Progress M-59 was launched by a Soyuz-U carrier rocket from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Launch occurred at 02:12:13 GMT on 18 January 2007. The spacecraft docked with the Pirs module at 01:59 GMT on 20 January. It remained docked for five months before undocking at 14:07 GMT on 1 August 2007. It was deorbited at 18:42 GMT the same day. The spacecraft burned up in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean, with any remaining debris landing in the ocean at around 19:26 GMT.
Progress M-59 carried supplies to the International Space Station, including food, water and oxygen for the crew and equipment for conducting scientific research. Its cargo included components for the Space Station's life support system.
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.