A private prison or for-profit prison is a place in which individuals are physically confined or incarcerated by a third party that is contracted by a government agency. Private prison companies typically enter into contractual agreements with governments that commit prisoners and then pay a per diem or monthly rate, either for each prisoner in the facility, or for each place available, whether occupied or not. Such contracts may be for the operation only of a facility, or for design, construction and operation.
- 1 In the United Kingdom
- 2 In Australia
- 3 In the United States
- 4 In Canada
- 5 Attempt to establish private prisons in Israel
- 6 Media coverage in the United States
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
In the United Kingdom
In the modern era, the United Kingdom was the first country in all of Europe to use prisons run by the private sector to hold its prisoners. Wolds Prison opened as the first privately managed prison in the UK in 1992. There are 3 ways in which a private company may take on management of a prison:
1) A prison is built by the public sector and then the operating contract is competed.
2) Companies compete to finance, design, build and run a new prison under the Private Finance Initiative. Most prisons in the UK are of this kind, although the use of PFI now appears to have been abandoned.
3) A prison already operated by the public sector prison service may be contracted out after competition (‘market testing’).
Prisons may be re-competed at the end of the contract, and the public sector Prison Service may bid, and has done so successfully on three occasions.
There are now 14 privately run prisons in England and Wales and two in Scotland, accommodating about 15% of the UK prison population. They are run by three companies: SERCO, G4S and Sodexo.
Increasingly, a range of services within all prisons, whether public or privately run, are contracted out on a regional basis: this includes works and FM services, and rehabilitation programmes.
In 2007 the new Scottish National Party Government in Scotland announced that it was opposed to privately run prisons and would not let any more contracts. Since then new prisons in Scotland have been built and run by the public sector. The last contract let in England and Wales was for Northumberland Prison, which transferred from the public sector to Sodexo in 2013. The most recent new prison to be built in England and Wales, at Wrexham (opening in 2017), was given to the public sector to operate without any competition. It is not yet clear whether, or how, the 9 new prisons announced by Michael Gove, Justice Secretary, on 9 November 2015, to replace old Victorian jails in city centres, will be competed.
Governance and accountability
Privately run prisons are run under contracts which set out the standards that must be met, which in many respects mirror those in publicly run prisons. Payments may be deducted for poor performance against the contract. Government monitors ("controllers") work permanently within each privately managed prison to check on conditions and treatment of prisoners. The framework for regulation and accountability is much the same for privately run prisons as for publicly run ones. They are subject to unannounced inspection by HM Chief Inspector of Prisons, to monitoring by local Independent Monitoring Boards and prisoner complaints are dealt with by the Prison and Probation Ombudsman.
According to a recent comprehensive assessment of the impact of competition for prisons:
1) Neither public nor private sector have consistently outperformed the other on quality of service.
2) Rather, both sectors experienced very serious operational problems in the 1990s and early 2000s, both improved in the 2000s and both deteriorated in the 2010s, due to sharp budget cuts.
3) Privately run prisons run at much lower costs, perhaps as much as 30% cheaper, though the mechanics of the PFI and of the public sector pension scheme make it impossible to say with any precision. The cost gap has narrowed but is still substantial.
4) Under PFI, the private sector built new prisons twice as fast as the public sector and for half the cost, though the public sector has since much improved.
5) There has been innovation by the private sector, but its impact has been marginal overall.
6) The threat of competition has played a significant part in driving up performance in the public sector and in weakening the power of the Prison Officers’ Association to obstruct change and improvement.
7) Government has often handled competition badly and has failed to carry out or publish adequate assessment of the comparative costs and performance of the two sector, or of the overall impact and value of competition.
Australia was one of the first countries to use private prisons, starting with Victoria in 1997.
In the United States
The privatization of prisons can be traced to the contracting out of confinement and care of prisoners after the American Revolution. Deprived of the ability to ship criminals and undesirables to the Colonies, Great Britain began placing them on hulks (used as prison ships) moored in English ports.
The partial transfer of San Quentin prison administration from private to public did not mark the end of privatization. The next phase began with the Reconstruction Period (1865–1876) in the south, after the end of the Civil War. Plantations and businessmen needed to find replacements for the labor force once their slaves had been freed. Beginning in 1868, convict leases were issued to private parties to supplement their workforce. This system remained in place until the early 20th century.
Federal and state governments have a long history of contracting out specific services to private firms, including medical services, food preparation, vocational training, and inmate transportation. The 1980s, though, ushered in a new era of prison privatization. With a burgeoning prison population resulting from the War on Drugs and increased use of incarceration, prison overcrowding and rising costs became increasingly problematic for local, state, and federal governments. In response to this expanding criminal justice system, private business interests saw an opportunity for expansion, and consequently, private-sector involvement in prisons moved from the simple contracting of services to contracting for the complete management and operation of entire prisons.
The modern private prison business first emerged and established itself publicly in 1984 when the Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) was awarded a contract to take over a facility in Hamilton County, Tennessee. This marked the first time that any government in the country had contracted out the complete operation of a jail to a private operator. The following year, CCA gained further public attention when it offered to take over the entire state prison system of Tennessee for $200 million. The bid was ultimately defeated due to strong opposition from public employees and the skepticism of the state legislature. Despite that initial defeat, CCA since then has successfully expanded, as have other for-profit prison companies.
The US Department of Justice statistics show that, as of 2013, there were 133,000 state and federal prisoners housed in privately owned prisons in the US, constituting 8.4% of the overall U.S. prison population. Broken down to prison type, 19.1% of the federal prison population in the United States is housed in private prisons and 6.8% of the U.S. state prison population is housed in private prisons. While 2013 represents a slight decline in private prison population over 2012, the overall trend over the past decade has been a slow increase  Companies operating such facilities include the Corrections Corporation of America, the GEO Group, Inc. (formerly known as Wackenhut Securities), and Community Education Centers. In the past two decades CCA has seen its profits increase by more than 500 percent. The prison industry as a whole took in over $5 billion in revenue in 2011.
According to journalist Matt Taibbi, Wall Street banks took notice of this influx of cash, and are now some of the prison industry's biggest investors. Wells Fargo has around 100 million invested in GEO Group and 6 million in CCA. Other major investors include Bank of America, Fidelity Investments, General Electric and The Vanguard Group. CCA's share price went from a dollar in 2000 to $34.34 in 2013. Sociologist John L. Campbell and activist and journalist Chris Hedges respectively assert that prisons in the United States have become a "lucrative" and "hugely profitable" business.
In June 2013, students at Columbia University discovered that the institution owned $8 million worth of CCA stock. Less than a year later the student group Columbia Prison Divest was formed and delivered a letter to the president of the University demanding total divestment from CCA and full disclosure of future investments. By June 2015, the board of trustees at Columbia University voted to divest from the private prison industry.
Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) has a capacity of more than 80,000 beds in 65 correctional facilities. The GEO Group operates 57 facilities with a capacity of 49,000 offender beds. The company owns or runs more than 100 properties that operate more than 73,000 beds in sites across the world.
Most privately run facilities are located in the southern and western portions of the United States and include both state and federal offenders. For example, Pecos, Texas is the site of the largest private prison in the world, the Reeves County Detention Complex, operated by the GEO Group. It has a capacity of 3,763 prisoners in its three sub-complexes,
Private prison firms, reacting to reductions in prison populations, are increasingly looking away from mere incarceration and are seeking to maintain profitability by expanding into new markets previously served by non-profit behavioral health and treatment-oriented agencies, including prison medical care, forensic mental hospitals, civil commitment centers, halfway houses and home arrest.
Studies, some partially industry-funded, often conclude that states can save money by using for-profit prisons. However, academic or state-funded studies have found that private prisons tend to keep more low-cost inmates and send others back to state-run prisons.
Others[who?] have contended that ostensible cost savings come at the expense of security, and considerable costs are externalized.
In the wake of the escape of three murderers from the minimum/medium security Kingman Prison, Arizona operated by Management and Training Corporation (MTC), and its gruesome aftermath, Arizona Attorney General and gubernatorial candidate Terry Goddard said "I believe a big part of our problem is that the very violent inmates, like the three that escaped, ended up getting reclassified [as a lower risk] quickly and sent to private prisons that were just not up to the job". The private prison had inadequate patrols and prisoner movement, excessive false alarms, a lax culture, and inconsistencies in visitor screening procedures.
One escaping murderer, Daniel Renwick, immediately absconded with the intended getaway vehicle, abandoning his companions outside the prison. He was involved in a shootout in Rifle, Colorado, about 30 hours after the prison break, and was captured by a Garfield County deputy and Rifle police. Though he still "owed" Arizona 32 years on his sentence, he was sentenced to sixty years to be served first in Colorado.
In the course of evading pursuers, the remaining two escapees and their accomplice, Casslyn Welch, kidnapped vacationing Oklahomans Gary and Linda Haas in New Mexico. The couple was soon murdered by the ringleader, John McCluskey.
The extended family of the murdered couple sued the state of Arizona, as well as Dominion, a corporation based in Edmond, Oklahoma, that spec-built the prison, and MTC, the corporation that managed it, for $40 million.
The last escapees and their accomplice were soon captured. Tracy Province, a lifer, was apprehended in Wyoming on August 9. The final pair were arrested on August 19, 20 days after the jailbreak, upon their return to Arizona. All three were first convicted of the escapes, initial hijacking, kidnappings and robberies in Kingman, Arizona. Then they were charged with the same crimes plus murder in New Mexico. John McCluskey, the ringleader, and his accomplice, Casslyn Welch, were also alleged to have committed an armed robbery in Arkansas. The three were eventually held on federal murder charges in New Mexico. McCluskey was tried on death penalty charges but after five months of court proceedings, his jury gave him life imprisonment on December 11, 2013.
Estimates of the costs of the nationwide searches as well as the apprehensions, prosecutions and subsequent imprisonment in the three states greatly exceed a million dollars.
Proponents of privately run prisons contend that cost-savings and efficiency of operation place private prisons at an advantage over public prisons and support the argument for privatization, but some research casts doubt on the validity of these arguments, as evidence has shown that private prisons are neither demonstrably more cost-effective, nor more efficient than public prisons. An evaluation of 24 different studies on cost-effectiveness revealed that, at best, results of the question are inconclusive and, at worst, there is no difference in cost-effectiveness.
A study by the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics found that the cost-savings promised by private prisons "have simply not materialized". Some research has concluded that for-profit prisons cost more than public prisons. Furthermore, cost estimates from privatization advocates may be misleading, because private facilities often refuse to accept inmates that cost the most to house. A 2001 study concluded that a pattern of sending less expensive inmates to privately run facilities artificially inflated cost savings. A 2005 study found that Arizona's public facilities were seven times more likely to house violent offenders and three times more likely to house those convicted of more serious offenses. A 2011 report by the American Civil Liberties Union point out that private prisons are more costly, more violent and less accountable than public prisons, and are actually a major contributor to increased mass incarceration. This is most apparent in Louisiana, which has the highest incarceration rate in the world and houses the majority of its inmates in for-profit facilities. Marie Gottschalk, professor of political science at the University of Pennsylvania, argues that the prison industry "engages in a lot of cherry-picking and cost-shifting to maintain the illusion that the private sector does it better for less." In fact, she notes that studies generally show that private facilities are more dangerous for both correctional officers and inmates than their public counterparts as a result cost-cutting measures, such as spending less on training for correctional officers (and paying them lower wages) and providing only the most basic medical care for inmates.
A 2014 study by a doctoral candidate at UC Berkeley shows that minorities make up a greater percentage of inmates at private prisons than in their public counterparts, largely because minorities are cheaper to incarcerate. According to the study, for-profit prison operators, in particular CCA and GEO Group, accumulate these low-cost inmates "through explicit and implicit exemptions written into contracts between these private prison management companies and state departments of correction".
Evidence suggests that lower staffing levels and training at private facilities may lead to increases in the incidence of violence and escapes. A nationwide study found that assaults on guards by inmates were 49 percent more frequent in private prisons than in government-run prisons. The same study revealed that assaults on fellow inmates were 65 percent more frequent in private prisons.
An example of private prisons' inadequate staff training leading to jail violence is reported by two journalists, Margaret Newkirk and William Selway in Mississippi which is named Walnut Grove Youth Correctional Facility. According to the journalists, The ratio of staff to prisoners in this prison is unexpected 1/120. In a recent bloody riot in this prison, six inmates were rushed to the hospital, including one with permanent brain damage. During the riot, the staff of the prison just sat there and waited until the melee ended, because prisoners are 60 times of the number of staff. The lack of well-trained staff does not only lead to violence but also corruption. According to a former prisoner in this prison, the correction officers are also in charge of the smuggling in the prison. To make more money, they can provide prisoners everything, including weapons.
CCA and The GEO Group have been members of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), a Washington, D.C.-based public policy organization that develops model legislation that advances free-market principles such as privatization. Under their Criminal Justice Task Force, ALEC has developed model bills which State legislators can then consult when proposing "tough on crime" initiatives including "Truth in Sentencing" and "Three Strikes" laws. By funding and participating in ALEC's Criminal Justice Task Forces, critics argue, private prison companies influence legislation for tougher, longer sentences. Writing in Governing magazine in 2003, Alan Greenblatt states:
ALEC has been a major force behind both privatizing state prison space and keeping prisons filled. It put forward bills providing for mandatory minimum sentences and three-strikes sentencing requirements. About 40 states passed versions of ALEC's Truth in Sentencing model bill, which requires prisoners convicted of violent crimes to serve most of their sentences without chance of parole.
According to a 2010 report by NPR, ALEC arranged meetings between the Corrections Corporation of America and Arizona's state legislators such as Russell Pearce at the Grand Hyatt in Washington, D.C. to write Arizona SB 1070, which would keep CCA's immigrant detention centers stuffed with detainees.
CCA and GEO have both engaged in state initiatives to increase sentences for offenders and to create new crimes, including, CCA helping to finance Proposition 6 in California in 2008 and GEO lobbying for Jessica's Law in Kansas in 2006. In 2012, The CCA sent a letter to 48 states offering to buy public prisons in exchange for a promise to keep the prisons at 90% occupancy for 20 years. States that sign such contracts with prison companies must reimburse them for beds that go unused; in 2011, Arizona agreed to pay Management & Training Corporation $3 million for empty beds when a 97 percent quota wasn't met.
Judicial corruption scandal
In the kids for cash scandal, Mid-Atlantic Youth Services Corp, a private prison company which runs juvenile facilities, was found guilty of paying two judges, Mark Ciavarella and Michael Conahan, $2.8 million to send 2,000 children to their prisons for such crimes as trespassing in vacant buildings and stealing DVDs from Wal-Mart.
Many organizations have called for a moratorium on construction of private prisons, or for their outright abolition. The religious denominations Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) and United Methodist Church have also joined the call, as well as the Catholic Bishops of the South organization.
As of 2013, there has been a modest pushback against the private prison industry, with protests forcing GEO Group to withdraw its $6 million offer for naming rights of FAU Stadium, and Kentucky allowing its contract with the CCA to expire, ending three decades of allowing for-profit companies to operate prisons in that state. In 2014, Idaho will be taking over the operation of the Idaho Correctional Center from the CCA, which has been the subject of a plethora of lawsuits alleging rampant violence, understaffing, gang activity and contract fraud. Idaho governor Butch Otter said "In recognition of what's happened, what's happening, it's necessary. It's the right thing to do. It's disappointing because I am a champion of privatization."
In the final quarter of 2013, Scopia Capital Management, DSM North America, and Amica Mutual Insurance divested around $60 million from CCA and GEO Group. In a Color of Change press release, DSM North America President Hugh Welsh said:
In accordance with the principles of the UN Global Compact, with respect to the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights, the pension fund has divested from the for-profit prison industry. Investment in private prisons and support for the industry is financially unsound, and divestment was the right thing to do for our clients, shareholders, and the country as a whole.
Attempts to limit privatization and increase oversight
Some U.S. states have imposed bans, population limits, and strict operational guidelines on private prisons:
- Banning privatization of state and local facilities—Illinois in 1990 (Private Correctional Facility Moratorium Act), and New York in 2000, enacted laws that ban the privatization of prisons, correctional facilities and any services related to their operation. Louisiana enacted a moratorium on private prisons in 2001.
- Banning speculative private prison construction—For-profit prison companies have built new prisons before they were awarded privatization contracts in order to lure state contract approval. In 2001, Wisconsin's joint budget committee recommended language to ban all future speculative prison construction in the state. Such anticipatory building dates back to at least 1997, when Corrections Corporation of America built a 2,000-bed facility in California at a cost of $80–100 million with no contract from the California Department of Corrections; a CCA official was quoted as saying, "If we build it, they will come".
- Banning exportation and importation of prisoners—To ensure that the state retains control over the quality and security of correctional facilities, North Dakota passed a bill in 2001 that banned the export of Class A and AA felons outside the state. Similarly, Oregon allowed an existing exportation law to sunset in 2001, effectively banning the export of prisoners. Several states have considered banning the importation of prisoners to private facilities.
- Requiring standards comparable to state prisons—New Mexico enacted legislation that transfers supervision of private prisons to the state Secretary of Corrections, ensuring that private prisons meet the same standards as public facilities. In 2001, Nebraska legislation that requires private prisons to meet public prison standards was overwhelmingly approved by the legislature, but pocket-vetoed by the governor. Oklahoma passed a law in 2005 that requires private prisons to have emergency plans in place and mandates state notification of any safety incidents.
There have only been two private detention facilities in Canada to date, and both reverted to government control.
The only private prison in Canada was the maximum-security Central North Correctional Centre, Penetanguishene, Ontario, operated by the U.S.-based Management and Training Corporation from its opening in 2001 through the end of its first contract period in 2006. The contract was held by the Ontario provincial Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services. A government comparison between the Central North "super-jail" and a nearly identical facility found that the publicly run prison had measurably better outcomes.
Additionally the GEO Group built the New Brunswick Miramichi Youth Detention Center under contract with the provincial Department of Public Safety, then had its contract ended in the 1990s after public protests.
Attempt to establish private prisons in Israel
In 2004, the Israeli Knesset passed a law permitting the establishment of private prisons in Israel. The Israeli government's motivation was to save money by transferring prisoners to facilities managed by a private firm. The state would pay the franchisee $50 per day for each inmate, sparing itself the cost of building new prisons and expanding the staff of the Israel Prison Service. In 2005, the human rights department of the Academic College of Law in Ramat Gan filed a petition to the Israeli Supreme Court challenging the law. The petition relied on two arguments. First, it said, transferring prison powers to private hands would violate the prisoners' fundamental human rights to liberty and dignity. Secondly, a private organization always aims to maximize profit, and would therefore seek to cut costs by, for instance, skimping on prison facilities and paying its guards poorly, thus further undermining the prisoners' rights. As the case awaited decision, the first prison was built by the concessionaire, Lev Leviev's Africa Israel Investments, a facility near Beersheba designed to accommodate 2,000 inmates.
In November 2009, an expanded panel of 9 judges of the Israeli Supreme Court ruled that privately run prisons are unconstitutional, finding that for the State to transfer authority for managing the prison to a private contractor whose aim is monetary profit would severely violate the prisoners' basic human rights to dignity and freedom. Supreme Court President Dorit Beinisch, wrote that "Israel's basic legal principles hold that the right to use force in general, and the right to enforce criminal law by putting people behind bars in particular, is one of the most fundamental and one of the most invasive powers in the state's jurisdiction. Thus when the power to incarcerate is transferred to a private corporation whose purpose is making money, the act of depriving a person of [their] liberty loses much of its legitimacy. Because of this loss of legitimacy, the violation of the prisoner's right to liberty goes beyond the violation entailed in the incarceration itself."
Media coverage in the United States
- Kids for cash scandal was featured in Capitalism: A Love Story, the 2009 documentary by Michael Moore.
- A full-length documentary covering the kids for cash scandal entitled Kids for Cash was released in February 2014.
- Kids for Cash scandal has also led to several portrayals in fictional works. Both the Law & Order: SVU episode "Crush" and an episode of The Good Wife featured corrupt judges sending children to private detention centers. An episode of Cold Case called "Jurisprudence" is loosely based on this event.
- Convict lease
- Correctional Services Corporation
- East Mississippi Correctional Facility
- Prison–industrial complex
- Prison abolition movement
- Critical Resistance
- Angela Davis
- Private probation
- Wackenhut Corp.
- Walnut Grove Correctional Facility
- Julian Le Vay, 'Competition for prisons: public or private?', The Policy Press, December 2015
- Charles Campbell, The Intolerable Hulks (2001)
- Todd, W. (2005). "Convict Lease System". In The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 1, 2006.
- Zito, M. (December 2003). Prison Privatization: Past and Present. Retrieved October 1, 2006, from the International Foundation for Protection Officers Web site: http://www.ifpo.org/articlebank/prison_privatization.html
- The Sentencing Project, "Prison Privatization and the Use of Incarceration" (2004)
- Good Jobs First, " Jail Breaks: Economic Development Subsidies Given to Private Prisons", October 2001, p. 2.
- Eric Bates, "Private Prisons," The Nation, Jan. 5, 1998, p. 13.
-  "U.S. Department of Justice: Prisoners in 2013"
- Jo Erickson (30 December 2013). "Private Prisons Pushing To Increase Profits". Mint Press News. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Matt Taibbi (2014). The Divide: American Injustice in the Age of the Wealth Gap. Spiegel & Grau. ISBN 081299342X pp. 214-216.
- John L. Campbell (2010). "Neoliberalism's penal and debtor states". Theoretical Criminology 14 (1): 59–73. doi:10.1177/1362480609352783.
- Chris Hedges (December 29, 2014). The Prison State of America. Truthdig. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
- Hannah Gold (18 June 2014). 5 "Links Between Higher Education and the Prison Industry", Rolling Stone, Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- George Joseph (June 27, 2015). The New Divestment Movement. Jacobin. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- The GEO Group, Inc. (2005). Retrieved October 2, 2006, from "Corporate"
- Bishop, Greg (19 February 2013). "A Company That Runs Prisons Will Have Its Name on a Stadium". The New York Times.
- Schmalleger, F., & Smykla, J. (2011,2007, 2005, 2002). Corrections in the 21st Century. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- http://www.geogroup.com/documents/geo_2012_annual_report.pdf page 12
- The Treatment Industrial Complex: How For-Profit Prison Corporations are Undermining Efforts to Treat and Rehabilitate Prisoners for Corporate Gain. American Friends Service Committee, November 2014.
- Kay Whitlock and Nancy A. Heitzeg (February 24, 2015). "Bipartisan" Criminal Justice Reform: A Misguided Merger. Truthout. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Sarah Stillman (June 23, 2014). Get Out of Jail, Inc. The New Yorker. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Richard A. Oppel, Jr. (May 18, 2011). "Private Prisons Found to Offer Little in Savings". New York Times.
- D. M. Levine (August 18, 2010). "What's costlier than a government run prison? A private one". Fortune.
- Dru Stevenson (10 November 2011). "A Corporate Perspective of Prison Privatization".
- Shrull, Dale (August 2, 2010). "Escaped Arizona inmate nabbed in Rifle". Glenwood Springs Post Independent. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- Gardner, John (April 23, 2011). "Ariz. escapee sentenced to 60 years in prison". Glenwood Springs Post Independent. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- J. J. Hensely (18 March 2011). "Family of Couple Killed by Arizona Inmates Files Lawsuit Against State". AZCentral.com. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- "The Family of Gary and Linda Haas Filed a Lawsuit Today Against MTC, the State/ADC and Dominion Asset Services, LLC". PRWEB.
- J. J. Hensley and Ginger Rough (January 30, 2011). "Kingman Prison Still Under Scrutiny". AzCentral.com.
- "Pursuing Death Penalty is Big Waste of Resources", Albuquerque Journal, Barbara Mandel, 22 December 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Maahs, J.; Pratt, T. (1999). "Are Private Prisons More Cost-Effective Than Public Prisons? A Meta-Analysis of Evaluation Research Studies". Crime & Delinquency 45 (3): 358–371.
- Bureau of Justice Statistics, "Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2004", April 2005. http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=843[not in citation given]
- Dennis Cunningham, "Projected FY 2000 Cost of DOC Operated Medium Security Beds Compared to Private Prison Contracts", 4th Annual Privatizing Correctional Facilities Conference, September 24, 1999.
- Policy Matters Ohio, "Selective Celling: Inmate Population in Ohio's Private Prisons," May 2001.
- Kevin Pranis, "Cost-Saving or Cost-Shifting—The Fiscal Impact of Prison Privatization in Arizona", Private Corrections Institute, Inc., February 2005.
- Shapiro, David. "Banking on Bondage: Private Prisons and Mass Incarceration" (PDF). American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Chang, Cindy (29 May 2012). "Louisiana is the world's prison capital". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- Marie Gottschalk. Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics. Princeton University Press, 2014. p. 70
- Holland, Joshua (7 February 2014). "Higher Profits Explain Why There Are More People of Color in Private Prisons". Moyers & Company. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- James Austin and Garry Coventry, "Emerging Issues on Privatized Prisons", Bureau of Justice Assistance, February 2001.
- Newkirk, M., & Selway, W. (2013, July 11). "Gangs Ruled Prison as For-Profit Model Put Blood on Floor", Bloomberg.com. Retrieved July 11, 2013, from
- Whitehead, John (April 10, 2012). "Jailing Americans for Profit: The Rise of the Prison Industrial Complex". The Rutherford Institute. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- Eric Schlosser (December 1998). The Prison-Industrial Complex. The Atlantic. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- Ray Downs (May 17 2013). Who's Getting Rich Off the Prison-Industrial Complex? Vice. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- Selman, Donna and Paul Leighton (2010). Punishment for Sale: Private Prisons, Big Business, and the Incarceration Binge. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 1442201738 p. 78
- Pat Beall (November 22, 2013). Big business, legislators pushed for stiff sentences. The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- Greenblatt, Alan (October 2003). "What Makes Alec Smart?". Governing.
- Sullivan, Laura (2010). Prison Economics Help Drive Ariz. Immigration Law. National Public Radio.
- Sullivan, Laura (2010). Shaping State Laws With Little Scrutiny. National Public Radio.
- Donald Cohen (11 July 2013). COLUMN - Edward Snowden and the disaster of privatization. Reuters. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- CRIMINAL: How Lockup Quotas and "Low-Crime Taxes" Guarantee Profits for Private Prison Corporations. In the Public Interest. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- Katy Hall and Jan Diehm (19 September 2013). One Disturbing Reason For Our Exploding Prison Population (INFOGRAPHIC). The Huffington Post Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- George Monbiot, The Guardian, 3 March 2009, "This revolting trade in human lives is an incentive to lock people up"
- Pilkington, Ed (March 7, 2009). "Jailed for a MySpace parody, the student who exposed America's cash for kids scandal". The Guardian (London). Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- Center for Policy Alternatives. (n.d.). Privatizing Prisons. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from the Center for Policy Alternatives Web site: http://www.stateaction.org/issues/issue.cfm/issue/PrivatizingPrisons.xml
- "PCI Religious Statements"
- Brendan Fischer (28 June 2013). Pushback Against Privatization Across the Country. Commondreams. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Rebecca Boone (3 January 2014). Idaho to Take Over Privately-Run State Prison. ABC News. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Katie Rose Quandt (28 April 2014). Corporations Divest Nearly $60 Million From Private Prison Industry. Mother Jones. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Gunnison, Robert B. (August 1, 1997). "Privately Run Prison Planned for Mojave: Firm Says It Can House Inmates Cheaper". San Francisco Chronicle: A22.
- "Ontario to Take Back Control of Private Super Jail". CBC News.
- "Canada Studying Private Firms for Prisons as Budgets Fall". Bloomberg.
- article from Haaretz newspaper
- "The 'Kids for Cash' Scandal from Capitalism: A Love Story".
- Steve Laudig. "Ripped from the Headlines: Greed, Corruption, and Hate Crimes in Northeastern Pennsylvania". The Public Record. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
- "TV Show Mirrors Area Legal Headlines". The Times Leader. 2009. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
- Michael R. Sisak (Staff Writer) (2009-12-17). "County judges provide TV fodder". Standard Speaker. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
- Harcourt, Bernard (2012). The Illusion of Free Markets: Punishment and the Myth of Natural Order. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674066162
- Le Vay, Julian (2015). Competition for prison: public or private?' The Policy Press, Bristol. ISBN 978 1447313229
- Selman, Donna and Paul Leighton (2010). Punishment for Sale: Private Prisons, Big Business, and the Incarceration Binge. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 1442201738
- How private prisons game the system. Alternet at Salon. December 1, 2011.
- Private Prisons. American Civil Liberties Union.
- Privatization Blog A Corporate Perspective of Prison Privatization
- The largely volunteer Private Corrections Institute, a comprehensive source of information on the industry
- Corrections Corporation of America web site
- Steel-Town Lockdown, Mother Jones
- Prison Privatisation Report International (online editions 2001 - 2006)
- Informative article focusing mainly on the privatisation of prisons in the UK from Lasthours.org.uk
- Texas Prison Bid'ness follows private prison developments in Texas.
- Private Prison Watch, a Texas based prison industry watchdog website.
- A Death in Texas: Profits, poverty, and immigration converge
- America's private prison system is a national disgrace. The Guardian. 13 June 2013
- The Business of Mass Incarceration. Chris Hedges, Truthdig. Jul 28, 2013.
- Prisoners of Profit: Private Prison Empire Rises Despite Startling Record Of Juvenile Abuse. Chris Kirkham, The Huffington Post. October 22, 2013
- Americas Private Prison Dilemma. Recovery.org
- Private Prisons: Profit, Politics & Pain. The Palm Beach Post.
- Revolt at "Ritmo": Dire Conditions in For-Profit Texas Immigration Jail Spark Prisoner Uprising. Democracy Now! February 24, 2015.
- How for-profit prisons have become the biggest lobby no one is talking about. The Washington Post. April 28, 2015.
- Study finds private prisons keep inmates longer, without reducing future crime. University of Wisconsin–Madison News, June 10, 2015.
- We Must End For-Profit Prisons. Bernie Sanders. September 22, 2015.
- Private Prison Exec Waves Off Criminal Justice Reform, Predicts More Profits. The Intercept. December 22, 2015.