Probainognathia

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Probainognathia
Temporal range: Middle Triassic–Holocene
Belesodon magnificus.JPG
Fossil of the probainognathian Chiniquodon theotonicus in the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Order: Therapsida
Suborder: Cynodontia
Infraorder: Eucynodontia
Parvorder: Probainognathia
Subgroups

The probainognathians are members of one of the two major clades of the infraorder Eucynodontia, the other being Cynognathians. The earliest forms were carnivorous and insectivorous, though some species eventually also evolved herbivorous traits. The earliest and most basal Probainognathian is Lumkuia, from South Africa. Three groups survived the extinction at the end of Triassic: the Tritheledontidae and Tritylodontidae, who both survived until the Jurassic—the latter possibly even into the Cretaceous (Xenocretosuchus)—and Mammaliaformes, who gave rise to the mammals.[1]

Classification[edit]

Taxonomy[edit]

Partial skeleton of an unidentified probainognathian from Madagascar in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago

Phylogeny[edit]

Below is a cladogram from Ruta, Botha-Brink, Mitchell and Benton (2013) showing one hypothesis of cynodont relationships:[2]


Cynodontia;

Charassognathus

Dvinia

Procynosuchus

Epicynodontia

Cynosaurus

Galesaurus

Progalesaurus

cNanictosaurus

Thrinaxodon

Platycraniellus

Eucynodontia

Cynognathia

Probainognathia

Lumkuia

Ecteninion

Aleodon

Chiniquodon

Probainognathus

Trucidocynodon

Therioherpeton

Tritheledontidae

Riograndia

Chaliminia

Elliotherium

Diarthrognathus

Pachygenelus

Brasilodontidae

Brasilitherium

Brasilodon

Tritylodontidae

Oligokyphus

Kayentatherium

Tritylodon

Beinotherium

Mammaliaformes

Sinoconodon

Morganucodon

Mammal

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The slow and fast steps to becoming a mammal
  2. ^ Ruta, M.; Botha-Brink, J.; Mitchell, S. A.; Benton, M. J. (2013). "The radiation of cynodonts and the ground plan of mammalian morphological diversity". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 280 (1769): 20131865. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1865. PMC 3768321. PMID 23986112.