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Pristimantis cruentus studio.jpg
P. cruentus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Craugastoridae
Genus: Pristimantis
Jiménez de la Espada, 1870[1]
About 500 species, see text

Pristimantis is a very large frog genus distributed in the southern Caribbean (Lesser Antilles) and in Central and South America from Honduras to northern Argentina and southern Brazil.[1] With 490 described species (as of 2014), Pristimantis had more species than any other genus of vertebrates on Earth.[2] Many of these species genus are endemic to the Northwestern Andean montane forests ecoregion in northwestern South America.[3]


Placement of this genus has varied greatly. Pristimantis was long included in the massive genus Eleutherodactylus, and considered part of the family Leptodactylidae. Currently two solutions prevail, either placing Pristimantis in the family Strabomantidae, subfamily Strabomantinae,[2][4] or in Craugastoridae, subfamily Ceuthomantinae.[1]


As of April 2017, there are 510 species, but new ones are being described on regular basis:[1][5]


  1. ^ a b c d Frost, Darrel R. (2017). "Pristimantis Jiménez de la Espada, 1870". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Strabomantidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  3. ^ C. Michael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund. 2012. Northwestern Andean montane forests. ed. P.Saundry. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
  4. ^ Blackburn, D.C.; Wake, D.B. (2011). "Class Amphibia Gray, 1825. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3148: 39–55.
  5. ^ Reyes-Puig, Carolina; Reyes-Puig, Juan Pablo; Velarde-Garcéz, Daniel A.; Dávalos, Nicolás; et al. (2019). "A new species of terrestrial frog Pristimantis (Strabomantidae) from the upper basin of the Pastaza River, Ecuador". ZooKeys (832). doi:10.3897/zookeys.832.30874.


  • P.J.R. Kok, Means, D.B., & Bossuyt, F. (2011). "A new highland species of Pristimantis Jimenez de la Espada, 1871 (Anura: Strabomantidae) from the Pantepui region, northern South America." Zootaxa 2934: 1–19.
  • T. Orrell. (custodian) (2012). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version April 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 25 June 2012 (Bisby F., Roskov Y., Culham A., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.