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Progressive Adventists are members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church who prefer different empheses or disagree with certain beliefs traditionally held by mainstream Adventism and officially by the church. They are often described as liberal Adventism by other Adventists, the term "progressive" is generally preferred as a self-description. This article describes terms such as evangelical Adventism, cultural Adventism, charismatic Adventism, and progressive Adventism and others, which are generally related but have distinctions.
Progressives typically disagree with one or more of the church's basic beliefs such as the Sabbath or "distinctive" beliefs such as the investigative judgment, the remnant, a future global Sunday-law, or a use of Ellen G. White's writings. They also tend to question some of the denomination's 28 fundamental beliefs: with debate arising on the nature of the Trinity, perpetuity of the Law of God, the Nature of Christ, the Gift of Prophecy, Creation or observance of the seventh-day Sabbath." It also has many similarities with the ecumenical emerging church movement which those involved in, mostly agree on is their disillusionment with the organized and institutional church. Perceptions and definitions of it may differ somewhat depending on the author, although much in common is also clearly discernible.
- 1 History
- 2 Beliefs and practices
- 3 Varieties of evangelical/progressive Adventism
- 4 Media
- 5 Conferences
- 6 Relations with others
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Other sources
The movement emerged certain interactions with evangelical Christians in the 1950s, which included the publication of Questions on Doctrine in 1957. This period marked a shift in the broader Christian world's perception of Adventists, from being viewed as a sect to being more commonly accepted as a legitimate Christian denomination. The term "progressive Adventist" was first used in the mid-1960s in Spectrum magazine, according to one author.[which?]
One scholar wrote in 2001:
"It is only within the last few decades that the Adventist Review has recognized editorially that there exists within the Seventh-day Adventist Church, at least in North America, 'liberals,' 'liberal churches,' 'liberal colleges/universities' and 'liberal conferences.' Depending on the author and his/her agenda, Adventist liberals are compared and/or contrasted with 'conservative Adventists,' 'historic Adventists,' 'Bible-believing (or EGW-believing) Adventists,' 'traditional Adventists,' 'evangelical Adventists,' 'cultural Adventists,' and/or 'ecumenical Adventists.'"
Beliefs and practices
Progressives tend to agree on some beliefs, but differ or have a greater variation on others. According to one author, Progressive Adventism "regrets the anti-intellectual, authoritarian and obscurant tendencies that characterize a significant segment of traditional, historic Adventism, along with the attempts at creating a creed out of the "27 Fundamental Doctrines"."
Ron Corson identifies four common areas of progressive belief:
- Investigative judgment. A different view of the investigative judgment, or a denial of its biblical basis.
- Remnant. An inclusion of other Christians in the term remnant.
- Ellen White. A less rigid view of the Inspiration of Ellen White that may recognize her fallibility or express skepticism of her prophetic abilities.
- Sabbath. Progressive Adventists tend not to hold to the traditional view of Sabbath as a Holy day of worship, but emphasize some of the positive aspects of Sabbath such as it being made for human benefit (Mark 2:27), and deny that Sunday-keeping is or will be the mark of the beast.
Progressive Adventists typically believe the present church structure is very "top heavy" with too many levels of leadership, and possibly too much hierarchical control. Many mainstream Adventists such as George Knight have also called for change in this area.
Progressive Adventists tend to believe there should be candid reporting of news and information about the church whether positive or negative. They believe in open discussion in a free press. This view is also shared by many more mainstream Adventists such as former editors of the Australian Record James Coffin and Bruce Manners.
Progressives typically disregard the church's stand on movie theater attendance. For instance, the adventist publication Spectrum does reviews of movies and TV shows.
Varieties of evangelical/progressive Adventism
A similar group have been referred to as "cultural Adventists". This term may be used by Adventists who are not overly concerned with theology, such as evangelical Kenneth Samples' description of "a segment that is atheological in nature and reflects what [he] would call a cultural Adventism." It may also refer to those who feel an attachment towards the Adventist church for cultural reasons only rather than beliefs or strict theological conformity.
Clifford Goldstein has declared,
- "A cultural Adventist? The concept's incomprehensible to me... I'm an Adventist for one reason: the beliefs, the teachings, the doctrines that this church—and this church alone—espouses. If it were not for them, I'd be gone faster than the junk food at church potlucks. The Seventh-day Adventist culture had nothing to do with bringing me here. On the contrary, coming as I did from a secular Jewish background, the culture was the biggest obstacle."
While Adventist church worship is commonly conservative, a few minor segments in their history may be looked at as charismatic in nature. Phenomena of this nature have been present throughout Adventist history, resulting in such things as the Holy Flesh movement which Ellen White strongly rebuked."
The term liberal Adventist or left-wing Adventist usually means "progressive Adventist" (the preferred self-designation; see above). This is appropriate because most progressive Adventists are still "conservative" or evangelical Christians. For example most do believe in the resurrection of Jesus. They do not hold to a "libertine" or "anything goes" attitude which the term "liberal" sometimes implies. A small number of Progressive Adventists are actually liberal Christians, accepting such things as homosexuality and even support for LGTB individuals at the college and university level.
According to evangelical Kenneth Samples, "It should also be mentioned that, though small, there was and is a segment in Adventism which could be described as being theologically liberal" or even "very liberal". He claims it rejects Christ's vicarious substitutionary atonement.
Ron Corson wrote,
- "[Progressive Adventists] could be termed liberal, except that the term 'liberal Christian' generally refers to those who don't believe that Christ was resurrected nor that he performed miracles, and who hold other tenets with which most Progressive SDA's would not agree. These 'liberals' are often involved in the Jesus Seminars.
Other terms such as ecumenical Adventist and evangelical Adventist have been used, with presumably related meaning. (Compare the much broader movements "Ecumenism" and "Evangelicalism" within Christianity as a whole).
Moves toward mainstream Christianity
The 1957 publication of Questions on Doctrine (QOD) as a result of dialog with critic Walter Martin is seen as a beginning for Progressive Adventism. According to one author, the roots of evangelical Adventism can be traced to scholars who met with Martin and Barnhouse, or earlier. "The seeds of this movement were sown within the denomination via the book QOD in 1957, and the seed-plot was watered by the public ministries of such men as R. A. Anderson, H. M. S. Richards, Sr., Edward Heppenstall, Robert Brinsmead, Desmond Ford, Smuts van Rooyen, and others." This book precipitated the different factions. The movement emerged with Ford and Brinsmead as its main spokesmen. Brinsmead changed his stance while Desmond Ford apostatized from the church's viewpoint in the 1970s, with issues with church doctrine similar to A. F. Ballenger. Many liberals left the church in this period and liberals still follow and cite his viewpoints.
According to one author, Progressives reject the mainstream views on and are united by belief in the pre-fallen nature of Jesus (and hold he was primarily our substitute not our example), assurance of salvation without sanctification, that overcoming sin or perfectionism is impossible, that Jesus ascended straight to the Most Holy Place rather the Holy Place in the tabernacle in heaven at his ascension (although opinions varied on a pre-advent judgment), that Ellen White had the gift of prophecy but was not infallible nor should be used for doctrine.
Progressive Adventists, such as Raymond Cottrell, were responsible for the progressive-leaning Spectrum (archives), a newsmagazine published by Adventist Forums, that has been the premier independent Adventist magazine since its founding in 1969. In addition to its quarterly journal, Spectrum also runs a regularly updated website with news and analysis on developments within the Church and other areas. Progressive Adventists also established Adventist Today (archives), a bimonthly magazine first published in 1993. In 2008 Adventist Today made a renewed commitment to reporting on a greater diversity of Adventist views.
Also started by Progressives was Adventist Heritage: A Journal of Adventist History (archives), "which provided an important liberal platform" from 1974 to 1998 in roughly 18 volumes. It was supported by the Association of Seventh-day Adventist Historians and other groups. Gary Land was a founding editor, as was Ronald Numbers. Jonathan M. Butler served as editor for a decade. Published twice yearly, it was acquired by Loma Linda University.
A number of Progressive Adventist publications have gone out of print in the last number of years. These include Present Truth Magazine (archives) founded by Robert Brinsmead in 1972 with a grace/gospel-centered focus. In 1978 Brinsmead changed its title to Verdict, to reflect his move away from evangelical Christianity. The material on the Present Truth Magazine website is produced by the "Gospel Friends Christian Fellowship", which they explain to be an association of evangelical Seventh-day Adventists. It does not necessarily represent Brinsmead's current views. 52 issues were apparently published.
The Good News Unlimited magazine (archives) is published by Desmond Ford's ministry of the same name. It began in 1981 as a bimonthly, switched to monthly publication in mid-2003, and continues to be published as of 2008. A related magazine is Good News for Adventists.
Adventist Professional was an Australian magazine published quarterly from 1989 to 1999 by the Association of Business and Professional Members (formerly "[...] Men") based in Sydney, an organization of Australia and New Zealand Adventist business and professional laypeople established in 1961. Eleven volumes were published, and Trevor Lloyd is a former editor.
The magazine Adventist Currents (archives) was published from 1983 to 1988 in California as a response to Ford's dismissal. Three volumes totaling 11 issues were published, as well as several issues of a newsletter in 1990.
The magazine Evangelica was published from 1980 until 1987 in 8 volumes and promoted the cause of evangelical Adventism. It was started in reaction to Desmond Ford's dismissal from the ministry.
Adventist Society for Religious Studies
The Adventist Society for Religious Studies (ASRS) is the more progressive of the two main Adventist theological societies. (The other, the Adventist Theological Society was a conservative spinoff, and has more members in total from its involvement of lay people, but fewer scholars.) The ASRS meets annually as a part of the Society of Biblical Literature meetings.
Adventist Forums Conference
Adventist Forums hosts an annual conference.
Adventist Forum groups meet regularly around the world.
Adventist Today Conference
Spiritual Renaissance Retreat
The Spiritual Renaissance Retreat is an annual event hosted by John and Joan Hughson of Pacific Union College Church, and co-sponsored by Adventist Forums and Adventist Today. Held in Monterey, California, it is based partly on a yearly retreat concept popularized by Bill Clinton. Desmond Ford was invited as a speaker, but after complaints to church leadership this invitation was withdrawn.
Relations with others
Relations with other Christians
Progressive Adventists claim that they display an open and inclusive attitude towards other Christians and other beliefs and doctrines that differ from the Adventist church. Other Christians such as Tony Campolo has had positive experiences speaking on numerous Adventist university campuses. Clark Pinnock gave very favourable reviews of Alden Thompson's Inspiration, despite the significant attention given to Ellen White in the content, and Richard Rice's theology textbook Reign of God. Pinnock was also impressed by Richard Rice's book The Openness of God, and later was the editor for another work of the same name, contributed by authors Rice, John E. Sanders and others.
Progressive Adventists claim they are supportive or appreciate those statements by Ellen White which affirm other Christians, such as the instruction to come near to ministers of other denominations, to pray with and for them.
Some authors report increased mixing of Progressive Adventists joining with other Christians worshiping on Sunday rather than the Sabbath. For instance in North America, "It’s not uncommon to find a member in church on Sabbath morning who, on another day, joins a study group of a different denomination or no denomination."
Clifford Goldstein has criticized cultural Adventists and the Adventist left, as described above. He had a blog on the Adventist Today website for nearly one year. He applies an Ellen White quote to liberal Adventists, "We have far more to fear from within than from without." Samuel Koranteng-Pipim displays a strong concern about liberal Adventist scholars. By Alden Thompson's count, "The footnotes label some 66 Adventist scholars, authors, administrators as being on the wrong side of the divide." Former General Conference president Robert S. Folkenberg wrote "Will the real evangelical Adventist please stand up?" An article in Proclamation!, a magazine produced by former Adventists critical of Adventism, criticizes progressive Adventism in particular, claiming that evangelicalism and Adventism are incompatible. The authors of Seeking a Sanctuary have argued that a common theology keeps Adventists together. They claim religions usually remain unified by ethnicity, but this doesn't hold for Adventism which they consider culturally diverse. Former Adventist J. Mark Martin gave talks entitled, "An Evangelical Adventist?" Andy Nash encountered some within the Adventist Today and Spectrum groups who had a liberal view of Scripture. Some rejected the Bible's position on homosexuality, or believed Adam and Eve or Daniel were not real people. He commented,
- "Do you see the irony here? At times, this movement has struggled to make room for those who took a high view of Scripture, who grappled with the biblical text but arrived at different conclusions. Yet today we have “thought leaders” willing to set aside major teachings of Scripture altogether."
He argues for an atmosphere of tolerance of different perspectives, as long as there is respect for the authority of the Bible.
One book claims qualities of liberal "break-off congregations" as having the following: "1. Call your congregation something besides 'Seventh-day Adventist.'" "2. Mute and muffle distinctive Adventist doctrines." "3. And don't call the SDA Church 'the remnant.'" "4. Downplay our well-defined and long-held standards." "5. Keep the tithes and offerings in your own congregation." "6. Reduce Ellen White's role merely to 'wise old woman.'" "7. Resist any authority from the conference level or higher."
Progressive Adventists claim they believe in academic freedom for church theologians and scientists, and claim that church administrators are generally more conservative, which has led to differences of opinion with the more liberal academics. The Spectrum editors have said, "Every ten years or so another witch hunt occurs" in Adventist higher education.
Adventist historian Michael W. Campbell observes that Adventist "history teachers and the use of historical method became especially suspect as Adventism became more Fundamentalist during the 1920s," during which time its history teachers were "on the front line of those who were pushed out of the church". According to Terrie Dopp Aamodt, one of the first major "purges" was at Walla Walla College in 1938.
Raymond Cottrell, who some see as a "progressive Adventist", as he disagreed with certain traditional positions of the church, including the investigative judgment, claims that for the first hundred years in the Seventh-day Adventist Church, scholars did not control the church's theology and sees the 1930s and perhaps earlier as a time church administrators effectively controlled theology, and the 1950s as a time of openness. F. D. Nichol stated that the Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary would not have been possible without the theologically open climate in the church during the 1950s and 60s. In the early 1980s, the presidents of Southern Missionary College and Pacific Union College were given leave of absence, after criticisms. The 1980 Adventist Review article "Colleges in Trouble" by editor Kenneth Wood, was seen by some as a contributing factor. Employees were fired at Southern. Jerry A. Gladson, a lecturer was dismissed by the church.
A few scholars went against proposals to introduce centralized oversight of theological education, such as former General Conference president Robert Folkenberg's "Total Commitment to God" initiative in 1996, and Folkenberg's action to establish an overseeing "Board of Ministerial and Theological Education" in every Division of the church to oversee its theological seminaries "evoked significant criticism in some areas, including North America", which was put on hold. There was concern over the document "International Coordination and Supervision of Seventh-day Adventist Ministerial and Theological Education".
See also 2003 Conference on Religious and Theological Education. Alden Thompson and John Brunt at what is now Walla Walla University, "continued to promote the virtues of reason", prompting an official investigation of the educational institution.
Progressive Adventists have been involved in or have even begun controversies over origins or creation/evolution. Since 2009, Adventist members criticised La Sierra University because some lecturers have allegedly affirmed biological evolution which met with criticism from pastor David Asscherick, and others such as on the website "Educate Truth" founded by graduate Shane Hilde. As of 2009, church and university leaders had declined to discipline those involved. General Conference president Jan Paulsen made "An Appeal" for the affirmation of the traditional Adventist belief supporting Creation, but also gave support of the work of Adventist lecturers. The board of trustees of the university affirmed creationism. The debate was reported in the Adventist Review in 2010. The immediate past (and emeritus) president affirmed, "LSU continues to be a sound, loyal Seventh-day Adventist institution where victories for Christ happen every day." The local Conference president affirmed both "recent six-day creation," and strongly affirmed the university.
See the 1987 official church statement "A Statement on Theological and Academic Freedom and Accountability".
- Charismatic Adventism
- Emerging church
- Historic Adventism
- Liberal Christianity
- Progressive Christianity
- Postmodern Christianity
- Sabbath in seventh-day churches
- Seventh-day Adventist education
- Seventh-day Adventist theology
- Seventh-day Adventist worship
- Spectrum (magazine)
- Brenton Reading, "Summer Reading Group: Deep Church". Spectrum Blog, 10 July 2010. Quote: "It should be evident that there are many similarities between the Emerging Church and Progressive Adventism as well as between the Traditional Evangelical Church and Traditional Adventism." "It was in the order of God that Christ should take upon Ηimself the form and nature of fallen man, that He might be made perfect through suffering, and Himself endure the strength of Satan's fierce temptation, that He might understand how to succour those that should be tempted (Spirit of Prophecy, Vol. 2, p. 39"
- Jones-Haldeman, Madelynn (September 2001). "Progressive Adventism". Adventist Today. Loma Linda, CA: Adventist Today Foundation. 9 (5). ISSN 1079-5499. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
- Corson, Ron (November–December 2002). "Progressive and Traditional Adventists Examined". Adventist Today. Loma Linda, CA: Adventist Today Foundation. 10 (6): 18–19. ISSN 1079-5499. Archived from the original on 2008-03-05. Retrieved 2008-11-20. Unedited version Archived 2007-11-08 at the Wayback Machine, and manifesto Archived 2008-07-03 at the Wayback Machine on Corson's website
- Ron Corson. "Progressive and Traditional Adventists Examined". Adventist Today. Archived from the original on 2008-03-05. Retrieved 2010-08-24. Cite journal requires
- James Coffin, A Different Church for a Different World, p.23 (probably also published in the Adventist Review)
- Editors (September 2001). "Beating Up on Upbeat Music". Adventist Today. Loma Linda, CA: Adventist Today Foundation. 9 (5). ISSN 1079-5499. Archived from the original on 2008-11-20. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
- "When cK isn't Calvin Klein" by Alissa Rouse, who describes attending an Audio Adrenaline concert.
- "Arts & Essays: Film, TV & Movies". Spectrum. Retrieved 2018-11-30.
- Ervin, Taylor (January 2005). "An Interview with Clifford Goldstein". Adventist Today. Loma Linda, CA: Adventist Today Foundation. 13 (1). ISSN 1079-5499. Archived from the original on 2007-08-24. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
- Samples, Kenneth (2007). "Evangelical Reflections on Seventh-day Adventism: Yesterday and Today". Questions on Doctrine 50th anniversary conference
- Goldstein, Clifford (April 28, 2005). "Cultural Adventists". Adventist Review. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald. 182: 17. ISSN 0161-1119. Archived from the original on October 24, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
- "Counsels on the Celebration Church".
- Progressive Adventism: A Nonfundamentalist Vision Archived 2007-06-26 at the Wayback Machine by Ervin Taylor
- http://themeforest.net/user/QBKL, QBKL, (2017-12-07). "PUC Bill to Expand LBGT Representation". Campus Chronicle - Pacific Union College. Retrieved 2017-12-11.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- Samples, Kenneth R. (Summer 1988). "From Controversy to Crisis: An Updated Assessment of Seventh-day Adventism". Christian Research Journal. San Juan Capistrano, California: Christian Research Institute. 11 (1): 9–?. ISSN 1082-572X. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
- Gessel, Tom (October 2014). "I'm a Democrat Because of My Adventist Faith". Spectrum.
- Alan Crandall, "Whither Evangelical Adventism". Evangelica, May 1982, 23; as quoted by Samples
- For information on Rooyen, see Graybill, Ronald (December 1991). "Where Are They Now? The Movers, The Shakers, And The Shaken" (PDF). Spectrum. Roseville, California: Adventist Forums. 21 (5). ISSN 0890-0264. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-25. Retrieved 2008-09-22. (see p22–23)
- LMN.org Archived October 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- Interview Archived 2007-12-25 at the Wayback Machine of Keith Lockhart by Julius Nam. Lockhart is the coauthor of Seeking a Sanctuary with Malcolm Bull
- Online archives Archived 2006-09-02 at the Wayback Machine
- Fay, Jocelyn (January 1979). "Seventh-day Adventist Professional Organizations" (PDF). Spectrum. Roseville, California: Adventist Forums. 9 (4): 10–16. ISSN 0890-0264. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-13. Retrieved 2008-04-15.
- Historical Dictionary of Seventh-day Adventists by Gary Land, p421
- The Disappointed: Millerism and Millenarianism in the Nineteenth Century, edited by Ronald L. Numbers and Jonathan M. Butler
- Adventist Review July 3, 1975 Archived July 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, p19
- Charter Statement of Present Truth Magazine. Accessed 2007-11-21
- Archives of Present Truth Magazine
- Good News Unlimited entry in the Andrews University library catalog. Also archives
- Adventist Professional entry in the Andrews University library catalog
- For additional resources see: "SDA women become involved in renamed ABPM" [Association of Business and Professional Members]. Record 15 December 1990, v95, p12. "Magazine encourages discussion" by Trevor G. Lloyd. Record 25 July 1992, v97, p12. "Magazine tackles hard issues" by Wal Simmonds. Record 9 March 1996, v101, p11. "Adventist Professional folds". Record 20 November 1999, v104, p4
- Authors Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine in Spectrum. Accessed 2008-04-15
- Seeking a Sanctuary: Seventh-day Adventism and the American Dream, p323
- Adventist Currents entry in the Andrews University library catalog
- "The Israel Dammon Trial" blog post by Adventist lecturer Jeff Crocombe
- Adventist currents: the newsletter entry in the Andrews University library catalog
- Evangelica Ministry, ed. (1 January 1980). "Evangelica". Evangelica Ministry – via jewel.andrews.edu Library Catalog.
- Tarling, Lowell R. (1981). The Edges of Seventh-day Adventism: A Study of Separatist Groups Emerging from the Seventh-day Adventist Church (1844–1980). Barragga Bay, Bermagui South, NSW: Galilee Publications. p. 230. ISBN 0-9593457-0-1.
- Leaving the Adventist Ministry: A Study of the Process of Exiting by Peter H. Ballis, p3
- Ostling, Richard N.; Jim Castelli; Dick Thompson (1982-08-02). "The Church of Liberal Borrowings". Time. Time Inc. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
- "Innovative Adventism".
- "Can We Adventists Learn from Others?" by Loren Seibold. Spectrum blog, c. 23 October 2009
- "Atoday.com". Archived from the original on 2010-12-09.
- "Families Retreat to Reflect on New Year". Adventist Today 5:1. See also "Fourth Spiritual Renaissance Retreat a success" Pacific Union Recorder June 1, 1998, p29
- "The Spiritual Renaissance Retreat Archived 2008-10-12 at the Wayback Machine" by David Pendleton. Adventist Today May-Jun 2004, p9
- Adventist Today Mar/Apr 2006: Letters to the editor (p5–7), and "Dr. Desmond Ford and the Twelfth Spiritual Renaissance Retreat" by John and Joan Hughson, p12–14, "Reflections by Adventist Today: political power versus the gospel" p13. See also  and (not yet available for non-subscribers)
- Tony Campolo, foreword to Adventism for a New Generation by Steve Daily
- Pinnock, Clark H. "Rice's Reign of God: An SDA Theology for the Masses? Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine" (review of Richard Rice, The reign of God: an introduction to Christian theology from a Seventh-day Adventist perspective) in Spectrum 18:3 (1988), p. 56–58
- Thompson, Alden (September 1993). "The Great Controversy is Dated but True". Adventist Today. Loma Linda, CA: Adventist Today Foundation. 1 (3): 14–15, 19. ISSN 1079-5499. Whole magazine issue[permanent dead link] (6Mb). RTF version of article only[permanent dead link] from Thompson's website. Thompson claims mainstream Adventism has this perspective, on p15
- William G. Johnsson, "Four Big Questions Archived 2011-10-17 at the Wayback Machine". Adventist Review 183 (May 25, 2006), p8–13
- Blogs Archived 2009-05-23 at the Wayback Machine by Clifford Goldstein on the Adventist Today website. His first blog was "The Great Controversy From an Unlikely Source Archived 2010-01-17 at the Wayback Machine", 11 May 2008; and his last, "Objective Truth Archived 2009-05-23 at the Wayback Machine" on 15 March 2009
- 1SM 122.3
- "More To Fear From Within Archived 2009-07-17 at the Wayback Machine" by Clifford Goldstein. Adventist Today blog, 1 November 2008
- Koranteng-Pipim, Samuel (1996). Receiving the Word: How New Approaches to the Bible Impact Our Biblical Faith and Lifestyle. Berrien Springs, MI: Berean Books. pp. 198–200. ISBN 1-890014-00-1. OCLC 36080195. See particularly the section "Liberals are not bad people" on pages 198-200
- "AldenThompson.com". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.
- Adventist Review 174, 3 April 1997, p16–19
- "Giving up the family altar" by Ramone Romero. Proclamation! May/June 2007, p18
- Diller, Lisa Clark (January–February 2008). "Bull's and Lockhart's Challenge to Adventist Progressives". Adventist Today. Loma Linda, CA: Adventist Today Foundation. 16 (1): 9. ISSN 1079-5499. Archived from the original (– Scholar search) on January 30, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-13. See possibly Julius Nam, "All That Jazz about Theology: What Is the Tie That Binds Adventism? Archived 2016-01-17 at the Wayback Machine". Blog entry, 22 December 2006
- Andy Nash, "Meet @ the Text: The Case for a Strong Adventist Center Archived 2010-09-17 at the Wayback Machine". Adventist Review 187 (April 15, 2010), p18–21. Article featured on magazine cover
- Philip W. Dunham with Maylan Schurch, Blinded by the Light: The Anatomy of Apostasy. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald, 2001, p155–156
- "Unraveling a Witch Hunt: La Sierra Under Siege" by the Spectrum editors, in the Spectrum blog, 29 May 2009
- Michael W. Campbell, "The 1919 Bible Conference and Its Significance for Seventh-day Adventist History and Theology". PhD dissertation, Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary, Andrews University, 2008, p. 190. As quoted elsewhere.
- "The 'Sanctuary Doctrine' – Asset or Liability? Archived December 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine" by Raymond Cottrell, presented publicly in 2001 and 2002
- Cottrell, Raymond (August 1985). "The Untold Story of the Bible Commentary" (PDF). Spectrum. Roseville, California: Adventist Forums. 16 (3): 35–51. ISSN 0890-0264. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-28. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- "Colleges in Trouble" by Kenneth H. Wood. Adventist Review 157 (February 21, 1980), p3
- See the section "Adventist Colleges Under Siege" of Spectrum issue 13:2 (December 1982) Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine; one article reprint on the Spectrum blog with an introduction by Bonnie Dwyer, 2 June 2009
- Gladson describes conflict with administrators over the sanctuary in A Theologian's Journey from Seventh-day Adventism to Mainstream Christianity, 2001; one webpage Archived 2008-10-20 at the Wayback Machine. "Difficult Time and Enormous Loss: The Case of Jerry Gladson Archived 2010-12-09 at the Wayback Machine" by Gary Patterson; Adventist Today 3:6 (November 1995); also "An Adventist in Exile Archived 2010-12-09 at the Wayback Machine" by Gladson, from the same issue. "Convert to Scholar: An Odyssey in Humility Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine" by Gladson, Spectrum 21:5 (December 1991), p43–51. See also Articles by Gladson and about Gladson as cataloged in the Seventh-day Adventist Periodical Index (SDAPI)
- Man on the Move Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine by Bill Knott
- Besieged President Resigns by Mark A. Kellner. Christianity Today
- Douglas Morgan, "Targeting Higher Education" Spectrum 29:4 (2001): 69–73. GC (General Conference) Sets Standards for Ministerial and Theologic Education Archived 2008-12-04 at the Wayback Machine See a response "Toward Spiritual Assessment in Seventh-day Adventist Colleges and Universities Archived 2007-10-11 at the Wayback Machine" by Duane C. McBride, which appeared in the April/May 1998 issue of Adventist Education.
- Seeking a Sanctuary, 332
- Adventist Today 6:1 (January–February 1998) Archived 2010-12-14 at the Wayback Machine issue. Includes "WWC Religion Faculty Exonerated[dead link]" by Amy Fisher. See also "Walla Walla Religion Faculty Under Fire Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine" by Rosemary Bradley Watts. Spectrum 26:3 (September 1997)
- David Olson, "More than 5,600 people sign petition in favor of creationism". The Press-Enterprise November 6, 2009
- The website LaSierraUniversity.net is critical. Sean Pitman, whose website is DetectingDesign.com, is one critic: see also "Fundamentalist Creationist Gets Lukewarm Reception at La Sierra University" by Ervin Taylor, Adventist Today.
- A sequel to the Witch Hunt blog is "Perhaps It Really Is About Adventist Higher Ed" by Alexander Carpenter. Spectrum blog, 4 June 2009
- "Educate Truth" articles by Jared Wright, part one and part two. Later "Educate Truth and Consequences Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine", 11 September 2009 by Wright
- "Paulsen speaks on issue of origins". Adventist News Network, June 19, 2009. "An Appeal" by Jan Paulsen, Adventist News Network
- "La Sierra University Board of Trustees Affirms University’s Support for Church’s Creation Doctrine Archived 2010-05-27 at the Wayback Machine". La Sierra University website, accessed May 2010
- Mark A. Kellner, "Evolution Controversy Stirs La Sierra Campus Archived 2010-05-29 at the Wayback Machine". Adventist Review (March 25, 2010)
- Lawrence T. Geraty, "There Is More to the La Sierra Story". Spectrum Blog 28 May 2010. Quote continues, "I wish its critics would also circulate the fact that enrollment (including in biology) is at an all time high. It continues to send out student missionaries and baptize students (the latest group this last weekend), defend the church and stand for truth around the world, including in many professional settings where the Michigan Conference would not be recognized nor have a voice, etc."
- Ricardo Graham, Pacific Union Recorder July 2010
- Malcolm Bull and Keith Lockhart (2006). "Education". Seeking a Sanctuary: Seventh-day Adventism and the American Dream (2nd ed.). Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. pp. 315–32. ISBN 978-0-253-21868-1.
- Tarling, Lowell R. (1981). "Evangelical Adventists". The Edges of Seventh-day Adventism: A Study of Separatist Groups Emerging from the Seventh-day Adventist Church (1844–1980). Barragga Bay, Bermagui South, NSW: Galilee Publications. pp. 222–35. ISBN 0-9593457-0-1.
- Dale Ratzlaff, The Cultic Doctrine of Seventh-day Adventists, 1996, p333–337
- "'Liberals' and 'Conservatives'" by John McLarty in Adventist Today 6:3, p.
- "Caught in the Middle" by Dennis Hokama
- "Non-Fundamentalist Adventism" by John McLarty. Adventist Today 10:4
- Matt Burdette, "The Shape of Progressive Orthodoxy". Spectrum Blog, 25 March 2010