partial vision and paralysis on the left side. Margaret's last public appearances were at the 101st birthday celebrations of her mother in August 2001, and the 100th birthday celebration of her aunt, Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, that December.
Princess Margaret died in the King Edward VII Hospital, London, on 9 February 2002 at the age of 71 after suffering another stroke. Her funeral was held on 15 February 2002, the 50th anniversary of her father's funeral. In line with her wishes, the ceremony was a private service for family and friends. Unlike most other members of the royal family, Princess Margaret was cremated, at Slough Crematorium. Her ashes were placed in the tomb of her parents, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (who died seven weeks after Margaret), in the King George VI Memorial Chapel in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, two months later. A state memorial service was held at Westminster Abbey on 19 April 2002.
Observers often characterised Margaret as a spoiled snob capable of cutting remarks or hauteur. She was said to look down on her grandmother, Mary of Teck, because Mary was born a princess with the "Serene Highness" style, whereas Margaret was born a royal princess with the "Royal Highness" style. Their letters, however, provide no indication of friction between them. She could also be charming and informal. People who came into contact with her could be perplexed by her swings between frivolity and formality. Former governess Marion Crawford wrote in her memoir, "Impulsive and bright remarks she made became headlines and, taken out of their context, began to produce in the public eye an oddly distorted personality that bore little resemblance to the Margaret we knew."
Margaret's acquaintance Gore Vidal, the noted American writer, wrote, "She was far too intelligent for her station in life." He recalled a conversation with Margaret in which she discussed her public notoriety, saying, "It was inevitable: when there are two sisters and one is the Queen, who must be the source of honour and all that is good, while the other must be the focus of the most creative malice, the evil sister."
In June 2006, much of Margaret's estate was auctioned by Christie's to meet inheritance tax, though some of the items were sold in aid of charities such as the Stroke Association. A world record price of £1.24 million was set by a Fabergé clock. The Poltimore tiara, which she wore for her wedding in 1960, sold for £926,400. The sale of her effects totalled £13,658,000. In April 2007, an exhibition titled Princess Line – The Fashion Legacy of Princess Margaret opened at Kensington Palace, showcasing contemporary fashion from British designers such as Vivienne Westwood inspired by Princess Margaret's legacy of style. Christopher Bailey's Spring 2006 collection for Burberry was inspired by Margaret's look from the 1960s.
Princess Margaret's private life was for many years the subject of intense speculation by media and royal-watchers. Her house on Mustique, designed by her husband's uncle Oliver Messel, a stage designer, was her favourite holiday destination. Allegations of wild parties and drug taking were made in a documentary broadcast after the Princess's death.
Biographer Warwick suggests that Margaret's most enduring legacy is an accidental one. Perhaps unwittingly, Margaret paved the way for public acceptance of royal divorce. Her life, if not her actions, made the decisions and choices of her sister's children, three of whom divorced, easier than they otherwise would have been.
Places named after her
- In Hong Kong:
Representation in other media
Margaret has been portrayed in several TV and film productions by:
- Trulie MacLeod in the TV drama The Women of Windsor (1992).
- Hannah Wiltshire in the TV drama Bertie and Elizabeth (2002).
- Lucy Cohu in the Channel 4 TV drama The Queen's Sister (2005).
- Katie McGrath in the first episode of the Channel 4 Docudrama The Queen (2009) on the affair with Peter Townsend.
- Ramona Marquez in the film The King's Speech (2010). The film won an Academy Award.
- Bel Powley in the film A Royal Night Out (2015).
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 21 August 1930 – 11 December 1936: Her Royal Highness Princess Margaret of York
- 11 December 1936 – 3 October 1961: Her Royal Highness The Princess Margaret
- 3 October 1961 – 9 February 2002: Her Royal Highness The Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
- CI: Companion of the Crown of India, 12 June 1947
- GCVO: Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, 1 June 1953
- GCStJ: Dame Grand Cross of St John of Jerusalem, 20 June 1956
- Royal Victorian Chain, 21 August 1990
- Royal Family Order of King George V
- Royal Family Order of King George VI
- Royal Family Order of Queen Elizabeth II
- Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion, 1948
- Zanzibar: Member of the Order of the Brilliant Star of Zanzibar, First Class, 1956
- Belgium: Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown, 1960
- Uganda: Recipient of the Order of the Lion, Crown and Shield of Toro Kingdom, 1965
- Japan: Grand Cordon (or First Class) of the Order of the Precious Crown, 1971
Honorary military appointments
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Women's Royal Australian Army Corps
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Princess Louise Fusiliers
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment
- Colonel-in-Chief of the 15th/19th The King's Royal Hussars
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Light Dragoons
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Highland Fusiliers (Princess Margaret's Own Glasgow and Ayrshire Regiment)
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps
- Deputy Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Anglian Regiment
- Honorary Air Commodore, Royal Air Force Coningsby
|David Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley||3 November 1961||8 October 1993||Serena Stanhope||Charles Armstrong-Jones
|Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones||1 May 1964||14 July 1994||Daniel Chatto||Samuel Chatto
- As a titled royal, Margaret held no surname, but when one was used, it was Windsor.
- In 2002, the Church of England changed its policy on marriages of divorced persons. Under certain circumstances, it now permits a person with a former spouse still living to remarry in church. See link
- The London Gazette: . 22 August 1930.
- Heald, p.1; Warwick, pp.27–28
- "A tale of two sisters' enduring affection".
- "Ma'am darling:The princess driven by loyalty and duty". The Independent. 25 February 1998. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Warwick, p.31
- Warwick, pp.31–32
- Heald, p.6; Warwick, p.33
- "Yvonne's Royalty Home Page: Royal Christenings". Yvonne Demoskoff.
- Crawford, pp.14–34; Heald, pp.7–8; Warwick, pp.35–39
- Warwick, pp.34, 120
- Warwick, pp.45–46
- Quoted in Warwick, p.52
- Lisa Sheridan in From Cabbages to Kings, quoted by Warwick, pp.51–52
- Warwick, p.52
- Heald, p.11; Warwick, p.71
- Heald, p.18; Warwick, p.76
- Royal Support for the Scouting and Guiding Movements, Official Website of the British Monarchy, retrieved 25 July 2008
- The charitable princess, BBC News, 9 February 2002, retrieved 17 December 2008
- Crawford, p.110; Warwick, p.98
- Crawford, pp.104–119; Warwick, pp.99–101
- Warwick, p.102
- Biography of HM Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother: Activities as Queen, Official website of the British monarchy, retrieved 28 July 2009
- Dempster, p.8
- Bradford; Heald, p.9
- Botham, p.9
- Aronson, p.92
- Helen Molesworth, Property from the Collection of Her Royal Highness The Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon. Christie's Auction House, Jewellery Department, London, 2006. Auction of the Property of HRH Princess Margaret
- Aronson, p.97
- Heald, p.39
- Heald, p.53
- Crawford, p.111
- Crawford, p.164
- Heald, p.7; Warwick, pp.40–43
- Warwick, p.140
- Warwick, pp.138–139
- Warwick, pp.140–142
- Warwick, pp.154–159
- Heald, p.84; Warwick, p.163
- Warwick, p.167
- Warwick, p.170
- Warwick, pp.170–171
- Heald, p. 89; Warwick, p.180
- Heald, p.91; Warwick, p.176
- Warwick, p.182
- The Queen quoted by Princess Margaret, in Warwick, p.186
- Warwick, p.187
- e.g. The People newspaper quoted in Warwick, p.190
- Warwick, p.191
- Warwick, p.192
- Warwick, p.203
- Princess Margaret, 31 October 1955, quoted in Warwick, p.205
- Heald, p.105
- "Princess Meg To Marry Commoner Named Jones". Victoria Advocate. Victoria, Texas. Associated Press. 27 February 1960. p. 1. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Princess Margaret and future PM John Turner may have 'nearly married', letters reveal". CBC News. 21 February 2015.
- Caroline Davies (10 February 2002), "A captivating woman...", The Daily Telegraph, UK, retrieved 17 October 2008
- Heald, p. 112: "looked strikingly like Princess Margaret"; Warwick, p. 223: "more than a passing resemblance to the Princess"
- Heald, pp. 114–115; Warwick, p. 225
- Warwick, p.227
- Documentary Happy and Glorious – Royal Weddings On Film.
- "Margaret names her bridesmaids". Royal Musings.
- "On this day: 1960: Margaret weds Armstrong-Jones". BBC News.
- Heald, pp. 119–121; Warwick, pp. 229–230
- Heald, p. 122; Warwick, p. 271
- Heald, p.141; Warwick, p. 233
- Heald, pp. 140–141
- "Princess Margaret". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Haden-Guest, Anthony: "The New Class", The Queen (magazine), 1965
- Warwick, p. 239
- Payne, p.17
- Heald, pp.149–150
- Heald, pp.206–207
- Heald, p.207
- Heald, pp.154–163, 210
- Heald, p.187
- Heald, pp.188–190
- Heald, pp.225–226
- Heald, pp.229–233
- Heald, pp.245–247
- "Princess Margaret 'spied on by KGB'". The Sun.
- "Northern ballet theatre". Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Heald, p. 170; Warwick, p. 245
- Heald, p.170
- Warwick, pp. 245–246
- Aronson, p.229
- Cricinfo – Players and Officials – Keith Miller, Cricinfo, retrieved 13 October 2008
- Thornton, Michael (14 November 2008). "The royal gigolo Edwina Mountbatten sued claims affair black singer Paul Robeson But truth outrageous". Daily mail. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Munn, Michael (24 May 2009). "Oh God, I wanted her to die", The Sunday Times, Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- Aronson, p. 260
- Heald, p. 194; Warwick, p. 255
- Margaret, quoted in Warwick, p. 256
- Heald, p. 198; Warwick, p. 257
- Quoted in Warwick, p.257
- Warwick, p. 257
- Warwick, p. 258
- Heald, p. 197; Warwick, p.258
- Denis Canavan quoted in Warwick, p. 260
- Willie Hamilton quoted in Warwick, p. 261
- "Newspapers Remembered Royalty – Princess Margaret Divorce". Newspapers Remembered. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- Warwick, p. 263
- "1979: IRA bomb kills Lord Mountbatten", BBC On This Day, 27 August
- Warwick, p. 267
- Heald, p. 217; Warwick, p. 267
- Warwick, pp. 267–268
- Warwick, p.274
- Heald, p.308; Warwick, p.256
- Desert Island Discs Archive – HRH Princess Margaret BBC Radio 4
- Heald, pp.32–33
- Warwick, p.276
- Heald, p.256
- Warwick, pp.290–291
- Warwick, pp.299–302
- Warwick, p.303
- Heald, p.294
- Warwick, p.304
- Warwick, p.306
- Warwick, pp.306–308
- Heald, p.295
- Heald, pp.130–131, 222–223
- Heald, p.89
- Heald, pp.15–16, 89
- Heald, p.146
- Crawford, p.226
- Vidal, Gore (2006), Point to Point Navigation, Little, Brown, ISBN 0-316-02727-8
- Heald, pp.297–301
- Heald, p.301
- Heald, pp.296–297
- See, for example, Roy Strong quoted in Heald, p.191
- Warwick, pp.308–309
- Yanne, Andrew; Heller, Gillis (2009). Signs of a Colonial Era. Hong Kong University Press. p. 20-23. ISBN 978-962-209-944-9.
- "Channel 4 Docudrama 'The Queen' Episode One synopsis".
- Princess Margaret at no time assumed the title "Princess Margaret, Mrs Antony Armstrong-Jones" (see e.g. issues of the London Gazette 1 November 1960, 25 November 1960, 24 February 1961, 28 February 1961, 3 March 1961 and 24 March 1961).
- The London Gazette: . 6 June 1947.
- The London Gazette: . 26 May 1953.
- The London Gazette: . 29 June 1956.
- The London Gazette: . 24 August 1990.
- The London Gazette: . 26 May 1953.
- The London Gazette: . 19 October 1984.
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- Profile on the official site of the British Monarchy
- British Columbia Archives: video of Princess Margaret at a reception, HMS Hood Discovery, 1958
Princess Margaret, Countess of SnowdonBorn: 21 August 1930 Died: 9 February 2002
The Earl of Harrowby
|President of the University College of North Staffordshire
as Chancellor of Keele University
as President of the University College of North Staffordshire
|Chancellor of Keele University