Professional-managerial class

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The Professional-Managerial class was an influential New Class hypothesis in social science in the United States in the 1970s by John and Barbara Ehrenreich.[1] The Ehrenreichs hypothesized a social class within capitalism that, by controlling production processes through superior management skills, was neither proletarian nor bourgeois. This hypothesis contributed to the Marxist debates on class in Fordism and was used as an analytical category in the examination of non-proletarian employees.

This group of middle class professionals is distinguished from other social classes by their training and education, typically business qualifications and university degrees,[2] with occupations including academics, teachers, social workers, engineers, managers, nurses, and middle-level administrators.[3] The professional-managerial class tends to have incomes above the average for their country.[4]

It is estimated that in the United States during 1930, people in professional-managerial class occupations made up less than 1 percent of total employment. In 1972, about 24 percent of American jobs were in professional-managerial class occupations. By 1983 the number had risen to 28 percent and in 2006, 35 percent.[5]


  1. ^ Ehrenreich, John; Barbara Ehrenreich (1979). Pat Walker (ed.). Between Labor and Capital (1st ed.). Boston: South End Press. ISBN 0-89608-037-4.
  2. ^ Philip, Green. "Retrieving Democracy: In Search of Civic Equality". Rowman & Littlefield.
  3. ^ Kellner, Hansfried; Frank W. Heuberger (1994). "Hidden Technocrats: The New Class and New Capitalism". Transaction Publishers.
  4. ^ Gail, Kelly; Sheila Slaughter (1990). Women's higher education in comparative perspective. Springer.
  5. ^ Ehrenreich, Barbara; John Ehrenreich (February 2013). "Barbara and John Ehrenreich: The Real Story Behind the Crash and Burn of America's Managerial Class". AlterNet. Retrieved 18 November 2013.