Hard Rock Stadium
Exterior, August 2017
|Former names||Joe Robbie Stadium
Pro Player Park
Pro Player Stadium
Land Shark Stadium
Sun Life Stadium
New Miami Stadium
|Address||347 Don Shula Drive|
|Location||Miami Gardens, Florida|
H. Wayne Huizenga (5%)
(2013 BCS National Championship Game)
|Surface||Platinum TE Paspalum|
|Broke ground||December 1, 1985|
|Opened||August 16, 1987|
|Construction cost||US$115 million
($242 million in 2016 dollars)
|Architect||Populous (then HOK Sport); HOK (2016 renovation)|
|Project manager||George A. Fuller Company|
|Structural engineer||Bliss & Nyitray Inc.|
|Services engineer||Blum Consulting Engineers|
|General contractor||Huber, Hunt & Nichols|
|Miami Dolphins (NFL) (1987–present)
Russell Athletic Bowl (NCAA) (1990–2000)
Florida Marlins (MLB) (1993–2011)
Orange Bowl (NCAA) (1996–present)
Florida Atlantic Owls (NCAA) (2001–2002)
Miami Hurricanes (NCAA) (2008–present)
Hard Rock Stadium is a multipurpose football stadium located in Miami Gardens, Florida, a suburb north of Miami. It is the home stadium of the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League (NFL), and the Miami Hurricanes from the University of Miami. The facility also hosts the Orange Bowl, an annual college football bowl game. It was the home to the Florida Marlins of Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1993 to 2011.
The stadium has hosted five Super Bowls (XXIII, XXIX, XXXIII, XLI and XLIV), the 2010 Pro Bowl, two World Series (1997 and 2003), four BCS National Championship Games (2001, 2005, 2009, 2013), the second round of the 2009 World Baseball Classic, and WrestleMania XXVIII. The stadium will host Super Bowl LIV in 2020.
The facility opened in 1987 as Joe Robbie Stadium and has been known by a number of names since: Pro Player Park, Pro Player Stadium, Dolphins Stadium, Dolphin Stadium, Land Shark Stadium, and Sun Life Stadium.
- 1 History and facts
- 2 Notable events
- 3 Naming rights
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
History and facts
Conception and construction
For their first 21 seasons, the Miami Dolphins played at the Orange Bowl. Joe Robbie, the team's founder, led the financing campaign to build a new home for the team. He believed it was only a matter of time before a Major League Baseball team came to South Florida. At his request, the stadium was built so only minimal renovations would be necessary to ready it for a baseball team. Most notably, the field was made somewhat wider than is normally the case for an NFL stadium. The wide field also makes it fairly easy to convert the stadium for soccer.
Because of this design decision, the first row of seats is 90 ft (27 m) from the sideline in a football configuration, considerably more distant than the first row of seats in most football stadiums (the closest seats at the new Soldier Field, for instance, are 55 ft (17 m) from the sideline at the 50-yard line). This resulted in a less intimate venue for football compared to other football facilities built around this time, as well as to the Orange Bowl.
The first preseason game for the Dolphins was played on August 16, 1987 against the Chicago Bears. The first regular season game was scheduled for September 27, a week 3 game against the New York Giants; this game was canceled and not made up due to the 1987 players strike. The first regular season NFL game played there was a 42–0 Dolphins victory over the Kansas City Chiefs on October 11, 1987. The game was in the middle of the 1987 NFL strike, and was played with replacement players. The first game with union players was on October 25 of that year, a 34-31 overtime loss to the Buffalo Bills. The stadium hosted its first Monday Night Football game on December 7 of that year, a 37–28 Dolphins victory over the New York Jets. In addition to the Super Bowl, several other playoff games have been played in the stadium, including the 1992 AFC Championship Game, which the Dolphins lost to the Buffalo Bills, 29–10. The Dolphins are 5–3 in playoff games held here, losing the most recent one in January 2009, against the Baltimore Ravens. The team is unbeaten here against the Minnesota Vikings (3–0), Los Angeles/San Diego Chargers (7–0), Los Angeles/St. Louis Rams (4–0), and Washington Redskins (4–0); they are winless here against the Dallas Cowboys (0–3) and New York Giants (0–3). The Chargers are 0-8 overall in the stadium, also losing Super Bowl XXIX to the San Francisco 49ers.
The Marlins move in
In 1990, Wayne Huizenga purchased 50% of then-Joe Robbie Stadium and became the point man in the drive to bring Major League Baseball (MLB) to South Florida. That effort was rewarded in July 1991, when the Miami area was awarded an MLB expansion franchise. The new team was named the Florida Marlins, and placed in the National League. On January 24, 1994, Huizenga acquired the remaining 50% of the stadium to give him 100% ownership. Since 1991, several million dollars have been spent to upgrade and renovate the stadium.
The first Marlins game played at then-Joe Robbie Stadium was on April 5, 1993, a 6–3 victory over the Los Angeles Dodgers.
Renovations and configurations
After Huizenga bought part of the stadium, it was extensively renovated to accommodate a baseball team, as part of his successful bid to bring baseball to South Florida. Purists initially feared the result would be similar to Exhibition Stadium in Toronto; when the Toronto Blue Jays played there from 1977 to 1989, they were burdened with seats that were so far from the field (over 800 feet in some cases) that they weren't even sold during the regular season. However, Robbie had foreseen Miami would be a likely location for a new or relocated MLB team, and the stadium was designed to make any necessary renovations for baseball as seamless as possible.
Aside from baseball renovations, the stadium has undergone some permanent renovations. In April 2006, the stadium unveiled two Daktronics large video boards, the largest in professional sports at the time. The east display measures 50 ft (15 m) high by 140 ft (43 m) wide, and the west end zone display measures 50 ft (15 m) high by 100 ft (30 m) wide. A new 2,118-foot (646 m)-long LED ribbon board, again the largest in the world at the time, was also installed. These have since been surpassed in size.
In addition, the upgrades include vastly widened 40,000-square-foot (3,700 m2) concourses on the stadium's north and south sides. Bars, lounges and other amenities have also been added. The renovation has three phases, with the second and third phases of renovation taking place after the Marlins left the stadium. These remaining phases include the addition of a roof to shield fans from the rain, as well as remodeling the sidelines of the lower bowl to narrow the field and bring seats closer, ending its convertibility to baseball.
The stadium contains 10,209 club seats and 216 suites. When the Marlins played at the stadium, 2,400 of the club seats and 216 suites were available.
A privately funded $350 million stadium renovation project began in January 2015. The project plan allows the stadium to be used for football games during the 2015 season, with completion planned for the 2016 football season. Stadium upgrades include video boards in each corner of the stadium, additional suites, and an open-air canopy over the main seating areas. As part of the renovation, the stadium's seating capacity will be reduced from 75,000 to 65,000 seats. Personal seat licenses will not be used, and a preview center opened at the stadium in February 2015 to help current and prospective season ticket holders select their ticket packages. Luxury packages will be used in place of PSL revenue to help finance the stadium. 32 four-seat pods will be located in the lower bowl at the south 30-yard lines, with an additional 16 pods at the south end zone. The pods feature a living room arrangement, including premium furniture and television screens that show the NFL RedZone channel and NFL programming.
The 65,326 permanent seats for football and soccer configurations break down as follows: For the general 19" seats with chair back and armrests, there are 27,397 in the lower deck and 34,736 in the upper deck. There are 10,209 of the bigger club 21" seats with chair back and armrests. In the 193 executive suites with 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 seats, there are a total of 3,198. There are also 300 seating locations for disabled persons, 150 seats for working press, and 10 radio/TV booths.
The parking around the stadium takes up 140 acres, featuring parking for 24,137 cars, 171 buses, 90 RVs, 85 limousines, and one helipad on site. The parking fee was $30 per car/truck/SUV for the 2013 and 2014 seasons.
The stadium has played host to five Super Bowls (1989, 1995, 1999, 2007, and 2010). There has been a kickoff return for a touchdown in each Super Bowl played at the stadium, except in the most recent game. The stadium also hosted the 2010 Pro Bowl.
The 2007 Super Bowl at Dolphin Stadium—when Indianapolis defeated Chicago 29–17—was marred by heavy rains. An estimated 30% of the lower-level seating was empty during the second half.
In 2010, the NFL threatened to take the stadium out of further consideration for a Super Bowl or Pro Bowl unless significant renovations were made. One of the upgrades desired was a roof to protect fans from the elements. In 2012, the Dolphins scrapped plans for pitching a $200-million hotel tax proposal that would have included a partial stadium roof.
In 2016, construction began on an open-air canopy that will protect all fan seating areas from the rain and heat. However, the canopy will have a football-field sized hole in the middle, and will not protect the playing field itself from rain. The renovations were completed by the first Miami Dolphins pre-season home game in September 2016.
Since the field runs east–west (rather than north–south as is the case in most other stadiums), the north stands are exposed to the full force of South Florida's oppressive heat early in the season. The issue has become so problematic that Stephen Ross, who owns the Dolphins and the stadium, successfully petitioned the NFL to have all September home games start at 4 pm. Although the heat gave the Dolphins a substantial home-field advantage against opponents unaccustomed to the sweltering heat, Ross was willing to give that up in order to ensure a more comfortable environment for fans.
|Date||Super Bowl||Team (Visitor)||Points||Team (Home)||Points||Spectators|
|January 22, 1989||XXIII||Cincinnati Bengals||16||San Francisco 49ers||20||75,597|
|January 29, 1995||XXIX||San Diego Chargers||26||San Francisco 49ers||49||74,107|
|January 31, 1999||XXXIII||Denver Broncos||34||Atlanta Falcons||19||74,803|
|February 4, 2007||XLI||Indianapolis Colts||29||Chicago Bears||17||74,512|
|February 7, 2010||XLIV||New Orleans Saints||31||Indianapolis Colts||17||74,059|
The stadium has hosted both the 2009 BCS National Championship Game and the 2013 BCS National Championship Game. The 2013 game between Alabama and Notre Dame set a new attendance record for the facility, with 80,120 on hand to witness Alabama's third BCS Championship in four seasons.
The stadium has hosted the Miami Hurricanes beginning in 2008. The stadium was the home field for the Florida Atlantic Owls (2001–2002).
Between 1990 and 2000, the stadium hosted a bowl game variously known as the Blockbuster Bowl, CarQuest Bowl, and MicronPC Bowl. After 2000, that bowl was moved to Orlando, where it eventually became known as the Russell Athletic Bowl.
The stadium has been the site of the Orange Bowl game since 1996, except for the January 1999 contest between Florida and Syracuse, which had to be moved due to a conflict with a Dolphins playoff game.
Until 2008, the stadium was host (in even numbered years) to the annual Shula Bowl, a game played between the Florida Atlantic University Owls and the Florida International University Panthers, when the game was hosted by FAU as the home team (FIU hosts the game at its own stadium, FIU Stadium, every other year). In 2010, the game was moved to Fort Lauderdale's Lockhart Stadium, and in 2011 the Owls opened FAU Stadium on its Boca Raton campus, and started hosting the Shula Bowl there biennially in 2012.
On February 9, 2011, The Miami Herald announced that Miami had won the right to host WrestleMania in 2012. WWE later officially announced the event in a press conference held at the Fontainebleau Miami Beach. WrestleMania XXVIII was the second Wrestlemania event that was hosted in the state of Florida, the fourth open-air event, and the third event to be held entirely outdoors. For hosting the event, WWE received a $250,000 cash incentive from the Miami-Dade Sports Commission raised through grants and sponsorships.
The event, which took place on April 1, 2012, drew a record 78,363 fans in attendance. Also, at the time, the event set a new record for the highest-grossing live event in WWE history, grossing $8.9 million.
The crowd witnessed the end of an era as The Undertaker defeated Triple H in a Hell in a Cell match, with WWE Hall of Famer Shawn Michaels as special guest referee. Also, CM Punk retained the WWE Championship against Chris Jericho. Miami native The Rock defeated John Cena in the 'Once in a Lifetime' main event set one year in advance but, they would face each other again at Wrestlemania 29 for the WWE World Heavyweight Championship WrestleMania XXVIII earnered 1,217,000 buys, making it at the time, the most purchased wrestling event in history, surpassing WrestleMania 23's buyrate of approximately 1.2 million, with global gross sales in excess of $67 million.
Two National League Division Series have been played at the stadium:
- 1997 against the San Francisco Giants: Marlins win 3 games to 0
- 2003 against the San Francisco Giants: Marlins win 3 games to 1
Two National League Championship Series have been played at Hard Rock Stadium:
- 1997 against the Atlanta Braves: Marlins win 4 games to 2
- 2003 against the Chicago Cubs: Marlins win 4 games to 3
Two World Series have been played at Hard Rock Stadium:
- 1997 against the Cleveland Indians: Marlins win 4 games to 3
- 2003 against the New York Yankees: Marlins win 4 games to 2
When the Marlins began play in 1993, baseball capacity was initially reduced to 47,662, with most of the upper level covered with a tarp. In addition to Huizenga's desire create a more intimate atmosphere for baseball, most of the seats in the upper level would have been too far from the field to be of any use during the regular season. The stadium's baseball capacity was further reduced over the years, and finally settled at 38,560 seats. However, the Marlins would usually open the entire upper level for the postseason. In the 1997 World Series, the Marlins played before crowds of over 67,000 fans, some of the highest postseason attendance figures in MLB history, only exceeded by Cleveland Stadium, home of the Cleveland Indians during the 1948 and 1954 World Series, old Yankee Stadium prior to its mid 1970s renovation, and the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the temporary home of the Los Angeles Dodgers (before Dodger Stadium was opened) in the 1959 World Series.
Although it was designed from the ground up to accommodate baseball, it was never a true multipurpose stadium. Rather, it was built as a football stadium that could convert into a baseball stadium. Most of the seats in the baseball configuration were pointed toward center field – where the 50-yard line would have been in the football configuration. As a result, even with the reduced capacity, the sight lines for baseball left much to be desired. This was particularly evident during the Marlins' World Series appearances in 1997 and 2003. Some portions of left and center field were not part of the football playing field, and fans sitting in the left field upper-deck seats were unable to see these areas except on the replay boards. Even with the reduced capacity, during years the Marlins were not contending, they often drew crowds of 5,000 or fewer—a total that looked even smaller due to the cavernous environment.
The stadium was notorious for its poor playing conditions. The lights were not located in optimal positions for baseball visibility. During August and September, when the Dolphins (and later, the Hurricanes) shared the stadium, the field conditions were, according to both Marlins and visiting players, among the worst in the majors. Indeed, several Marlins players said that at times, they "couldn't wait to go on the road." Visiting teams hated coming to the stadium as well. For instance, when the Atlanta Braves came to the stadium for the last time in 2011, Dan Uggla, who played for the Marlins from 2006 to 2010, said that he was probably the only Brave who was going to miss it. The stadium's problems as a baseball venue became even more stark as time wore on, as the Marlins' tenure in the stadium coincided with a wave of new, baseball-only parks. When the Marlins began play in 1993, the stadium was one of 14 that hosted both a Major League Baseball team and a professional football team. But by the time the Marlins left the stadium, it was one of only three in the majors (and the only National League stadium) that played host to both a baseball team and an NFL or CFL team. The others were the Oakland Coliseum and Toronto's Rogers Centre.
For most of the Marlins' tenure at the stadium, it was the hottest stadium in the major leagues. The Marlins played nearly all of their home games from late May through mid-September at night due to South Florida's often oppressive heat and humidity. They also got waivers from MLB and ESPN to play on Sunday nights.
The stadium was the venue where Mark McGwire hit his NL-record 57th home run to best Hack Wilson's 68-year-old record of 56 in 1998. Ken Griffey Jr. hit his 600th career home run off Mark Hendrickson of the Marlins on June 9, 2008; and where Roy Halladay of the Philadelphia Phillies pitched the 20th perfect game in Major League Baseball history on May 29, 2010, against the Marlins.
A number of soccer matches have been in the stadium, including a number of international friendlies featuring Central or South American sides. (This is due to Miami being home to some of the largest populations of Central and South Americans in the United States.)
Hard Rock Stadium hosted the first-ever El Clasico Miami match between FC Barcelona and Real Madrid on July 29, 2017 as part of the International Champions Cup. A sell-out crowd of 66,014 watched as Barcelona prevailed 3-2 in a thrilling Clasico encounter in the first-ever match between the two bitter Spanish rivals held in North America.
Free Kick Masters 2013 Tournament and Entertainment Spectacular was held at the New Miami Stadium on 28 December 2013.
Two 2017 International Champions Cup preseason matches were played at the Hard Rock, one of them the El Clásico between Barcelona and Real Madrid. Barcelona won America's first El Clasico 3–2. 66,014 people, above current capacity, attended the match.
The monster truck touring series Monster Jam used to go to the stadium every year. The last show performed there was in 2015, and in 2018 the shows moved to Marlins Park. In 2012, the show was filmed and shown on SPEED Channel.
|Year||Date||Racing Winner||Freestyle Winner|
|2002||January 26||Gunslinger||El Toro Loco|
|2003||January 25||El Toro Loco||Grave Digger|
|2004||January 24||MADUSA||Grave Digger|
|2005||February 5||Grave Digger||El Toro Loco/Grave Digger (tie)|
|2006||February 4||Gunslinger||Blue Thunder|
|2007||February 17||El Toro Loco||Grave Digger|
|2008||February 2||Blue Thunder||Grave Digger|
|2009||January 31||Stone Crusher||Grave Digger|
|2010||February 20||Gunslinger||Maximum Destruction|
|2011||February 12||Mohawk Warrior||Grave Digger|
|2012||February 11||Bounty Hunter||Advance Auto Parts Grinder|
|2013||February 9||Bounty Hunter||Grave Digger|
|2014||February 8||Grave Digger The Legend||El Toro Loco|
|2015||January 3||Grave Digger The Legend||Grave Digger The Legend|
|2016||No Show (Stadium Renovations)|
|2017||No Show (Unknown Reasoning)|
|2018||No Show (Moved to Marlins Park)|
Movies have also been shot there, most notably Ace Ventura: Pet Detective, which starred Jim Carrey and featured Dolphins great Dan Marino as himself; Marley and Me, starring Owen Wilson and Jennifer Aniston; and the Oliver Stone-directed Any Given Sunday, starring Al Pacino.
Other events held at the stadium have included international soccer games, Hoop-It-Up Basketball, RV and boat shows, the UniverSoul Circus, Australian rules football exhibition matches (including two Victorian Football League (VFL) post-season exhibitions) and numerous trade shows. It has also hosted religious gatherings.
In 2006, it hosted the High School State Football Championships, sanctioned by the Florida High School Athletic Association (FHSAA).
During the planning and building phase of the stadium, the stadium was referred to as Dolphin Stadium. The stadium was named after Joe Robbie, the original and then-owner of the Miami Dolphins and stadium in 1987, when it opened. In the early 1990s, Wayne Huizenga gained control of the stadium. Huizenga first sold the naming rights to Pro Player, the sports apparel division of Fruit of the Loom, and Joe Robbie Stadium became Pro Player Park on August 26, 1996 and shortly later Pro Player Stadium.
Fruit of the Loom filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 1999, and the Pro Player brand was ultimately liquidated in 2001, but the stadium name held for several more years. In January 2005, the Pro Player name was replaced with Dolphins Stadium, coinciding with a renovation of the stadium. Dolphins was changed to Dolphin in April 2006, in an update of graphics and logos.
From February 2008 through January 2009, Stephen M. Ross gradually acquired 95% of the stadium and surrounding land. He then partnered with Jimmy Buffett to change the name once more, this time to Land Shark Stadium after a beer brewed for Buffett's Margaritaville restaurant chain. The renaming was announced on May 8, 2009, but would last less than a year as the deal did not include rights for the upcoming 2010 Pro Bowl and Super Bowl XLIV.
On January 20, 2010, Canadian-based financial services company Sun Life Financial announced that it had acquired the naming rights. Sun Life Financial announced in 2012, that it will be exiting the U.S. annuity business and focusing on its employee benefits business in the U.S. On August 14, 2015, the Dolphins told the Miami Herald that Sun Life's deal would expire in January 2016 and that the team had no plans to renew, wanting to position their renovated stadium as a brand new entity. The team also stated that they would remove Sun Life's signage upon expiration of the deal, regardless of their ability to find a replacement sponsor before then.
On August 17, 2016, the Dolphins announced that the naming rights had been sold to Hard Rock Cafe International, and that the stadium would be renamed Hard Rock Stadium. The new name was notably ridiculed by fans of the Florida State Seminoles, as their namesake are the owners of the Hard Rock Cafe chain, but the stadium is actually the home field of their rivals, the University of Miami Hurricanes.
|Joe Robbie Stadium||August 16, 1987 – August 25, 1996|
|Pro Player Park||August 26, 1996 – September 9, 1996|
|Pro Player Stadium||September 10, 1996 – January 9, 2005|
|Dolphins Stadium||January 10, 2005 – April 7, 2006|
|Dolphin Stadium||April 8, 2006 – May 7, 2009|
|Land Shark Stadium||May 8, 2009 – January 5, 2010|
|Dolphin Stadium||January 6, 2010 – January 19, 2010|
|Sun Life Stadium||January 20, 2010 – January 31, 2016|
|New Miami Stadium||February 1, 2016 – August 16, 2016|
|Hard Rock Stadium||August 17, 2016–present|
- "Ross said the agreement to change the name from Dolphin Stadium is for this season only and expires before the stadium plays host to the Super Bowl in February." "Dolphins' home renamed Land Shark Stadium in deal with singer Buffett". National Football League. Associated Press. May 10, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
- Ross' percentage is approximate. Small stakes are also known to be owned by the following sports and entertainment celebrities: Marc Anthony, Jennifer Lopez, Jimmy Buffett, Gloria and Emilio Estefan, Fergie, Serena Williams, Venus Williams
- "FAQs". Miami Dolphins. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
- Akopyan, Manouk (January 18, 2015). "Dolphins unveil $400M renovation plan for Sun Life Stadium". National Football League. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
Sun Life Stadium's capacity will decrease from 76,018 to approximately 64,767 seats in 2017.
- Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
- Cosco, Joseph (August 2, 1985). "Head Of Dolphin Stadium Project Quietly Resigns". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved December 3, 2011.
- Ballparks.com – Sun Life Stadium. Football.ballparks.com. Retrieved on June 19, 2012.
- "2010 Pro Bowl moving to Miami, will be played before Super Bowl". Retrieved December 30, 2008.
- Adam Stites (May 20, 2015). "The South will host 2019, 2020 Super Bowls". SB Nation. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- Miami Gardens: Demographics
- "Sun Life Stadium: Fast Facts".
- "Plans Unveiled for Dolphin Stadium Renovation". January 8, 2010.
- "Stadium renovations underway". January 6, 2015.
- "Miami Dolphins show off Sun Life Stadium renovations". January 14, 2015.
- "New pricing plan set for Miami Dolphins seats at Sun Life Stadium". February 5, 2015.
- "Dolphins making fans feel at home". February 5, 2015.
- Thompson, Edgar (January 7, 2010). "Miami Dolphins Propose Partial Roof for Stadium in Effort to Attract Future Super Bowls". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- Vikings among teams facing major stadium issues Archived July 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.. Fox Sports. Retrieved June 19, 2012.
- "Orange Bowl Committee – Sun Life Stadium". Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "Single Game Attendance Report". Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- Varsallone, Jim (February 9, 2011). "WrestleMania 28 headed to Sun Life Stadium". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on February 22, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- Chang, Daniel (February 9, 2011). "WWE's WrestleMania heading to Sun Life Stadium in 2012". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on February 10, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2011.
- Mrosko, Geno (April 2, 2012). "WrestleMania 28 results: WWE breaks gate and attendance records in Miami". Cageside Seats. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
- "WWE Reports 2012 Second Quarter Results" (PDF) (Press release). WWE. August 2, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
- "WrestleMania XXVIII sets pay-per-view record". WWE.com. April 16, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
- "Players Won't Miss Marlins' old Home". ESPN. Associated Press. September 26, 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- Gonzalez, Alden (September 28, 2011). "Marlins bid farewell to Sun Life Stadium". Major League Baseball. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- Davis, Craig (September 23, 2011). "Marlins, Opponents Eager to Bid Adieu to Sun Life Stadium". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Fort Lauderdale. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- "Billboard Boxscore". Billboard. New York City. 2009-01-03. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved December 31, 2008.
- "Billboard Boxscore". Billboard. October 16, 2010. Retrieved October 9, 2010.
- "Billboard Boxscore – Current Boxscore". Billboard. July 23, 2011. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- "Billboard Boxscore". Billboard. New York. October 2, 2013. ISSN 0006-2510. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- "August 3, 2011: Barcelona vs. CD Guadalajara". Major League Soccer. MLSsoccer.com. August 3, 2011. Archived from the original on October 13, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
- Fernandez, Andre C. (July 28, 2012). "Alive and Well: AC Milan Tops Chelsea in Front of 57,748 Fans". The Miami Herald. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
- Brazil routs Honduras 5-0 from Yahoo! Sports, 16 November 2013, retrieved 14 December 2014
- "World Cup 2014: England's friendlies will have a Latin accent". The Guardian. 16 January 2014.
- "66,014 is the official attendance for El Clásico Miami at the Hard Rock Stadium". 90Live.
- Are Naming Rights Deals A Good Buy?. CNBC (January 20, 2010). Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- History. Sun Life Stadium. Retrieved June 19, 2012.
- Evans, Simon (May 8, 2009). "Dolphin Stadium renamed Land Shark Stadium". Reuters. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
- Sun Life stadium named. Sunlifestadium.com. (January 20, 2010).
- "Sun Life Financial to sell U.S. annuity business for US$1.35 billion".
- Jackson, Barry (August 14, 2015). "Heat adds center; Dolphins Friday analysis, postscripts; New stadium name coming; Loria rejects overtures; Marlins issues; Heat". The Miami Herald. Retrieved August 15, 2015.
- "PRESS RELEASE: Hard Rock International and Miami Dolphins Announce Stadium Naming Rights Agreement" (Press release). Miami Dolphins. August 17, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- "Miami Dolphins sell stadium naming rights to Hard Rock International". Sun Sentinel. Tronc. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "Is Hard Rock Stadium a Strange Naming Rights Deal?". Inc. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "FSU Fans Are Already Trolling UM Over Hard Rock Stadium Name". Miami New Times. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
New renovations and modernization project: http://www.miamidolphins.com/newstadium.html
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hard Rock Stadium.|
- Official website
- Hark Rock Stadium at StadiumDB.com
- Hard Rock Stadium – Hurricanesports.com
- Hark Rock Stadium Seating Charts