- This article deals with cooperation between the European Union and non-member states. For the use of the term to describe Franco-German cooperation at and since the Treaty of Maastricht, see France–Germany relations
- 1 History
- 2 By country
- 2.1 Albania
- 2.2 Algeria
- 2.3 Armenia
- 2.4 Azerbaijan
- 2.5 Belarus
- 2.6 Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 2.7 Croatia
- 2.8 Egypt
- 2.9 Macedonia
- 2.10 Georgia
- 2.11 Israel
- 2.12 Jordan
- 2.13 Kosovo
- 2.14 Lebanon
- 2.15 Libya
- 2.16 Moldova
- 2.17 Morocco
- 2.18 Palestine
- 2.19 Russia
- 2.20 Serbia and Montenegro
- 2.21 Syria
- 2.22 Tunisia
- 2.23 Turkey
- 2.24 Ukraine
- 2.25 United Kingdom
- 3 References
- 4 See also
The term is usually used to describe an alternative to EU membership for Turkey that was first floated in November 2002 by Heinrich August Winkler in Die Zeit and later formally proposed in 2004, although the term was used previously in 2003 to describe a proposed relationship with Russia and was also used in 2004 for a proposed relationship with Israel.
Since that time, the term has been used for alternatives for EU membership for Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro and Kosovo, has since been used retrospectively to characterise relationships with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy that were first proposed in the Commission Communication of March 2003, and is also used for the EU's bilateral relationship with Tunisia and with Russia.
The term was used for a proposed alternative to EU membership for Albania.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
The term was used for a proposed alternative to EU membership for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The term was used for a proposed alternative to EU membership for Croatia. The option was dropped in favor of full membership. Croatia joined the union in July 2013.
The term was used for a proposed alternative to EU membership for Macedonia.
The term was used by Spanish foreign minister Miguel Ángel Moratinos, who spoke out for a "privileged partnership, offering all the benefits of EU membership, without participation in the institutions" for Israel. It was also used for the proposed relationship with the countries considered in 2004 for the European Neighbourhood Policy, including Israel.
The term was used for a proposed alternative to EU membership for Kosovo.
Serbia and Montenegro
The term was used for a proposed alternative to EU membership for Serbia and Montenegro.
Privileged partnership (Turkish: İmtiyazlı ortaklık) was the term used by Angela Merkel in February 2004 to describe a future relationship between Turkey and the European Union which fell short of full membership. The proposal was advanced by CDU/CSU members.
- Wilhelm Knelangen, "A Neighbourhood of Freedom, Security and Justice?", see here
- Claus Leggewie "Privileged partnership, less democracy?", www.eurozine.com 2008-07-08, see here
- "BORDERING AND ORDERING THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD: A CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE ON EU TERRITORIALITY AND GEOPOLITICS", James Wesley Scott, University of Joensuu, TRAMES, 2009, 13(63/58), 3, 232–247, see here
- "THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY: THE EUROPEAN UNION'S NEW ENGAGEMENT TOWARDS WIDER EUROPE", by Sevilay KAHRAMAN, see here
- Heinrich August Winkler: Wir erweitern uns zu Tode Die Zeit Nr. 46, 7. November 2002
- "WHAT IS PRIVILEGED PARTNERSHIP FOR?", Diplomatic Observer, 16 July 2009, see here
- "Preserving Europe : Offer Turkey a privileged partnership instead" By Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg, Wednesday, 15 December 2004, see here
- "French president speaks for Russia-EU privileged partnership", 31.05.2003, Pravda.ru, see here
- "Spanish foreign minister backs virtual membership for Israel", 03.12.04 @ 09:55 EUObserver, see here
- "Merkel moots privileged partnership for Balkans" 17.03.06 @ 13:49 EUObserver, see here
- "COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION, European Neighbourhood Policy STRATEGY PAPER, Brussels, 12.5.2004 COM(2004) 373 final see here
- "The Eastern Dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy: A Romanian approach" Iulian Chifu, Conflict Prevention and Early Warning Centre, Bucharest see here
- Foreign Ministry, Foreign Policy, Europe, Neighbourhood Policy, from the Austrian Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs, see here
- "COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: Wider Europe — Neighbourhood: A New Framework for Relations with our Eastern and Southern Neighbours" Brussels, 11.3.2003 COM(2003) 104 final, see here
- "EU-Tunisia: privileged partnership in November, Barroso says: Fule and Bettaieb sign financial aid plans for health, justice" 02 OCTOBER, 19:13, ANSAMed, see here
- "Tunisia to become Privileged Partner to European Union", Hend Hassassi, 29 October 2012, see here
- "Tunisia’s Privileged Partnership With the European Union", Nadya B’Chir. Translated from Business News (Tunisia), November 2012 see here
- "The Economic Rationale of the European Neighborhood Policy", Susanne Milcher, Ben Slay, Mark Collins, United Nations’ Development Programme 2006, see here
- "Neighborhood and Enlargement Policy: Comparing the Democratization Impact of the European Union in Morocco and Turkey", Martina Warning, WP 4/2006, CIRES (Italian Research Centre for European Studies), see here
- "Britain could leave EU, says Jacques Delors", 28/12/2012, from France 24, see here
- "Britain could quit the EU", by Jason Groves and Peter Allen, 10:42, 29 December 2012, Daily Mail, see here