Programma International

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This article is about the former software publishing company. For the 1965 Olivetti programmable calculator, see Programma 101.
Programma International, Inc.
Industry Computer and video games
Founded (defunct 1983)
Headquarters Los Angeles, CA
Key people
David Gordon President
Mel Norell VP
Number of employees
Parent Hayden Publishing (1980)

Programma International was one of the first personal computer software publishers. Established in the late 1970s by David Gordon, it published a line of approximately 300 game, programming utility, and office productivity products for the Apple II, Commodore PET, TRS-80 and other personal computer systems. Hayden Publishing bought Programma International in 1980 and the company went out of business in 1983.

Notable titles published[edit]

Year Title Genres Platforms
6502 Forth [1] Programming language Apple II
ASM65 Assembler [2] Assembler Apple II
Apple Alley [3] Apple II
Apple Invader [3] Arcade Apple II
Alien Invasion [3] Arcade Apple II
Apple PIE [4] Utility software Apple II
Baseball [3] Sports Apple II
Blitzkrieg [3] Apple II
Boxing [3] Sports Apple II
Breakthru [3] Arcade Apple II
Canter Downs [3] Arcade Apple II
Clowns and Ballons [3] Arcade Apple II
Death Race [3] Apple II
Dragon Maze [5] Maze Apple II
Frustration [3] Apple II
Guided Missile [3] Arcade Apple II
I-Ching [3] Apple II
Jupiter Express [5] Arcade Apple II
Lores Hyperpak [3] Apple II
Mouse Hole [3] Apple II
Nightmare Number Nine [5] Apple II
Peg Jump [3] Apple II
Perpetual Calendar [3] Apple II
Star Voyager [3] Apple II
Stunt Cycle [3] Arcade Apple II
Word Wackey [3] Apple II
1978 3-D Docking Mission [5] Apple II
1978 Phasor Zap [5] Arcade Apple II
1979 Lisa Interactive Assembler [6] Assembler Apple II
1979 Football [7] Sports Commodore 64
1979 Camera Obscura [8] Puzzle Apple II
1980 Z-A-P [9] Arcade Commodore PET


  1. ^ Weyrich, Steven. "Apple II History, Chapter 17". Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  2. ^ "The Apple II Programmer's Catalog of Languages and Toolkits". March 28, 1994. Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Programma International". Call-A.P.P.L.E. Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  4. ^ Zack, P. Orin. "Behind 'The Shoals of Time'". .Mac. Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Hague, James (April 19, 1999). "The Giant List of Game Programmers". Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  6. ^ Hyde, Randall Loren. "Lisa v2.6". Archived from the original on 2006-11-03. Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  7. ^ "Gamebase 64 - Football". Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  8. ^ Hewston, Alan (April 2004). "Interview with Classic Games Programmer Robert C. McNally". Retrogaming Times. Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  9. ^ "Programma International Catalog (1980)" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-01-02.