Probainognathia

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Probainognathia
Temporal range: Middle Triassic - Late Jurassic (non-mammalian)
Belesodon magnificus.JPG
Fossil of the probainognathian Chiniquodon theotonicus in the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Order: Therapsida
Suborder: Cynodontia
Infraorder: Eucynodontia
Parvorder: Probainognathia
Subgroups

The probainognathians are members of one of the two major clades of the infraorder Eucynodontia, the other being Cynognathians. The earliest forms were carnivorous and insectivorous, though some species eventually also evolved herbivorous traits. The earliest and most basal Probainognathian is Lumkuia, from South Africa. Three groups survived the extinction at the end of Triassic; the Tritheledontidae and Tritylodontidae, who both survived until the Jurassic - the latter possibly even into the Cretaceous (Xenocretosuchus), and Mammaliaformes, who gave rise to the mammals.[1]

Classification[edit]

Taxonomy[edit]

Partial skeleton of an unidentified probainognathian from Madagascar in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago

Phylogeny[edit]

Below is a cladogram from Ruta, Botha-Brink, Mitchell and Benton (2013) showing one hypothesis of cynodont relationships:[2]

Cynodontia 

Charassognathus





Dvinia



Procynosuchus



Epicynodontia

Cynosaurus





Galesaurus



Progalesaurus






Nanictosaurus



Thrinaxodon





Platycraniellus


Eucynodontia

Cynognathia


Probainognathia

Lumkuia




Ecteninion





Aleodon



Chiniquodon





Probainognathus




Trucidocynodon




Therioherpeton



Tritheledontidae

Riograndia





Chaliminia



Elliotherium





Diarthrognathus



Pachygenelus






Brasilodontidae

Brasilitherium



Brasilodon




Tritylodontidae

Oligokyphus




Kayentatherium




Tritylodon



Beinotherium





Mammaliaformes

Sinoconodon



Morganucodon



















See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The slow and fast steps to becoming a mammal
  2. ^ Ruta, M.; Botha-Brink, J.; Mitchell, S. A.; Benton, M. J. (2013). "The radiation of cynodonts and the ground plan of mammalian morphological diversity". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 280 (1769): 20131865. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1865. PMC 3768321Freely accessible. PMID 23986112.