Procolophonomorpha

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Procolophonomorphs
Temporal range: Guadalupian - Late Triassic, 289–201.3 Ma
Procolophon BW.jpg
Procolophon
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Clade: Parareptilia
Order: Procolophonomorpha
Romer, 1964
Subgroups

Procolophonomorpha is an order or clade of early reptiles that appeared during the Middle Permian. It constitutes a diverse assemblage that includes a number of lizard-like forms, as well as more diverse types such as the pareiasaurs. The most important subclade, Procolophonia, is traditionally thought to be ancestral to (and hence to include) turtles. Lee 1995, 1996, 1997 argues that turtles evolved from pareiasaurs, but this view is by no means held unanimously. Rieppel and deBraga 1996 and deBraga and Rieppel, 1997 argue that turtles evolved from sauropterygians.

Classification[edit]

The following cladogram is simplified after the phylogenetic analysis of MacDougall and Reisz (2014) and shows the placement of Procolophonomorpha within Parareptilia and its interrelationships. Relationships within bolded terminal clades are not shown.[1]

Parareptilia

Mesosaurus




Millerosauria


Procolophonomorpha

Australothyris smithi


Hallucicrania (=Ankyramorpha)
Lanthanosuchoidea

Feeserpeton oklahomensis





Colobomycter pholeter



Delorhynchus cifellii





Acleistorhinus pteroticus



Lanthanosuchus watsoni







Microleter mckinzieorum



Bolosauridae

Belebey chengi



Eudibamus cursoris



Procolophonia
Pareiasauromorpha

Nycteroleteridae



Pareiasauria




Nyctiphruretidae

Abyssomedon williamsi



Nyctiphruretus acudens



Procolophonoidea

Owenettidae



Procolophonidae











References[edit]

  • Carroll, R. L., 1988: Appendix; Vertebrate Classification. in Carroll, R. L. 1988: Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York
  • deBraga M. and O. Rieppel. 1997. "Reptile phylogeny and the interrelationships of turtles". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 281–354.
  • deBraga, M. and Reisz, R. R., 1996: "The Early Permian reptile Acleistorhinus pteroticus and its phylogenetic position". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology: Vol. 16, #3, pp. 384–395
  • Laurin, M., and Gauthier, J. A., 1996 Phylogeny and Classification of Amniotes, at the Tree of Life Web Project
  • Lee, M. S. Y. 1995. "Historical burden in systematics and the interrelationships of 'Parareptiles'". Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 70: 459–547.
  • Lee M. S. Y. 1996. "Correlated progression and the origin of turtles". Nature 379: 812–815.
  • Lee, M. S. Y., 1997: "Pareiasaur phylogeny and the origin of turtles". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society: Vol. 120, pp. 197–280
  • Rieppel O. and M. deBraga. 1996. "Turtles as diapsid reptiles". Nature 384: 453–455.
  1. ^ Mark J. MacDougall and Robert R. Reisz (2014). "The first record of a nyctiphruretid parareptile from the Early Permian of North America, with a discussion of parareptilian temporal fenestration". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 172 (3): 616–630. doi:10.1111/zoj.12180. 

External links[edit]