Statue of Prithviraj Chauhan at Ajmer
|King of Ajmer and Delhi|
|Reign||c. 1178 CE – 1192 CE|
|Successor||Govindaraja (as a vassal of Muhammad of Ghor)|
|Born||c. 1166 CE
|Died||1192 CE (aged 26)
|Dynasty||Chahamanas of Shakambhari|
Prithviraja III (r. c. 1178–1192 CE ), popularly known as Prithviraj Chauhan or Rai Pithora in the folk legends, was an Indian king from the Chahamana (Chauhan) dynasty. He ruled Sapadalaksha, the traditional Chahamana territory, in present-day north-western India. He controlled much of the present-day Rajasthan, Haryana, and Delhi; and some parts of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. His capital was located at Ajayameru (modern Ajmer), although the medieval folk legends describe him as the king of India's political centre Delhi to portray him as a representative of the pre-Islamic Indian power.
Early in his career, Prithviraj achieved military successes against several neighbouring Hindu kingdoms, most notably against the Chandela king Paramardi. He also repulsed the early invasions by Muhammad of Ghor, a ruler of the Muslim Ghurid dynasty. However, in 1192 CE, the Ghurids decisively defeated Prithviraj at the Second battle of Tarain. His defeat at Tarain is seen as a landmark event in the Islamic conquest of India, and has been described in several semi-legendary accounts, most notably the Prithviraj Raso.
- 1 Background
- 2 Early reign
- 3 Conflicts with Hindu rulers
- 4 War with the Ghurids
- 5 Cultural activities
- 6 Legacy
- 7 References
Sources of information
The extant inscriptions from Prithviraja's reign are few in number, and were not issued by the king himself. Much of the information about Prithviraj comes from the medieval legendary chronicles. He has been mentioned in several medieval kavyas (epic poems) by Hindu authors. These include Prithviraja-Vijaya, Hammira Mahakavya and Prithviraj Raso. These texts contain eulogistic descriptions, and are therefore, not entirely reliable. Prithviraja Vijaya is the only surviving literary text from the reign of Prithviraj Chauhan. Prithviraj Raso, which popularized Prithviraj as a great king, is purported to be written by the king's court poet Chand Bardai. However, it is full of exaggerated accounts many of which are worthless for the purposes of history.
Other chronicles and texts that mention Prithviraj include Prabandha-Chintamani, Prabandha Kosha and Prithviraja-Prabandha (a part of Puratana-Prabandha-Sangraha). These were composed centuries after his death, and contain exaggerations and anachronistic anecdotes. Both Prabandha-Chintamani and Prithviraja-Prabandha portray Prithviraj as an inept and unworthy king who was responsible for his own downfall. Prithviraj has also been mentioned in Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali, a Sanskrit text containing biographies of the Kharatara Jain monks. While the work was completed in 1336 CE, the part that mentions Prithviraj was written around 1250 CE. The Alha-Khanda (or Alha Raso) of the Chandela poet Jaganika also provides an exaggerated account of Prithviraj's war against the Chandelas.
Prithviraj was born to the Chahamana king Someshvara and queen Karpuradevi. Both Prithviraj and his younger brother Hariraja were born in Gujarat, where their father Someshvara was brought up at the Chalukya court by his maternal relatives. According to Prithviraja Vijaya, Prithviraj was born on the 12th day of the Jyeshtha month. The text does not mention the year of his birth, but provides some of the astrological planetary positions at the time of his birth, calling them auspicious. Based on these positions and assuming certain other planetary positions, Dasharatha Sharma calculated the year of Prithviraj's birth as 1166 CE (1223 VS). According to R. V. Somani's calculations, Hariraja was also born in the same year.
The medieval biographies of Prithviraj suggest that he was educated well. The Prithviraja Vijaya states that he mastered 6 languages; the Prithviraj Raso claims that he learned 14 languages, which appears to be an exaggeration. The Raso goes on to claim that he became well-versed in a number of subjects, including history, mathematics, medicine, military, painting, philosophy (mimamsa), and theology. Both the texts state that he was particularly proficient in archery.
Someshvara died in 1177 CE (1234 VS), when Prithviraj was around 11 years old. The last inscription from Someshvara's reign and the first inscription from Prithviraj's reign are both dated to this year. Prithviraj, who was a minor at the time, ascended the throne with his mother as the regent. The Hammira Mahakavya claims that Someshvara himself installed Prithviraj on the throne, and then retired to the forest. However, this is doubtful.
During his early years as the king, Prithviraj's mother managed the administration, assisted by a regency council.
Kadambavasa served as the chief minister of the kingdom during this period. He is also known as Kaimasa, Kaimash or Kaimbasa in the folk legends, which describe him as an able administrator and soldier devoted to the young king. Prithviraja-Vijaya states that he was responsible for all the military victories during the early years of Prithviraj's reign. According to two different legends, Kadambavasa was later killed by Prithviraj. The Prithviraja-Raso claims that Prithviraj killed the minister after finding him in the apartment of the king's favourite concubine Karnati. Prithviraja-Prabandha claims that a man named Pratapa-Simha conspired against the minister, and convinced Prithviraj that the minister was responsible for the repeated Muslim invasions. Both these claims appear to be historically inaccurate, as the much more historically reliable Prithviraja-Vijaya does not mention any such incident.
Bhuvanaikamalla, the paternal uncle of Prithviraj's mother, was another important minister during this time. According to Prithviraja-Vijaya, he was a valiant general who served Prithviraj as Garuda serves Vishnu. The text also states that he was "proficient in the art of subduing nāgas". According to the 15th century historian Jonaraja, "naga" here refers to elephants. However, Har Bilas Sarda interpreted Naga as the name of a tribe, and theorized that Bhuvanaikamalla defeated this tribe.
Conflicts with Hindu rulers
The first military achievement of Prithviraj was his suppression of a revolt by his cousin Nagarjuna, and recapture of Gudapura (IAST: Guḍapura; possibly modern Gurgaon). Nagarjuna was a son of Prithviraja's uncle Vigraharaja IV, and the struggle for the Chahamana throne had led to a rivalry between the two branches of the family.
According to Prithviraja Vijaya, Nagarjuna rebeled against Prithviraj's authority and occupied the fort of Gudapura. Prithviraj besieged Gudapura with a large army comprising infantry, camels, elephants and horses. Nagarjuna fled the fort, but Devabhata (possibly his general) continued to offer resistance. Ultimately, Prithviraj's army emerged victorious, and captured the wife, mother and followers of Nagarjuna. According to Prithviraja Vijaya, a garland made of the defeated soldiers' head was hung across the Ajmer fort gate.
Two verses of Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali mention the victory of Prithviraj over the Bhadanakas, while describing a debate between two Jain monks. This victory can be dated to sometime before 1182 CE, when the said debate took place.
According to Cynthia Talbot, the Bhadanakas were an obscure dynasty who controlled the area around Bayana. According to Dasharatha Sharma, the Bhadanaka territory comprised the area around present-day Bhiwani, Rewari and Alwar.
Chandelas of Jejakabhukti
The 1182-83 CE (1239 VS) Madanpur inscriptions from Prithviraj's reign claim that he "laid to waste" Jejakabhukti (present-day Bundelkhand), which was ruled by the Chandela king Paramardi. Prithviraj's invasion of the Chandela territory is also described in the later folk legends, such as Prithviraj Raso, Paramal Raso, and Alha-Raso. Other texts such as Sarangadhara Paddhati and Prabandha Chintamani also mention Prithviraj's attack on Paramardi. The Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali mentions that Prithviraj had embarked upon a digvijaya (conquest of all the regions). This appears to be a reference to the start of Prithviraj's march to Jejakabhukti.
The legendary account of Prithviraj's campaign against the Chandelas goes like this: Prithviraj was returning to Delhi after marrying the daughter of Padamsen, when his contingent was attacked by the Turkic forces (Ghurids). His army repulsed the attacks, but suffered serious casualties in the process. Amid this chaos, the Chahamana soldiers lost their way, and unknowingly encamped in the Chandela capital Mahoba. They killed the Chandela royal gardener for objecting to their presence, which led to a skirmish between the two sides. The Chandela king Paramardi asked his general Udal to attack Prithviraj's camp, but Udal advised against this move. Paramardi's brother-in-law Mahil Parihar (who harboured ill-will against Paramardi) instigated the king to go ahead with the attack. Prithviraj defeated Udal's contingent, and then left for Delhi. Subsequently, unhappy with Mahil's scheming, Udal and his brother Alha left the Chandela court. They started serving Jaichand, the Gahadavala ruler of Kannauj. Mahil then secretly informed Prithviraj that Chandela kingdom had become weak in absence of its strongest generals. Prithviraj invaded the Chandela kingdom, and besieged Sirsagarh, which was held by Udal's cousin Malkhan. After failing to win over Malkhan through peaceful methods and losing eight generals, Prithviraj captured the fort. The Chandelas then appealed for a truce, and used this time to recall Alha and Udal from Kannauj. In support of the Chandelas, Jaichand dispatched an army led by his best generals, including two of his own sons. The combined Chandela-Gahadavala army attacked Prithviraj's camp, but was defeated. After his victory, Prithviraj sacked Mahoba. He then dispatched his general Chavand Rai to Kalinjar Fort to capture Paramardi. According to the various legends, Paramardi either died or retire shortly after the attack. Prithviraj returned to Delhi after appointing Pajjun Rai as the governor of Mahoba. Later, Paramardi's son recaptured Mahoba.
The exact historicity of this legendary narrative is debatable. The Madanpur inscriptions establish that Prithviraj sacked Mahoba, but historical evidence indicates that he did not occupy Mahoba or Kalinjar. It is known that Paramardi did not die or retire immediately after the Chauhan victory; in fact, he continued ruling as a sovereign nearly a decade after Prithviraj's death. It appears that Prithviraj only raided Jejakabhukti, and Paramardi regained control of his kingdom soon after his departure from Mahoba. Prithviraj was not able to annex the Chandela territory to his kingdom.
Paramaras of Abu
Abu was ruled by Dharavarsha, who belonged to a branch of the Paramara dynasty. Partha-Parakrama-Vyayoga by his younger brother Prahaladana describes Prithviraj's night attack on Abu. This attack, according to the text, was a failure for the Chahamanas. It probably happened during the Gujarat campaign of Prithviraj.
Chalukyas of Gujarat
The Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali mentions a peace treaty between Prithviraj, and Bhima II, the Chalukya (Solanki) king of Gujarat. This implies that the two kings were previously at war. This war can be dated to sometime before 1187 CE (1244 VS). The Veraval inscription states that Bhima's prime minister Jagaddeva Pratihara was "the moon to the lotus-like queens of Prithviraja" (a reference to the belief that the moon-rise causes a day-blooming lotus to close its petals). Since Bhima was a minor at the time, it appears that Jagaddeva led the campaign on the Chalukya side.
The historically unreliable Prithviraj Raso provides some details about the Chahamana-Chalukya struggle. According to it, both Prithviraj and Bhima wanted to marry Ichchhini, the Paramara princess of Abu. Prithviraj's marriage to her led to a rivalry between the two kings. G. H. Ojha dismissed this legend as fiction, because it states that Ichchhini was a daughter of Salakha, while Dharavarsha was the Paramara ruler of Abu at the time. R. B. Singh, on the other hand, believed that Salakha was the head of another Paramara branch at Abu. The Raso also mentions that Prithviraj's uncle Kanhadeva had killed seven sons of Bhima's uncle Sarangadeva. To avenge these murders, Bhima invaded the Chahamana kingdom and killed Prithviraj's father Someshvara, capturing Nagor in the process. Prithviraj re-captured Nagor, and defeated and killed Bhima. This is known to be historically false, as the reign of Bhima II lasted nearly half a century after Prithviraj's death. Similarly, historical evidence suggests Bhima II was a child at the time of Someshvara's death, and therefore, could not have killed him.
Despite these discrepancies, there is some evidence of a battle between the Chahamanas and the Chalukyas at Nagor. Two inscriptions found at Charlu village near Bikaner commemorate the death of Mohil soldiers at the battle of Nagor in 1184 CE (1241 VS). The Mohils are a branch of the Chauhans (the Chahamanas), and it is possible the inscriptions refer to the battle described in Prithviraj Raso.
Sometime before 1187 CE, Jagaddeva Pratihara signed a peace treaty with Prithviraj Chauhan. According to Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali, a chief named Abhayada once sought Jagaddeva's permission to attack and rob the wealthy visitors from Sapadalaksha country (the Chahamana territory). In response, Jagaddeva told Abhayada that he had concluded a treaty with Prithviraj with much difficulty. Jaggadeva then threatened to have Abhayada sewn in a donkey's belly if he harassed the people of Sapadalaksha. Historian Dasharatha Sharma theorized that the Chahamana-Chalukya conflict ended with some advantage for Prithviraja, as Jagaddeva appears to have been very anxious to preserve the treaty.
Gahadavalas of Kannauj
The Gahadavala kingdom, centered around Kannauj and headed by another powerful king Jayachandra, was located to the east of the Chahamana kingdom. According to a legend mentioned in Prithviraj Raso, Prithviraj eloped with Jayachandra's daughter Samyogita, leading to a rivalry between the two kings.
The legend goes like this: King Jaichand (Jayachandra) of Kannauj decided to conduct a Rajasuya ceremony to proclaim his supremacy. Prithviraj refused to participate in this ceremony, and thus, refused to acknowledge Jaichand as the supreme king. Jaichand's daughter Samyogita fell in love with Prithviraj after hearing about his heroic exploits, and declared that she would marry only him. Jaichand arranged a swayamvara (husband-selection) ceremony for his daughter, but did not invite Prithviraj. Nevertheless, Prithviraj marched to Kannauj with a hundred warriors and eloped with Samyogita. Two-third of his warriors sacrificed their life in fight against the Gahadavala army, allowing him to escape to Delhi with Samyogita. In Delhi, Prithviraj became infatuated with his new wife, and started spending most of his time with her. He started ignoring the state affairs, which ultimately led to his defeat against Muhammad of Ghor.
This legend is also mentioned in Abu'l-Fazl's Ain-i-Akbari and Chandrashekhara's Surjana-Charita (which names the Gahadavala princess as "Kantimati"). Prithviraja-Vijaya mentions that Prithviraj fell in love with the incarnation of an apsara Tilottama, although he had never seen this woman and was already married to other women. According to historian Dasharatha Sharma, this is probably a reference to Samyogita. However, this legend is not mentioned in other historical sources such as Prithviraja-Prabandha, Prabandha-Chintamani, Prabandha-Kosha and Hammira-Mahakavya. The Gahadavala records are also silent about this event, including the supposed Rajasuya performance by Jayachandra.
According to Dasharatha Sharma and R. B. Singh, there might be some historical truth in this legend, as it is mentioned in three different sources. All three sources place the event sometime before Prithviraj's final confrontation with Muhammad of Ghor in 1192 CE.
The Prithviraj Raso mentions that Prithviraj defeated Nahar Rai of Mandovara and the Mughal chief Mudgala Rai, but these stories appear to be pure fiction. No historical records suggest existence of these persons.
The construction of the now-ruined Qila Rai Pithora fort in Delhi is attributed to Prithviraj Chauhan. According to Prithviraj Raso, Delhi's ruler Anangpal Tomar gave the city to his son-in-law Prithviraj, and was defeated when he wanted it back. This is historically inaccurate, as Delhi was annexed to the Chahamana territory by Prithviraj's uncle Vigraharaja IV. In addition, historical evidence suggests that Anangpal Tomar died before the birth of Prithviraj Chauhan. The claim about his daughter's marriage to Prithviraj appears to have been concocted at a later date.
War with the Ghurids
Prithviraj's predecessors had faced multiple raids from the Muslim dynasties that had captured the north-western areas of the Indian subcontinent by the 12th century. By the late 12th century, the Ghazna-based Ghurid dynasty controlled the territory to the west of the Chahamana kingdom. While Prithviraj was still a child, in 1175 CE, the Ghurid ruler Muhammad of Ghor crossed the Indus River and captured Multan. In 1178 CE, he invaded Gujarat, which was ruled by the Chalukyas (Solankis). During its march to Gujarat, the Ghurid army appears to have passed through the western frontier of the Chahamana kingdom, as evident by the destruction of several temples and sacking of the Bhati-ruled Lodhruva. The Prithviraja Vijaya mentions that the activities of the Ghurid army were like Rahu to the Chahamana kingdom (in Hindu mythology, Rahu swallows the Sun, causing a solar eclipse). However, it does not mention any military engagement between the two kingdoms. On its way to Gujarat, the Ghurid army besieged the Naddula (Nadol) fort, which was controlled by the Chahamanas of Naddula. Prithviraj's chief minister Kadambavasa advised him not to offer any assistance to the rivals of the Ghurids, and stay away from this conflict. Prithviraja Vijaya mentions that Muhammad of Ghor sent a messenger to Prithviraj. Although the text does not mention any details, Muhammad probably wanted Prithviraj to accept his suzerainty. The Chahamanas did not immediately face a Ghurid invasion, because the Chalukyas of Gujarat defeated Muhammad at the Battle of Kayadara (Kasahrada) in 1178 CE, forcing the Ghurids to retreat.
Over the next few years, Muhammad of Ghor consolidated his power the territory to the west of the Chahamanas, conquering Peshawar, Sindh, and Punjab. He shifted his base from Ghazna to Punjab, and made attempts to expand his empire eastwards, which brought him into conflict with Prithviraj. While the contemporary Muslim writers mention only two battles between the two rulers (the Battles of Tarain), the Hindu writers state that Prithviraj defeated Muhammad seven times before being killed. The early victories mentioned by the Hindu writers probably refer to Prithviraj's successful repulsion of raids by Ghurid generals.
First battle of Tarain
During 1190-1191 CE, Muhammad of Ghor invaded the Chahamana territory, and captured Tabarhindah (identified with either Bhatinda or Sirhind). He placed it under the charge of Zia-ud-din, the Qazi of Tulak, supported by 1200 horsemen. When Prithviraj learned about this, marched towards Tabarhindah with his feudatories, including Govindaraja of Delhi. According to the 16th century Muslim historian Firishta, his force comprised 200,000 horses and 3,000 elephants.
Muhammad's original plan was to return to his base after conquering Tabarhindah, but when he heard about Prithviraj's march, he decided to put up a fight. He set out with an army, and encountered Prithviraj's forces at Tarain. In the ensuing battle, Prithviraj's army decisively defeated the Ghurids. Muhammad of Ghor was injured and forced to retreat.
Prithviraj did not pursue the retreating Ghurid army, not wanting to invade hostile territory or misjudge Ghori's ambition. He only besieged the Ghurid garrison at Tabarhindah, which surrendered after 13 months of siege.
Second battle of Tarain
Prithviraj seems to have treated the first battle of Tarain as merely a frontier fight. This view is strengthened by the fact that he made little preparations for any future clash with Muhammad of Ghor. According to Prithviraj Raso, during the period preceding his final confrontation with the Ghurids, he neglected the affairs of the state and spent time in merry-making.
Meanwhile, Muhammad of Ghor returned to Ghazna, and made preparations to avenge his defeat. According to Tabaqat-i Nasiri, he gathered a well-equipped army of 120,000 select Afghan, Tajik and Turkic horsemen over the next few months. He then marched towards the Chahamana kingdom via Multan and Lahore, aided by Vijayaraja of Jammu.
Prithviraj had been left without any allies as a result of his wars against the neighbouring Hindu kings. Nevertheless, he managed to gather a large army to counter the Ghurids. The 16th century Muslim historian Firishta estimated the strength of Prithviraj's army as 300,000 horses and 3,000 elephants, in addition to a large infantry. This is most likely a gross exaggeration, aimed at emphasizing the scale of the Ghurid victory. Prithviraj's camp, which comprised 150 feudatory chiefs, wrote a letter to Muhammad of Ghor, promising him no harm if he decided to return to his own country. Muhammad insisted that he needed time to confer his Ghazna-based brother Ghiyath al-Din. According to Firishta, he agreed to a truce until he received an answer from his brother. However, he secretly planned an attack against the Chahamanas.
According to Jawami ul-Hikayat, Muhammad assigned a few men to keep the fires in his camp burning at night, while he marched off in another direction with the rest of his army. This gave the Chahamanas an impression that the Ghurid army was still encamped, observing the truce. After reaching several miles away, Muhammad formed four divisions, with 10,000 archers each. He kept the rest of his army in reserve. He ordered the four divisions to launch a surprise attack on the Chahamana camp, and then pretend a retreat.
At dawn, the four divisions of the Ghurid army attacked the Chahamana camp, while Prithviraj was still asleep. After a brief fight, the Ghurid divisions pretended to retreat in accordance with Muhammad's strategy. Prithviraj was thus lured into chasing them, and by the afternoon, the Chahamana army was exhausted as a result of this pursuit. At this point, Muhammad led his reserve force and attacked the Chahamanas, decisively defeating them. According to Hasan Nizami's Taj-ul-Maasir (13th century CE), Prithviraj's camp lost 100,000 men (including Govindaraja of Delhi) in this debacle. Prithviraj himself tried to escape on a horse, but was pursued and caught near the Sarasvati fort (possibly modern Sirsa). Soon after, Muhammad of Ghor captured Ajmer after killing several thousand defenders, enslaved many more, and destroyed the city's temples.
Most medieval sources state that Prithviraj was taken to the Chahamana capital Ajmer, where Muhammad planned to reinstate him as a Ghurid vassal. This is also corroborated by numismatic evidence: some coins issued by Prithviraj from the Delhi mint feature his own name as well as the name of Muhammad on the reverse. Sometime later, Prithviraj rebelled against Muhammad, and was killed for treason. The various sources differ on the exact circumstances surrounding this event:
- The 13th century Muslim historian Hasan Nizami states that Prithviraj was caught conspiring against Muhammad, prompting the Ghurid king to order his beheading. Nizami does not describe the nature of this conspiracy.
- According to Prabandha-Chintamani by the 14th century Jain scholar Merutunga, Muhammad was enraged when he saw paintings depicting Muslims being killed by pigs in the Chahamana gallery. He then abandoned his plan to let Prithviraj live as a vassal, and ordered his beheading.
- Prithviraja-Prabandha (dated 15th century or earlier) states that after capturing Ajmer, Muhammad occupied Prithviraj's court. He housed Prithviraj in a building facing this court. One day, Prithviraj asked his minister for his bow-and-arrows to kill Muhammad. The treacherous minister supplied him the bow-and-arrows, but secretly informed Muhammad of his plan. As a result, Muhammad did not sit at his usual place, and instead kept a statue there. Prithviraj fired an arrow at the statue, mistaking it for Muhammad. As a punishment, Muhammad had him cast into a pit and stoned to death.
The Prithviraj Raso claims that Prithviraj was taken to Ghazna as a prisoner, and blinded. On hearing this, the poet Chand Bardai traveled to Ghazna and tricked Muhammad of Ghor into watching an archery performance by the blind Prithviraj. During this performance, Prithviraj shot the arrow in the direction of Muhammad's voice and killed him. Shortly after, Prithviraj and Chand Bardai killed each other. This is a fictional narrative, not supported by historical evidence: Muhammad of Ghor continued to rule for more than a decade after Prithviraj's death.
After Prithviraj's death, the Ghurids appointed his son Govinda-raja on the throne of Ajmer as their vassal. In 1192 CE, Prithviraj's younger brother Hari-raja de-throned Govinda, and recaptured a part of his ancestral kingdom. Govinda moved to Ranastambhapura (modern Ranthambore), where he established a new branch of the dynasty. Hari was later defeated by the Ghurid general Qutb al-Din Aibak.
- Jayanaka, a poet-historian who wrote Prithviraja-Vijaya
- Vidyapati Gauda
- Vagisvara Janardana
- Vishvarupa, a poet
- Prithvibhata, a royal bard (identified as Chand Bardai by some scholars)
Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali mentions a debate that took place between the Jain monks Jinapati Suri and Padmaprabha at Naranayana (modern Narena near Ajmer). Prithviraj had encamped there at the time. Jinapati was later invited to Ajmer by a rich Jain merchant. There, Prithviraj issued him a jaya-patra (certificate of victory).
According to historian R. B. Singh, at its height, Prithviraj's empire extended from Sutlej river in the west to the Betwa river in the east, and from the Himalayan foothills in the north to the foot of Mount Abu in the south. Thus, it included parts of present-day Rajasthan, southern Punjab, northern Madhya Pradesh, and western Uttar Pradesh.
Only seven inscriptions dated to Prithviraj's reign are available; none of these were issued by the king himself:
- Barla or Badla inscription, 1177 CE (1234 VS)
- Phalodi inscription, 1179 CE (1236 VS): records the grants made by Prithviraj's vassal Ranaka Katiya.
- Madanpur inscriptions of 1182 CE (1239 VS)
- Inscription 1: Mentions that Prithviraj invaded the territory of the Chandela ruler Paramardi
- Inscription 2: Names Prithviraj's father (Someshvara) and grandfather (Arnoraja), and states that he plundered Jejakabhukti (the Chandela territory)
- Inscription 3: Contains names of Shiva (Tryambaka, Chandrashekhara, and Tripuranta).
- Udaipur Victoria Hall Museum inscription, 1187 CE (1244 VS)
- Visalpur (Bisalpur near Tonk) inscription, 1187 CE (1244 VS)
In popular culture
After his death, Prithviraj came to be portrayed as a patriotic Hindu warrior who fought against Muslim enemies. He is remembered as a king whose reign separated the two major epochs of Indian history. The 16th century legends describe him as the ruler of India's political centre Delhi (rather than Ajmer, which was his actual capital). His association with Delhi in these legends further strengthened his status as a symbol of pre-Islamic Indian power.
Prithviraj has been described as "the last Hindu emperor" in eulogies. This designation is inaccurate, as several stronger Hindu rulers flourished in South India after him, and even some contemporary Hindu rulers in northern India were at least as powerful as him. Nevertheless, the 19th century British officer James Tod repeatedly used this term to describe Prithviraj Chauhan in his Annals and Antiquities of Rajas'han. Tod was influenced by the medieval Persian language Muslim accounts, which present Prithviraj as a major ruler and portray his defeat as a major milestone in the Islamic conquest of India. After Tod, several narratives continued to describe Prithviraj as "the last Hindu emperor".
Memorials dedicated to Prithviraj Chauhan have been constructed in Ajmer and Delhi. A number of movies and television serials have been made on his life. These include the Hindi movie Samrat Prithviraj Chauhan and the Hindi television serial Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan (2006-2009). The animated movie Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan (2008) was released in English, Hindi, Tamil and Telugu languages. He was also one of the first historical figures to be covered in Amar Chitra Katha (No. 25). Many of these modern retellings depict Prithviraj as a flawless hero, and emphasize a message of Hindu national unity.
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- Dasharatha Sharma 1959, p. 78.
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- Konstantin S Nossov (2012). Indian Castles 1206–1526: The Rise and Fall of the Delhi Sultanate. Bloomsbury. p. 53. ISBN 9781849080507.
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- Dasharatha Sharma 1959, pp. 80-81.
- R. B. Singh 1964, pp. 183-184.
- Dasharatha Sharma 1959, p. 81.
- Dasharatha Sharma 1959, p. 82.
- Dasharatha Sharma 1959, pp. 82-84.
- Satish Chandra 2006, p. 25.
- Dasharatha Sharma 1959, p. 84.
- Dasharatha Sharma 1959, p. 88.
- Dasharatha Sharma 1959, p. 85.
- Dasharatha Sharma 1959, p. 86.
- Dasharatha Sharma 1959, p. 87.
- Satish Chandra 2006, p. 26.
- Dasharatha Sharma 1959, pp. 87-88.
- Prithviraj, a valorous hero par excellence, has been depicted in the lofty style which has been a source of inspiration to and influence on the North-Indian people. Krishnadatt Paliwal (1988) "Epic (Hindi)" In Datta, Amaresh (1988) The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature: Volume Two: Devraj to Jyoti, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, India, page 1178, ISBN 81-260-1194-7
- Kaviraj Syamaldas (1886) "The Antiquity, Authenticity and Genuineness of the epic called the Prithviraj Rasa and commonly ascribed to Chand Bardai" Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. 55, pt.1,
- Dasharatha Sharma 1959, pp. 100-101.
- R. B. Singh 1964, p. 182.
- R. V. Somani 1976, pp. 43-44.
- R. V. Somani 1976, p. 48.
- Cynthia Talbot 2015, p. 24.
- Cynthia Talbot 2015, p. 5.
- Cynthia Talbot 2015, pp. 6-7.
- Cynthia Talbot 2015, pp. 26.
- Cynthia Talbot 2015, p. 3.
- Cynthia Talbot 2015, pp. 265.
- Cynthia Talbot 2015, pp. 266.
- Cynthia Talbot 2015, pp. 267.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prithviraj Chauhan.|
- Cynthia Talbot (2015). The Last Hindu Emperor: Prithviraj Cauhan and the Indian Past, 1200–2000. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107118560.
- Dasharatha Sharma (1959). Early Chauhān Dynasties. S. Chand / Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 9780842606189.
- R. B. Singh (1964). History of the Chāhamānas. N. Kishore. OCLC 11038728.
- R. V. Somani (1976). History of Mewar, from Earliest Times to 1751 A.D. Mateshwari. OCLC 2929852.
- Satish Chandra (2006). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206-1526). 1. Har-Anand Publications.
- Sisirkumar Mitra (1977). The Early Rulers of Khajurāho. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 9788120819979.