Japanese theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Hayao Miyazaki|
|Produced by||Toshio Suzuki|
|Written by||Hayao Miyazaki|
|Music by||Joe Hisaishi|
|Edited by||Takeshi Seyama|
|Box office||$169.7 million|
Princess Mononoke (Japanese: もののけ姫, Hepburn: Mononoke-hime) is a 1997 Japanese-animated epic fantasy film written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki, animated by Studio Ghibli for Tokuma Shoten, Nippon Television Network and Dentsu, and distributed by Toho. The film stars the voices of Yōji Matsuda, Yuriko Ishida, Yūko Tanaka, Kaoru Kobayashi, Masahiko Nishimura, Tsunehiko Kamijo, Akihiro Miwa, Mitsuko Mori and Hisaya Morishige.
Princess Mononoke is set in the late Muromachi period of Japan (approximately 1336 to 1573 CE), but it includes fantasy elements. The story follows a young Emishi prince named Ashitaka, and his involvement in a struggle between the gods of a forest and the humans who consume its resources. The term Mononoke (物の怪), or もののけ, is not a name, but a Japanese word for supernatural, shape-shifting beings that possess people and cause suffering, disease, or death.
The film was released in Japan on July 12, 1997, and in the United States on October 29, 1999. It was a critical and commercial blockbuster, becoming the highest-grossing film in Japan of 1997, and also held Japan's box office record for domestic films until 2001's Spirited Away, another Miyazaki film. It was dubbed into English with a script by Neil Gaiman, and initially distributed in North America by Miramax, where it sold well on DVD and video, despite a poor box office performance; however it greatly increased Ghibli's popularity and influence outside Japan.
In Muromachi Japan, an Emishi village is attacked by a demon. The last Emishi prince, Ashitaka, kills it before it reaches the village, but its corruption curses his right arm. The curse gives him superhuman strength, but will eventually spread through his body and kill him. The villagers discover that the demon was a boar god, Nago, corrupted by an iron ball lodged in his body. The village's wise woman tells Ashitaka that he may find a cure in the western lands Nago came from, but he cannot return to his homeland. Before Ashitaka leaves, his sister, Kaya, gives him her crystal dagger so that he will not forget her.
Heading west, Ashitaka meets Jigo ("Jiko-bō" in the original Japanese version), an opportunist posing as a monk, who tells Ashitaka he may find help from the Great Forest Spirit, a deer-like animal god by day and a giant "nightwalker" by night. Nearby, men herd oxen to Irontown ("Tataraba" in Japanese), led by Lady Eboshi, and repel an attack by a wolf pack led by the wolf goddess Moro. Riding one of the wolves is San, a human girl. Ashitaka discovers two injured Irontown men and carries them through the forest, where he encounters many kodama and glimpses the Forest Spirit. In Irontown, Ashitaka learns that Eboshi built the town by clearcutting forests to claim ironsand and produce iron, leading to conflicts with the forest gods and Asano, a local daimyō. Irontown is a refuge for social outcasts, including lepers employed to manufacture firearms; it was one of these guns that had wounded Nago. Eboshi also explains that San was raised by the wolves as one of their own and resents humankind.
San infiltrates Irontown to kill Eboshi, but Ashitaka intervenes, revealing the curse to the town's people and knocks Eboshi and San out cold. As Ashitaka leaves, he is shot by a villager, but the curse gives him the strength to carry San out of the village. San awakens and prepares to kill the weakened Ashitaka, but hesitates when he tells her that she is beautiful. She takes him to the forest, and decides to trust him after the Forest Spirit saves his life. A boar clan, led by the blind boar god Okkoto, plans to attack Irontown to save the forest. Eboshi prepares for battle and sets out to kill the Forest Spirit with Jigo, who is working for the government; she intends to give the god's head to the Emperor in return for protection from Lord Asano. According to legend, the Forest Spirit's head grants immortality.
Ashitaka recovers from his wound but remains cursed; he returns to Irontown to find it besieged by Asano's samurai, and heads out to warn Eboshi. The boar clan is annihilated in battle, and Okkoto is corrupted by his wounds. Jigo's men disguise themselves in boar skins and trick the rampaging Okkoto into leading them to the Forest Spirit. San tries to stop Okkoto, but is swept up in his demonic corruption. Moro intervenes and Ashitaka dives into the corruption, saving San. The Forest Spirit euthanizes Okkoto and Moro. As it transforms into the nightwalker, Eboshi decapitates it. It bleeds ooze which spreads over the land, killing anything it touches as the nightwalker searches for its head, which Jigo steals. The forest and kodama begin to die; Moro's head comes alive and bites off Eboshi's right arm, but she survives.
After the samurai flee and Irontown is evacuated, Ashitaka and San pursue Jigo and retrieve the head, returning it to the Forest Spirit. The Spirit dies as the sun rises, but its form washes over the land and heals it, and Ashitaka's curse is lifted. Ashitaka stays to help rebuild Irontown, but promises San he will visit her in the forest. Eboshi reunites with the townspeople and vows to build a better town. The forest begins to regrow, and a kodama emerges from the undergrowth.
Cast and characters
- Yōji Matsuda voices Ashitaka (アシタカ), the last prince of the Emishi tribe whose traveling companion is Yakul (ヤックル, Yakkuru), a red elk (アカシシ, Akashishi), a non-existent species of elk that Miyazaki created for the film. Novelist Ali Shaw has described Yakul as being more similar to a red Lechwe than an elk. Miyazaki called Ashitaka a "melancholic boy who has a fate" and also stated that Ashitaka's curse "is similar to the lives of people [at the time]". Ashitaka's English voice actor Billy Crudup stated that he liked Ashitaka as "an unexpected hero. He’s not your usual wild, brave guy. He’s really just a young, earnest man who’s trying to lead a valuable life and protect his village."
- Yuriko Ishida voices San (サン), a young woman who was raised by the wolves and feels hatred for humans, but eventually comes to care for Ashitaka. In the English version, San is voiced by Claire Danes.
- Ishida also voices Kaya (カヤ), Ashitaka's sister. Tara Strong provides her voice in the English version.
- Yūko Tanaka provides the voice of Lady Eboshi (エボシ御前, Eboshi Gozen), the ruler of Irontown who continually clears the forest. Miyazaki stated that Eboshi was supposed to have a traumatic past, although it is not specifically mentioned in the film. Miyazaki said that Eboshi has a strong and secure personality, evident in the fact that she let Ashitaka move freely through the settlement unescorted, despite his unclear motives. He also said that Eboshi does not acknowledge the Emperor's authority in Irontown, a revolutionary view for the time, and displays an atypical attitude for a woman of that era in that she wouldn't hesitate to sacrifice herself or those around her for her dreams.[failed verification] Miyazaki also said that Eboshi resembles a shirabyōshi. Eboshi's English voice actress Minnie Driver stated that she was interested in "the challenge of playing [a] woman who supports industry and represents the interests of man, in terms of achievement and greed." Driver viewed Eboshi as "a warrior, an innovator and a protector."
- Kaoru Kobayashi provides the voice of Jiko-bō (ジコ坊, called "Jigo" in the English version), a monk and mercenary who befriends Ashitaka on his journey to the west. Miyazaki was unsure whether to make Jiko-bō a government spy, a ninja, a member of a religious group or "a very good guy." He eventually decided to give him elements of the above groups. In the English version, Jigo is voiced by Billy Bob Thornton.
- Masahiko Nishimura voices Kohroku (甲六, Kōroku), an ox driver; John DeMita voices Kohroku in the English version. Miyazaki wrote Kohroku to be "an ordinary guy [who] didn't do anything heroic, right to the end", something he stated was contrary to films he'd made up to that point.
- Tsunehiko Kamijō provides the voice of Gonza (ゴンザ), Eboshi's bodyguard; he is voiced by John DiMaggio in the English version.
- Akihiro Miwa voices Moro (モロの君, Moro no Kimi), a giant wolf god and San's adopted mother; Gillian Anderson provides her voice in the English version.
- Mitsuko Mori provides the voice of Hii-sama (ヒイ様), the wise woman of Ashitaka's village. In the English version, Hii-sama is voiced by Debi Derryberry.
- Hisaya Morishige provides the voice of Okkoto-nushi (乙事主, called "Okkoto" in the English version), a blind boar god. In the English version, Okkoto is voiced by Keith David, who also voices the narrator in the film's opening sequence.
The cast also includes: Akira Nagoya as the cattleman leader (牛飼いの長, Ushigai no Naga); Kimihiro Reizei as a Jibashiri (ジバシリ); Tetsu Watanabe as a mountain wolf (山犬, Yamainu); Makoto Sato as Nago (ナゴの守, Nago no Mori), a wild boar turned into a demon who curses Ashitaka when he attacks the Emishi village; and Sumi Shimamoto as Toki (トキ), Kohroku's wife, a former sex worker, and the leader of Eboshi's women, voiced by Jada Pinkett Smith in the English version.
In the late 1970s, Miyazaki drew sketches of a film about a princess living in the woods with a beast. Miyazaki began writing the film's plotline and drew the initial storyboards for the film in August 1994. He had difficulties adapting his early ideas and visualisations, because elements had already been used in My Neighbor Totoro and because of societal changes since the creation of the original sketches and image boards. This writer's block prompted him to accept a request for the creation of the On Your Mark promotional music video for the Chage and Aska song of the same title. According to Toshio Suzuki, the diversion allowed Miyazaki to return for a fresh start on the creation of Princess Mononoke. In April 1995, supervising animator Masashi Ando devised the character designs from Miyazaki's storyboard. In May 1995, Miyazaki drew the initial storyboards. That same month, Miyazaki and Ando went to the ancient forests of Yakushima, of Kyushu, an inspiration for the landscape of Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind, and the mountains of Shirakami-Sanchi in northern Honshu for location scouting along with a group of art directors, background artists and digital animators for three days. Animation production commenced in July 1995. Miyazaki personally oversaw each of the 144,000 cels in the film,[failed verification] and is estimated to have redrawn parts of 80,000 of them.[failed verification] The final storyboards of the film's ending were finished only months before the Japanese premiere date.
Inspired by John Ford, an Irish-American director best known for his Westerns, Miyazaki created Irontown as a "tight-knit frontier town" and populated it with "characters from outcast groups and oppressed minorities who rarely, if ever, appear in Japanese films." He made the characters "yearning, ambitious and tough." Miyazaki did not want to create an accurate history of Medieval Japan, and wanted to "portray the very beginnings of the seemingly insoluble conflict between the natural world and modern industrial civilization." The landscapes appearing in the film were inspired by Yakushima. Despite being set during the Muromachi period, the actual time period of Princess Mononoke depicts a "symbolic neverwhen clash of three proto-Japanese races (the Jomon, Yamato and Emishi)."
Princess Mononoke was produced with an estimated budget of ¥2.35 billion (approximately US$23.5 million).[better source needed] It was mostly hand-drawn, but incorporates some use of computer animation in approximately ten percent of the film. The computer animated parts are designed to blend in and support the traditional cel animation, and are mainly used in images consisting of a mixture of computer generated graphics and traditional drawing. A further 10 minutes uses inked-and-painted, a technique used in all subsequent Studio Ghibli films. Most of the film is colored with traditional paint, based on the color schemes designed by Miyazaki and Michiyo Yasuda. However, producers agreed on the installation of computers to successfully complete the film prior to the Japanese premiere date. Telecom Animation Film Company and Oh! Production helped animate the film. Toei Animation and DR Movie helped with the painting process.
Two titles were originally considered for the film. One, ultimately chosen, has been translated into English as Princess Mononoke. The other title can be translated into English as The Legend of Ashitaka (アシタカ𦻙記, Ashitaka Sekki), and it contains an uncommon kanji 𦻙 that represents "a legend passed down from ear to ear without being recorded in official history", according to Miyazaki. In a Tokyo Broadcasting System program, televised on November 26, 2013, Toshio Suzuki mentioned that Miyazaki had preferred The Legend of Ashitaka as the title while Suzuki himself favoured Princess Mononoke, though the former title was eventually reused for the first song on the soundtrack. The English dub contains minor additional voice overs to explain nuances of Japanese culture to western audiences.
A central theme of Princess Mononoke is the environment. The film centers on the adventure of Ashitaka as he journeys to the west to undo a fatal curse inflicted upon him by Nago, a boar turned into a demon by Eboshi. Michelle J. Smith and Elizabeth Parsons said that the film "makes heroes of outsiders in all identity politics categories and blurs the stereotypes that usually define such characters". In the case of the deer god's destruction of the forest and Tataraba, Smith and Parsons said that the "supernatural forces of destruction are unleashed by humans greedily consuming natural resources". They also characterized Eboshi as a business-woman who has a desire to make money at the expense of the forest, and also cite Eboshi's intention to destroy the forest to mine the mountain "embodies environmentalist evil". Deirdre M. Pike writes that Princess Mononoke is simultaneously part of nature and part of the problem. Mononoke represents the connection between the environment and humans, but also demonstrates that there is an imbalance in power between the two.
Two other themes found in the plot of Princess Mononoke are sexuality and disability. Speaking at the International Symposium on Leprosy / Hansen's Disease History in Tokyo, Miyazaki explained that he was inspired to portray people living with leprosy, "said to be an incurable disease caused by bad karma", after visiting the Tama Zenshoen Sanatorium near his home in Tokyo. Lady Eboshi is driven by her compassion for the disabled, and believes that blood from the Great Forest Spirit could allow her to "cure [her] poor lepers". Michelle Jarman, Assistant Professor of Disability Studies at the University of Wyoming, and Eunjung Kim, Assistant Professor of Gender and Women's Studies at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, said the disabled and gendered sexual bodies were partially used as a transition from the feudal era to a hegemony that "embraces modern social systems, such as industrialization, gendered division of labor, institutionalization of people with diseases, and militarization of men and women." They likened Lady Eboshi to a monarch. Kim and Jarman suggested that Eboshi's disregard of ancient laws and curses towards sex workers and lepers was enlightenment reasoning and her exploitation of disabled people furthered her modernist viewpoints. Kim and Jarman conclude that Lady Eboshi's supposed benevolence in incorporating lepers and sex workers into her society leverages the social stigma attached to marginalized groups, pointing out that the hierarchical structures within Irontown still support the stigmatization of lepers and sex workers.
An additional theme is the morally ambiguous conflict between humankind's growth and development and Nature's need for preservation. According to the Chicago Sun-Times's Roger Ebert, "It is not a simplistic tale of good and evil, but the story of how humans, forest animals and nature gods all fight for their share of the new emerging order." Billy Crudup, who provided the English voice for Ashitaka, said "The movie was such an entirely different experience; it had a whole new sensibility I had never seen in animation. It also had something profound to say: that there has to be a give and take between man and nature. One of the things that really impressed me is that Miyazaki shows life in all its multi-faceted complexity, without the traditional perfect heroes and wicked villains. Even Lady Eboshi, who Ashitaka respects, is not so much evil as short-sighted." Minnie Driver, the English voice actress for Lady Eboshi, commented similarly: "It's one of the most remarkable things about the film: Miyazaki gives a complete argument for both sides of the battle between technological achievement and our spiritual roots in the forest. He shows that good and evil, violence and peace exist in us all. It's all about how you harmonize it all." Anime historian Susan Napier said there is no clear good vs. evil conflict in Princess Mononoke, unlike other films popular with children. Based on the multiple point of views the film adopts, San and Lady Eboshi can simultaneously be viewed as heroic or villainous. San defends the forest and viewers empathize with her. But she also attacks innocent people, complicating how we evaluate her. Opposed to San, Eboshi tries to destroy the forest and could be considered a villain. But everything she does is out of a desire to protect her village and see it prosper. San and Lady Eboshi survive until film's end, defying the usual convention of good triumphing over evil with the antagonist defeated. Napier concluded that the resolution of the conflict is left ambiguous, implying that Lady Eboshi and San will be able to come to some sort of compromise. The ambiguity suggests that there are no true villains or heroes.
Dan Jolin of Empire said that a potential theme could be that of lost innocence. Miyazaki attributes this to his experience of making his previous film, Porco Rosso, and the wars in the former Yugoslavia, which he cites as an example of mankind never learning, making it difficult for him to go back to making a film such as Kiki's Delivery Service, where he has been quoted as saying "It felt like children were being born to this world without being blessed. How could we pretend to them that we're happy?"
Duality is central to Eboshi's characterization. Benjamin Thevenin, Assistant Professor of Theater and Media Arts at Brigham Young University, said Eboshi does not fully understand the harm she does to the spirits. Her focus is on creating a safe home for her people. She holds no malicious intent toward nature and its spirits until they begin attacking her people. Once nature attacks, she gathers her soldiers to protect the inhabitants of her town, a place where all are welcome. Irontown is a haven for former sex workers and lepers. She brings them to Irontown and gives them jobs, hospitality, and a kindness that they have never experienced before. The same treatment goes for all Irontown's inhabitants, not just the sickly and the scorned. Lady Eboshi treats everyone equally, no matter the race, sex, or history of the individual, creating a caring community. While Eboshi hates San and the forest spirits, she keeps a garden in her town. Her care for the garden implies that her intention is not to ravage nature to no end, but rather to help her own people. Thevenin concluded that although Eboshi can be seen as the film's villain, she is also a hero to the citizens of Irontown and to humankind in general.
Another theme in this film is between individualism and societal conformity. According to University of Bristol professors Christos Ellinas, Neil Allan and Anders Johansson, this struggle can be seen between San, a strong individualistic force, and Eboshi, the leader of a great society. San has fully committed to living with the wolves in the forest and to renouncing her association with the human race. Eboshi has vowed to sustain her society of Irontown by any means including destroying the environment. The people of Irontown have a cohesive ideology and agree with Eboshi to protect Irontown at the cost of the environment's destruction. This conformity can be found within their society, because “even though there is an envisioned culture at which an organization abides to, achieving coherence at lower aggregation levels (e.g. individuals) is increasingly challenging due to its emergent nature”. The different viewpoints of San and Lady Eboshi eventually leads to a physical altercation where they both aim to kill one another. This dynamic between them represents the struggle to find a balance between the needs of individualism and those of conformity.
The Soviet roots of Princess Mononoke couldn't be ignored as the film released to the theaters. Reviews, interviews, research papers kept reiterating the pertinent point that a 1957 Russian traditional animated film called The Snow Queen was Miyazaki's motivation to continue his animation craft in 1963. The Snow Queen is a Soviet Union animation film directed by Lev Atamanov and produced by animation studio Soyuzmultfilm. However, it was only after the release of Princess Mononoke that researchers and scholars can confirm with a great degree of conclusion that Princess Mononoke is in fact Miyazaki's tribute to The Snow Queen and to a general extent the continuity of a legacy.
Princess Mononoke was released theatrically in Japan on July 12, 1997. The film was extremely successful in Japan and with both anime fans and arthouse moviegoers in English-speaking countries. Since Walt Disney Studios had made a distribution deal with Tokuma Shoten for Studio Ghibli's films in 1996, it was the first film from Studio Ghibli along with Kiki's Delivery Service and Castle in the Sky to have been dubbed into English by Disney; in this case, subsidiary Miramax Films was assigned to release the movie in America on October 29, 1999. In response to demands from Miramax chairman Harvey Weinstein to edit the film, one of Miyazaki's producers sent Weinstein a katana with the message: "No cuts." Promotion manager, Steve Alpert, revealed that Weinstein had wanted to trim the film down from 135 minutes to 90 minutes "despite having promised not to do so." When Alpert informed him that Miyazaki would not agree to these demands, Weinstein flew into one of his infamous rages and threatened Alpert that he would "never work in this...industry again". According to scriptwriter Neil Gaiman at one of the American screenings of the dub, the release was somewhat delayed because the original recordings deviated from the English script as written. Despite Gaiman's independent fame as an author, his role as scriptwriter for the dub was not heavily promoted: Studio Ghibli requested that Miramax remove some executives' names from the poster for the film, but the executives (Harvey Weinstein, Bob Weinstein, and Scott Martin) decided that Gaiman's name was contractually expendable.
On April 29, 2000, the English-dub version of Princess Mononoke was released theatrically in Japan along with the documentary Mononoke hime in U.S.A.. The documentary was directed by Toshikazu Sato and featured Miyazaki visiting the Walt Disney Studios and various film festivals. The film had a limited theatrical re-release in the United States during July 2018.
Princess Mononoke was the highest-grossing Japanese film of 1997, earning ¥11.3 billion in distribution rental earnings. It became the highest-grossing film in Japan, beating the record set by E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial in 1982, but was surpassed several months later by Titanic. The film earned total domestic gross receipts of ¥20.18 billion.
It was the top-grossing anime film in the United States in January 2001, but the film did not fare as well financially in the country when released in December 1997. It grossed $2,298,191 for the first eight weeks. It showed more strength internationally, where it earned a total of $11 million outside Japan, bringing its worldwide total to $159,375,308 at the time. On December 6, 2016, GKIDS announced that it will screen the film in US cinemas on January 5 and January 9, 2017 to celebrate its 20th anniversary, bundled with On Your Mark short. The film's limited US re-release in 2018 grossed $1,423,877 over five days, bringing its US total to $3,799,185 and worldwide total to $160,799,185. As of 2020[update], the film has grossed $194.3 million.
In Japan, the film was released on VHS by Buena Vista Home Entertainment on June 26, 1998.[failed verification] A LaserDisc edition was also released by Tokuma Japan Communications on the same day. The film was released on DVD by Buena Vista Home Entertainment on November 21, 2001 with bonus extras added, including the international versions of the film as well as the storyboards.[failed verification] By 2007, Princess Mononoke sold 4.4 million DVD units in Japan. At an average retail price of ¥4,700, this is equivalent to approximately ¥20,680 million ($259.18 million) in Japanese sales revenue as of 2007.
In July 2000, Buena Vista Home Entertainment via Miramax Home Entertainment announced plans to release the film on VHS and DVD in North America on August 29. Initially, the DVD version of Princess Mononoke wasn't going to include the Japanese-language track at the request of Buena Vista's Japan division. Because that the film hadn't been released on DVD in Japan yet, there were concerns that "a foreign-released DVD containing the Japanese language track will allow for the importation of such a DVD to Japan, which could seriously hurt the local sales of a future release of the [film]". The fansite Nausicaa.net organized an email campaign for fans to include the Japanese language track, while DVD Talk began an online petition to retain the Japanese language track. The DVD release of Princess Mononoke was delayed as a result. Miramax Home Entertainment released the DVD on December 19, 2000 with the original Japanese audio, the English dubbed audio and extras including a trailer and a documentary with interviews from the English dub voice actors. The film was released on Blu-ray disc in Japan on December 4, 2013.
Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment released Princess Mononoke on Blu-ray Disc on November 18, 2014. In its first week, it sold 21,860 units; by November 23, 2014, it had grossed $502,332. It was later included in Disney's "The Collected Works of Hayao Miyazaki" Blu-ray set, released on November 17, 2015. GKIDS re-issued the film on Blu-ray and DVD on October 17, 2017. In total, Mononoke's video releases in Japan and the United States sold approximately $260 million.
As of March 2018, on the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, Princess Mononoke had a 93% approval rating based on 110 reviews, with an average rating of 8.00/10. The website's consensus reads, "With its epic story and breathtaking visuals, Princess Mononoke is a landmark in the world of animation." On Metacritic, the film has an average score of 76 out of 100 based on 29 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews."
The Daily Yomiuri's Aaron Gerow called the film a "powerful compilation of [Hayao] Miyazaki's world, a cumulative statement of his moral and filmic concerns." Leonard Klady of Variety said that Princess Mononoke "is not only more sharply drawn, it has an extremely complex and adult script" and the film "has the soul of a romantic epic, and its lush tones, elegant score by Joe Hisaishi and full-blooded characterizations give it the sweep of cinema's most grand canvases". Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times called Princess Mononoke "a great achievement and a wonderful experience, and one of the best films of the year. […] You won’t find many Hollywood love stories (animated or otherwise) so philosophical." Ty Burr of Entertainment Weekly called the film "a windswept pinnacle of its art" and that it "has the effect of making the average Disney film look like just another toy story". However, Stephen Hunter of The Washington Post stated that the film "is as spectacular as it is dense and as dense as it is colorful and as colorful as it is meaningless and as meaningless as it is long. And it's very long." Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times said that the film "brings a very different sensibility to animation, a medium [Miyazaki] views as completely suitable for straight dramatic narrative and serious themes." In his review, Dave Smith from Gamers' Republic called it "one of the greatest animated films ever created, and easily one of the best films of 1999."
Roger Ebert placed Princess Mononoke sixth on his top ten movies of 1999. It ranked 488th on Empire's list of the 500 greatest films. Time Out ranked the film 26th on 50 greatest animated films. It also ranked 26 on Total Film's list of 50 greatest animated films.
James Cameron cited Princess Mononoke as an influence on his 2009 film Avatar. He acknowledged that it shares themes with Princess Mononoke, including its clash between cultures and civilizations, and cited Princess Mononoke as an influence on the ecosystem of Pandora.
Princess Mononoke is the first animated feature film to win the Japan Academy Prize for Best Picture. For the 70th Academy Awards ceremony, Princess Mononoke was the Japanese submission to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, but was not successfully nominated. Hayao Miyazaki was also nominated for an Annie Award for his work on the film.
|1997||52nd Mainichi Film Awards||Best Film||Princess Mononoke||Won|
|Best Animation Film||Princess Mononoke||Won|
|Japanese Movie Fans' Choice||Princess Mononoke||Won|
|10th Nikkan Sports Film Awards||Best Director||Hayao Miyazaki||Won|
|Yūjirō Ishihara Award||Princess Mononoke||Won|
|1998||21st Japan Academy Awards||Picture of the Year||Princess Mononoke||Won|
|40th Blue Ribbon Awards||Special Award||Princess Mononoke||Won|
|22nd Hochi Film Awards||Special Award||Princess Mononoke||Won|
|2000||28th Annie Awards||Outstanding Individual Achievement for Directing
in an Animated Feature Production
(English language version)
|4th Golden Satellite Awards||Best Animated or Mixed Media Film||Princess Mononoke||Nominated|
|2001||27th Saturn Awards||Best Home Video Release||Princess Mononoke||Won|
|Princess Mononoke: Music from the Motion Picture|
|Soundtrack album by|
|Released||July 2, 1997 (Japan)|
October 12, 1999 (North America)
|Label||Milan (North America)|
Tokuma Japan Communications (Japan)
The film score of Princess Mononoke was composed and performed by Joe Hisaishi, the soundtrack composer for nearly all of Miyazaki's productions, and Miyazaki wrote the lyrics of the two vocal tracks, "The Tatara Women Work Song" and its title song. The music was performed by Tokyo City Philharmonic Orchestra and conducted by Hiroshi Kumagai. The soundtrack was released in Japan by Tokuma Japan Communications on July 2, 1997, and the North American version was released by Milan Records on October 12, 1999.
The titular theme song was performed by counter-tenor Yoshikazu Mera. For the English adaptation, Sasha Lazard sang the song. During the movie Hisaishi makes use of a few known classical pieces and quotes them, such as Dmitri Shostakovich's 5th symphony. As with other Studio Ghibli films, additional albums featuring soundtrack themes in alternative versions have been released. The image album features early versions of the themes, recorded at the beginning of the film production process, and used as source of inspiration for the various artists involved. The symphonic suite features longer compositions, each encompassing several of the movie themes, performed by the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Mario Klemens.
All music is composed by Joe Hisaishi, except as noted.
|1.||"The Legend of Ashitaka"||1:39|
|2.||"The Demon God"||3:51|
|3.||"Departure – To the West"||2:33|
|5.||"The Land of the Impure"||2:59|
|8.||"The Forest of the God"||0:41|
|9.||"Evening at the Ironworks"||0:39|
|10.||"The Demon God II – The Lost Mountains"||0:57|
|12.||"The Tatara Women Work Song"||1:30|
|14.||"The Young Man from the East"||1:25|
|16.||"Will to Live"||0:32|
|17.||"San and Ashitaka in the Forest of the Deer God"||1:39|
|18.||"Princess Mononoke Theme Song" (Instrumental Version)||2:08|
|20.||"Princess Mononoke Theme Song" (not in the English release, music by Joe Hisaishi, lyrics by Hayao Miyazaki, performed by Yoshikazu Mera)||3:32|
|22.||"The Battle in Front of the Ironworks"||1:26|
|23.||"Demon Power II"||2:30|
|26.||"The Demon God III"||1:14|
|27.||"Adagio of Life and Death"||2:09|
|28.||"The World of the Dead"||1:27|
|29.||"The World of the Dead II"||1:33|
|30.||"Adagio of Life and Death II"||1:07|
|31.||"Ashitaka and San"||3:12|
|32.||"Princess Mononoke Theme Song" (music by Joe Hisaishi, lyrics by Hayao Miyazaki, performed by Sasha Lazard)||1:23|
|33.||"The Legend of Ashitaka Theme" (End Credits)||5:03|
In 2012, it was announced that Studio Ghibli and British theatre company Whole Hog Theatre would be bringing Princess Mononoke to the stage. It is the first stage adaptation of a Studio Ghibli work. The contact between Whole Hog Theatre and Studio Ghibli was facilitated by Nick Park of Aardman Animations after he sent footage of Whole Hog performances to Studio Ghibli's Toshio Suzuki. The play features large puppets made out of recycled and reclaimed materials.
The first performances were scheduled for London's New Diorama Theatre and sold out in 72 hours, a year in advance. In March 2013, it was announced that the show would transfer to Japan after its first run of shows in London. A second series of performances followed in London after the return from Tokyo. The second run of London performances sold out in four and half hours. The play received positive reviews and was one of Lyn Gardner's theatre picks in The Guardian. On April 27, 2013, the play was presented at Nico Nico Douga's Cho Party and was streamed online in Japan.
- List of submissions to the 70th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film
- List of Japanese submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
- Loo, Egan (December 15, 2020). "Spirited Away, 3 Other Ghibli Films' Box Office Totals Rose Due to This Year's Revival Screenings". Anime News Network. Retrieved December 22, 2020.
- Tokuma Shoten and Studio Ghibli. "Interview: Miyazaki on Mononoke-hime". The Hayao Miyazaki Web. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
- Jahn, Pam (January 7, 2016). "Ali Shaw is Yakul from Princess Mononoke". Electric Sheep. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
- "Miyazaki on Mononoke-hime". Nausicaa.net. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
- "Princess Mononoke – The Characters". Miramax Films. p. 3. Archived from the original on June 16, 2008. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- Leavey, John (2010). "Possessed by and of: Up against Seeing: Princess Mononoke". ImageTexT. University of Florida. 5 (2). Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- "Princess Mononoke – The Characters". Miramax Films. p. 5. Archived from the original on June 16, 2008. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- "Princess Mononoke – The Characters". Miramax Films. p. 7. Archived from the original on June 16, 2008. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- McCarthy 2005, p. 182. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMcCarthy2005 (help)
- "制作日誌 1994年8月～95年5月". Studio Ghibli. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- McCarthy 1999, p. 185.
- "Hayao Miyazake Chat Transcript – Movie: Princess Mononoke". Miramax Films. November 4, 1999. Archived from the original on June 29, 2007. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- "Mononoke DVD Website". Disney. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- "Wettbewerb/In Competition". Moving Pictures, Berlinale Extra. Berlin: 32. February 11–22, 1998.
- Toshio Uratani (2004). Princess Mononoke: Making of a Masterpiece (Documentary). Japan: Buena Vista Home Entertainment.
- "The Myth of Princess Mononoke and Miyazaki's vision". Miramax Films. p. 2. Archived from the original on May 25, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- "The Myth of Princess Mononoke and Miyazaki's vision". Miramax Films. p. 5. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- もののけ姫 ロケ地情報 (in Japanese). Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- Clements & McCarthy 2005, p. 505. sfn error: no target: CITEREFClementsMcCarthy2005 (help)
- "Movie-Vault.com". Movie-Vault.com. March 28, 2005. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- "Articles about Mononoke Hime". Webcitation.org. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- "The Animation Process". Miramax Films. November 4, 1999. Archived from the original on November 20, 2006. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- Miyazaki, Hayao (July 31, 1996). "「もののけ姫」 企画書" [Princess Mononoke Planning Memo]. 出発点 [Starting Point]. San Francisco: Viz Media. pp. 272–274. ISBN 978-1-4215-0594-7. Archived from the original on August 28, 2014. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hamada, Masatoshi (November 26, 2013). "鈴木 敏夫 100秒博士アカデミー" [Toshio Suzuki, 100 Byo Hakase Academy]. 100秒博士アカデミー (in Japanese). TBS. RCC. Archived from the original on January 29, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2014.
- staff. "A more complete look at the dubbed version of MONONOKE HIME (aka Princess Mononoke)". Aint It Cool News. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
- Gwendolyn Morgan (2015). "Creatures in Crisis: Apocalyptic Environmental Visions in Miyazaki's Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind and Princess Mononoke". Resilience: A Journal of the Environmental Humanities. 2 (3): 172. doi:10.5250/resilience.2.3.0172. JSTOR 10.5250/resilience.2.3.0172.
- Smith & Parsons 2012, p. 28.
- Smith & Parsons 2012, pp. 26–27.
- Pike, Deidre M. (2014). Enviro-Toons: Green Themes in Animated Cinema and Television. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-7864-9002-8.
- Kitano, Ryuichi (January 29, 2016). "Hayao Miyazaki: Leprosy scene in 'Mononoke Hime' inspired by real-life experience". Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on January 30, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Wendi, Sierra; Alysah, Berwald; Melissa, Guck; Erica, Maeder (January 1, 2015). "Nature, Technology, and Ruined Women: Ecofeminism and Princess Mononoke". The Seneca Falls Dialogues Journal. 1 (1).
- Kim & Jarman 2008, p. 54.
- Kim & Jarman 2008, pp. 56–57.
- Kim & Jarman 2008, p. 58.
- Ebert, Roger (October 29, 1999). "Princess Mononoke". Rogerebert.com. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- McCarter, Charles (October 20, 1999). "The Remaking of a Myth: Princess Mononoke in America". Ex.org – EX: The Online World of Anime & Manga. Archived from the original on August 6, 2010. Retrieved January 29, 2016.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- Napier, Susan J. (2001). Anime from Akira to Princess Mononoke. Palgrave Macmillan US. pp. 175–192. ISBN 9780312238636.
- Dan Jolin (September 2009). "Miyazaki on Miyazaki: The animation genius on his movies". Empire. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
- Thevenin, Benjamin. "Princess Mononoke and Beyond: New Nature Narratives for Children." Interactions: Studies in Communication & Culture, vol. 4, no. 2, Oct. 2013, pp. 147–170. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1386/iscc.4.2.147_1.
- Ellinas, Christos; Allan, Neil; Johansson, Anders (June 30, 2017). "Dynamics of organizational culture: Individual beliefs vs. social conformity". PLOS One. 12 (6): e0180193. arXiv:1708.06736. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1280193E. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0180193. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5493361. PMID 28665960.
- Galbraith IV 2008, p. 414.
- Brooks, Xan (September 14, 2005). "A god among animators". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- Medina, Joseph Jammer (June 2, 2020). "Apparently, Harvey Weinstein Lost His S**t Over Hayao Miyazaki's Princess Mononoke". LRM Online.
- Anderson, Kyle. "Why People Forget Neil Gaiman Wrote MONONOKE's Dub". Nerdist. Retrieved October 30, 2020.
- Galbraith IV 2008, p. 415.
- "Princess Mononoke". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Kako haikyū shūnyū jōi sakuhin 1997-nen" (in Japanese). Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- Ebert, Roger (October 24, 1999). "Director Miyazaki draws American attention". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
- "歴代興収ベスト100" [All-time box office top 100] (in Japanese). Kogyo Tsushinsha. Archived from the original on August 8, 2017. Retrieved December 22, 2020.
- "Anime Radar: News". Animerica. San Francisco, California: Viz Media. 9 (2): 32. March 2001. ISSN 1067-0831. OCLC 27130932.
- "'Princess Mononoke: 20th Anniversary' Comes to U.S. Cinemas on January 5 and 9 Only". Anime News Network. December 6, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
- "Princess Mononoke to Screen in U.S. Theaters With 'On Your Mark' Short". Anime News Network. December 6, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
- もののけ姫 (in Japanese). Walt Disney Japan. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- 均, 中村 (May 23, 2007). "110万冊無料配布。"ゲドを読む。"の狙いを読む 宮崎吾朗監督作品「ゲド戦記」DVDのユニークなプロモーション". Nikkei Business (in Japanese). Nikkei Business Publications. Archived from the original on August 16, 2018. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
- "Video List: Mononoke Hime". Nausicaa.net. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
- "Buena Vista Mononoke DVD Release". Nausicaa.net. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- "Subtitle Mononoke Poll". Nausicaa.net. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- "New Petition for Mononoke". Anime News Network. July 3, 2000. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- "Disney Blinks". Anime News Network. August 1, 2000. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- "Princess Mononoke DVD Confirmed". Anime News Network. October 11, 2000. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- "もののけ姫". Walt Disney Studios Japan. August 21, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- "Details for Studio Ghibli's "Princess Mononoke", "Kiki's Delivery Service", "The Wind Rises" on Disney Blu-ray". www.toonzone.net. Archived from the original on October 12, 2014. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
- "Mononoke-hime (1999) – Video Sales". The Numbers. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
- "The complete Hayao Miyazaki collection is pretty enough to spirit you away". www.polygon.com. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Carolyn Giardina (July 17, 2017). "Gkids, Studio Ghibli Ink Home Entertainment Deal". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
- "Princess Mononoke (Mononoke-hime)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
- "Princess Mononoke". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- Gerow, Aaron (July 10, 1997). "A Spirited Battle for Nature". Daily Yomiuri. p. 9.
- Klady, Leonard (January 29, 1998). "Princess Mononoke". Variety. Reed Business Information. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- "Princess Mononoke". Chicago Sun-Times. October 29, 1999. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- Burr, Ty (October 29, 1999). "Princess Mononoke Review". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- Hunter, Stephen (November 5, 1999). "The Bland Violence of 'Mononoke'". Washington Post. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- Turan, Kenneth (October 29, 1999). "'Mononoke' a Haunting, Magical World of Fantasy". Los Angeles Times. p. 1. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- "Anime Republic". Gamers' Republic. 19 (2–07). December 1999.
- Roger Ebert. "Roger Ebert's Top Ten Lists 1967–2006". Archived from the original on December 31, 2007. Retrieved December 22, 2007.
- "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". Empire. Bauer Consumer Media. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
- "Time Out's 50 greatest animated films: Part 3". Time Out. Archived from the original on October 8, 2009. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- Kinnear, Simon. "50 Greatest Animated Movies". TotalFilm.com. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Ito, Norihiro (December 25, 2009). "新作「アバター」宮崎アニメにオマージュ Ｊ・キャメロン監督 (New Film Avatar Homage to Miyazaki's Animated Film: J. Cameron)". Sankei Shimbun (in Japanese). Archived from the original on December 28, 2009. Retrieved March 10, 2010.
- "21st Japan Academy Prize Winners". Japan Academy Awards. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- "44 Countries Hoping for Oscar Nominations" (Press release). Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. November 24, 1997. Archived from the original on February 13, 1998. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
- "Annie Awards (2000)". IMDb. November 11, 2000. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- "52nd Mainichi Film Awards Winners". Mainichi. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- "28th Annual Annie Awards (2000)". Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- "An Anime Hit Is Reborn on the Stage". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "Studio Ghibli Explains How UK "Princess Mononoke" Stage Play Got OKed". CrunchyRoll. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "EXCLUSIVE: News on the Upcoming Stage Adaptation of Miyazaki Hayao's Anime Classic PRINCESS MONONOKE!". Twitch. Archived from the original on June 1, 2015. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- "Official Stage Adaptation of 'Princess Mononoke' Coming To London; Sold Out Almost A Year In Advance". Slash Film. September 24, 2012. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- "Princess Mononoke Comes to London Stage". Escapist Magazine. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- "Princess Mononoke Stage Play Heads to Japan". Anime News Network. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- "Whole Hog Theatre Announces Further Performances of Princess Mononoke at the New Diorama Theatre, London". Anime News Network. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- "UK stage adaptation of Princess Mononoke met with praise". Flixster. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "Princess Mononoke – New Diorama Theatre, London". The Public Reviews. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "Review of Princess Mononoke Play at the New Diorama Theatre by Wholehog Theatre". Anime UK News. April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "PRINCESS MONONOKE". West End Wilma. April 9, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "What to see: Lyn Gardner's theatre tips". The Guardian. London. March 29, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "Cho Pary- First Night". Nico Nico Douga. Archived from the original on April 23, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "Cho Pary- online". Nico Nico Douga. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- Bigelow, Susan J. (March 2009). "Technologies of perception: Miyazaki in theory and practice". Animation. Sage Publications. 4 (1): 55–75. doi:10.1177/1746847708099740. ISSN 1746-8477.
- Clarke, James (May 2010). "Ecology and Animation: Animation Gone Wild: Bambi vs Princess Mononoke". Imagine. Bristol: Wildfire Communications. 31: 36–39. ISSN 1748-1244.
- Clements, Jonathan; McCarthy, Helen (2006). "Princess Mononoke". The Anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese Animation since 1917. California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 505–506. ISBN 1-933330-10-4.
- Delorme, Gérard (January 2000). "Princesse Mononoké". Premiere (in French). Hachette Filipacchi Associés (275): 61–62. ISSN 0399-3698.
- Doyle, Wyatt (December 1998). "Disney Turning Japanese". Asian Cult Cinema (21): 25–28.
- Fitzpatrick, Michael (June 1997). "Front desk clips: manga mouse!". Empire (96): 30.
- Galbraith IV, Stuart (2008). The Toho Studios Story: A History and Complete Filmography. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-1461673743.
- Génin, Bernard (January 12, 2000). "Princess Mononoke". Télérama (in French) (2609): 30.
- Harrison, Genevieve (August 2000). "Mononoke hokey cokey". Empire. Bauer (134): 20.
- Hazelton, John (November 12, 1999). "Animated English accent". Screen International. EMAP (1234): 8. ISSN 0307-4617.
- Khoury, George (November 1999). "An interview with Neil Gaiman". Creative Screenwriting. 6 (6): 63–65. ISSN 1084-8665.
- Kim, Eunjung; Jarman, Michelle (April 2008). "Modernity's Rescue Mission: Postcolonial Transactions of Disability and Sexuality" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Film Studies. 17 (1): 52–68. doi:10.3138/cjfs.17.1.52. ISSN 0847-5911.
- Leyland, Matthew (June 2006). "Princess Mononoke". Sight and Sound. British Film Institute. 16 (6): 90–91. ISSN 0037-4806.
- McCarthy, Helen (1999). "Princess Mononoke: The Nature of Love". Hayao Miyazaki: Master of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 181–204. ISBN 978-1880656419.
- Napier, Susan J. (2005) . "Princess Mononoke: Fantasy, the Feminine and the Myth of Progress". Anime from Akira to Howl's Moving Castle: Experiencing Contemporary Japanese Animation (2nd ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 231–248. ISBN 978-1403970510.
- Pedroletti, Brice (June 9, 2000). "L'animation d'auteur veut s'imposer au pays de Pikachu". Le Film Français (in French). Mondadori France (2382): 15–17. ISSN 0397-8702.
- Schilling, Mark (July 18, 1997). "Marketing Focus: By royal appointment". Screen International. EMAP (1117): 11. ISSN 0307-4617.
- Schilling, Mark (1999). Princess Mononoke: The Art and Making of Japan's Most Popular Film of All Time. New York City: Miramax/Hyperion Media. ISBN 978-0786883851.
- Smith, Michelle J.; Parsons, Elizabeth (February 2012). "Animating child activism: Environmentalism and class politics in Ghibli's Princess Mononoke (1997) and Fox's Fern Gully (1992)". Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies. Routledge. 26 (1): 25–37. doi:10.1080/10304312.2012.630138.
- Vitaris, Paula (1999). "Princess Mononoke". Cinefantastique. 31 (4): 7. ISSN 0145-6032.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Princess Mononoke|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Princess Mononoke.|
- Official website at Disney
- Princess Mononoke Production Diary at Studio Ghibli (in Japanese)
- Mononoke-hime on IMDb
- Mononoke Hime at The Big Cartoon DataBase
- Princess Mononoke at AllMovie
- Princess Mononoke at Box Office Mojo
- Princess Mononoke at Rotten Tomatoes
- Princess Mononoke (film) at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
- Animerica review at the Wayback Machine (archived April 7, 2004)