Progress M-54 was launched by a Soyuz-U carrier rocket from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Launch occurred at 13:07:54 GMT on 8 September 2005. The spacecraft docked with the Aft port of the Zvezda module at 14:42:03 GMT on 10 September. It remained docked for six months before undocking at 10:06:10 GMT on 3 March 2006. It was deorbited at 13:05:00 GMT on 3 March 2006. The spacecraft burned up in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean, with any remaining debris landing in the ocean at around 13:52:18 GMT.
Progress M-54 carried supplies to the International Space Station, including food, water and oxygen for the crew and equipment for conducting scientific research. It also carried the radio transmitter for the RadioSkaf satellite, which was assembled aboard the ISS using a retired Orlan spacesuit.
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.