Progress M-49 was launched by a Soyuz-U carrier rocket from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Launch occurred at 12:34:23 GMT on 25 May 2004. The spacecraft docked with the Aft port of the Zvezda module at 13:54:43 GMT on 27 May. It remained docked for two months before undocking at 06:04:48 GMT on 30 July 2004 to make way for Progress M-50. It was deorbited at 10:37:00 GMT on the same day. The spacecraft burned up in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean, with any remaining debris landing in the ocean at around 11:23:35 GMT.
Progress M-49 carried supplies to the International Space Station, including food, water and oxygen for the crew and equipment for conducting scientific research.
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.