Progression of the British football transfer fee record
The progression of the British football transfer fee record tracks the increases in the record for the highest transfer fee paid or received by British association football clubs. A transfer fee is the sum of money paid by one club to purchase the contract, and therefore the playing services, of a professional footballer. Fees are not generally formally disclosed by the clubs involved, and discrepancies can occur in figures quoted in the press. Trevor Francis, for example, is regarded as Britain's first £1m player but was officially transferred for £975,000. The generally reported figure of £1,180,000 included Value Added Tax, fees to the Football League and Francis' signing fee. Discrepancies may also occur due to deals which involve additional sums to be paid at a later date after a player has made a certain number of appearances, joint fees for two or more players, or deals in which one player is exchanged for a sum of money plus another player.
The first ever three-figure transfer fee was the £100 paid by Aston Villa in 1893 for Willie Groves. Eleven years later, Alf Common joined Middlesbrough for the first ever four-figure fee, a sum which caused a national sensation and outrage amongst the football authorities. The £5,000 mark was first reached in 1922 when Falkirk paid that amount for West Ham United's Syd Puddefoot, and six years later Arsenal paid the first ever £10,000 fee to acquire David Jack of Bolton Wanderers. After the Second World War, the spending power of clubs in mainland Europe outstripped that of British clubs for the first time, resulting in several substantial jumps in the transfer record. John Charles became the first British player to command a fee of £50,000 when he joined Juventus in 1957, and four years later Denis Law joined Torino in the first £100,000 transaction involving a British club.
The 1970s saw a rapid increase in transfer fees. Martin Peters became the first £200,000 player in 1970, but by 1977 Kevin Keegan's move to West Germany's Hamburger SV had taken the record to £500,000. In January 1979 David Mills became the first player to be purchased for £500,000 by a British club, but just one month later Nottingham Forest paid twice that amount to acquire Birmingham City's Trevor Francis. In 1981 Bryan Robson cost Manchester United £1,500,000, but fees paid by British clubs lagged behind those paid by clubs in Italy, France and Spain to take British players abroad until 1995, when Manchester United paid Newcastle United £7,000,000 for Andy Cole. The fees paid by the Premier League's top clubs began to increase at a rapid rate, with Alan Shearer commanding the first £15,000,000 fee in 1996, and the new millennium heralding the first £30,000,000 transfer, although sources differ as to whether this barrier was broken by Rio Ferdinand's move to Manchester United in 2002 or Andriy Shevchenko's transfer to Chelsea four years later.
On 1 September 2008, Manchester City agreed a reported £32,500,000 fee for Robinho, which remained the record amount paid by a British club until 31 January 2011, when Liverpool paid £35,000,000 for Andy Carroll from Newcastle United, which was also a new record amount paid for a British player. A few hours later, the record amount paid by a British club was broken again when Chelsea paid £50,000,000 for Fernando Torres from Liverpool.
On 11 June 2009, Manchester United announced that they had accepted an £80,000,000 bid from Real Madrid for Cristiano Ronaldo. The transfer was completed on 1 July 2009, setting not only a new British transfer record, but also a new world record (either in pounds or euros). In turn, that record was broken on 1 September 2013 when Real announced that their £85.3 million (€100 million) purchase of Gareth Bale from Tottenham Hotspur had been completed.
This record was broken on 8 August 2016, when Manchester United signed Paul Pogba from Juventus for a fee of £89 million, and again on 6 January 2018, when Philippe Coutinho moved to Barcelona from Liverpool for a reported initial fee of £106 million, which could rise to £142 million with various clauses being met.
- Simon Briggs (9 February 2009). "The day Trevor Francis broke football's £1m mark". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Davies, Hunter (2003). Boots, Balls and Haircuts: An Illustrated History of Football from Then to Now. Cassell Illustrated. p. 75. ISBN 1-84403-261-2.
- "Manchester City did not pay £47 million for Carlos Tevez, says Kia Joorabchian". London: telegraph.co.uk. 12 September 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "Ronaldo completes £80m Real move". BBC Sport. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
- "Bale completes Real Madrid move". BBC Sport. 1 September 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- "Groves leads the droves to Villa". London: The Independent. 24 January 1998. Archived from the original on 7 September 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
- Helen Rae (18 October 2006). "Toon nostalgia on the cards for fans". Evening Chronicle. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
- Barnes (2007), p. 309.
- "Jock Simpson: Blackburn Rovers: Biography". Archived from the original on 24 October 2011.
- Glenn Moore; James Mariner (5 April 2008). "Their last FA Cup final ... the glorious pasts of this year's four semi-finalists". The Independent. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "Tynecastle Stadium: 1892–1914". Heart of Midlothian F.C. Archived from the original on 21 March 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "England Players – David Mercer". www.englandfootballonline.com. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
- "Wembley Stadium 84 years on". The Daily Telegraph. London. 17 March 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2008.[dead link]
- "The History Of Derby County Football Club". Derby County F.C. 19 November 2011. Archived from the original on 28 December 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Phil Shaw (7 November 1996). "Football: Tommy Lawton dies at age of 77". The Independent. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Ivan Ponting (7 November 1996). "Obituary: Tommy Lawton". The Independent. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Brian Glanville (29 November 2000). "Len Shackleton". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Louise Taylor (18 February 2011). "The five non-league teams to reach FA Cup fifth round before Crawley". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Barnes (2007), p. 310.
- Jonathan Stevenson and Dan Warren (26 January 2007). "Were you there...when the Rams beat the Gas?". BBC. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- James Corbett (5 March 2006). "Bob Latchford". The Observer. London. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- Albert Sewell (22 March 2002). "Ask Albert – Number 59". BBC. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "Whatever happened to Trevor Steven?". Football Transfer Tavern. 23 December 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- "Cole's fresh challenge". BBC. 29 December 2001. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "Collymore quits football". BBC. 7 March 2001. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "Injury forces Shearer retirement". BBC. 22 April 2006. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "Veron seals £28.1m Man Utd move". BBC. 12 July 2001. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "Rio reaches deal". BBC Sport. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- "Rio seals deal". BBC Sport. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- Stuart Roach (22 July 2003). "Duff is worlds apart". BBC. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "Chelsea deny Shevchenko reports". BBC. 7 December 2006. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "Man City beat Chelsea to Robinho". BBC. 5 January 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2008.
- Jeremy, Wilson (2 September 2013). "Gareth Bale joins Real Madrid from Tottenham for a world record fee of £86m". The Telegraph. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- "Paul Pogba signs with Manchester United for £89 million". Al Jazeera. 9 August 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- Lake, Jefferson (9 August 2016). "Paul Pogba joins Manchester United for world-record £89m". Sky Sports. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- "Paul Pogba completes Man Utd transfer for world-record fee". The Daily Telegraph. 9 August 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- "Philippe Coutinho: Liverpool agree £143m deal with Barcelona for Brazil midfielder". BBC. 6 January 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2018.