Project 211

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Universities of Project 211
Formation1995; 28 years ago (1995)
Defunct2014; 9 years ago (2014)
TypePublic Universities, National Key Universities
Legal statusMinistry of Education of the People's Republic of China
Region served
Mainland China
Membership
116 Chinese Universities

Project 211 (Chinese: 211工程; pinyin: 211 Gōngchéng) was an abolished project of developing comprehensive universities and colleges initiated in 1995 by the former State Education Commission of China, with the intent of raising the research standards of comprehensive universities and cultivating strategies for socio-economic development.[1] The name for the project comes from an abbreviation of the slogan "In preparation for the 21st century, successfully managing 100 universities" (面向21世纪,办好100所高校). One hundred was the approximate number of participating universities.[2]

History[edit]

During the first phase of the project, from 1996 to 2000, approximately US$2 billion was distributed.[1]

Some universities of Project 211 claimed that the project funding had been ceased in 2013.[3] Since 2014, Project 211 has been mentioned less.[4][5] In the same year, some universities reported that Project 211 funding had terminated, and the project had been repealed.[6][7]

In October 2015, the State Council of P.R.China published the 'Overall Plan for Promoting the Construction of World First-Class Universities and First-Class Disciplines (Double First-Class University Plan)' , and made new arrangements for the development of higher education in China, replacing previous projects including Project 211, Project 985, Project Characteristic Key Disciplines, etc.[8]

In June 2016, the Ministry of Education of China announced that the Project 211 had been abolished[9] and replaced by the Double First-Class University Initiative.[10]

In September 2017, the full list of Double First Class University Plan was formally published by the central government of China, a total number of 140 universities were included in this plan (the number of Double First-Class Universities expanded to 147 in February 2022), taking up less than 5% of the total number of Chinese higher education institutions (3,012),[11] which represents the most elite part of the higher education in China.[12][13]

In 2019, the Ministry of Education of China reconfirmed that the invalidated Project 211 had been replaced by the Double First-Class University Plan.[14]

Admissions[edit]

They admit students through a competitive process of the National Higher Education Entrance Examination ("Gaokao") for undergraduate programs.[15]

Sequel[edit]

Since 2015, the Project 211 has been abolished and replaced by the Double First-Class University Initiative.[16] In 2022, the Ministry of Education of China announced that 15 Double First-Class Universities received warnings on their Double First-Class status revocation, and 14 of them are former Project 211 universities.[17] If these 15 universities fail to pass the final assessment in 2023, they will lose their Double First-Class University statuses.[18][19]

Controversies[edit]

Some Project 211 universities were added into the project for 'poverty alleviation', 'aid the poor', 'ethnic policy' and 'regional balance' reasons, and they were weaker than some other universities beyond the project in terms of comprehensive competitiveness and faculties' development.[20][21]

List of universities[edit]

By 2008, China had some 116 institutions of higher education (approximately 6%) designated as 211 Project universities for developing to meet some planned scientific, technical, and human resources targets and offering advanced degree programs.[2]

Province/Municipality City University
Beijing (26) Beijing (26)
Jiangsu (11) Nanjing (8)
Suzhou
Wuxi
Xuzhou
Shanghai (10) Shanghai (10)
Shaanxi (8) Xi'an (7)
Xianyang
Hubei (7) Wuhan (7)
Sichuan (5) Chengdu (4)
Ya'an
Guangdong (4) Guangzhou (4)
Hunan (4) Changsha (4)
Heilongjiang (4) Harbin (4)
Liaoning (4) Shenyang (2)
Dalian (2)
Tianjin (4) Tianjin (4)
Anhui (3) Hefei (3)
Jilin (3) Changchun (2)
Yanji
Shandong (3) Qingdao (2)
Jinan
Chongqing (2) Chongqing (2)
Fujian (2) Xiamen
Fuzhou
Xinjiang (2) Shihezi
Ürümqi
Guizhou Guiyang
Gansu Lanzhou
Hainan Haikou
Henan Zhengzhou
Jiangxi Nanchang
Qinghai Xining
Shanxi Taiyuan
Yunnan Kunming
Zhejiang Hangzhou
Guangxi Nanning
Inner Mongolia Hohhot
Ningxia Yinchuan
Tibet Lhasa

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Li Lixu (2004). "China's Higher Education Reform 1998-2003: A Summary" (PDF). Asia Pacific Education Review. V (1): 14–22. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 23, 2010.
  2. ^ a b ""211工程"大事记". Ministry of Education, PRC (in Chinese). Archived from the original on November 22, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  3. ^ "网传"985""211"废除 教育部称将回应此事--时政--人民网". politics.people.com.cn. Archived from the original on September 3, 2022. Retrieved December 19, 2022.
  4. ^ "南京有高校称"211建设"已暂停|211工程|985工程_新浪新闻". Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 9, 2017. 南京有高校称“211建设”已暂停
  5. ^ "985、211取消后 仅88所高校入选"111计划"(名单) - 科学仪器及实验室装备展览会北京站". Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 9, 2017. 985、211取消后 仅88所高校入选“111计划”(名单)
  6. ^ "网传"985""211"废除教育部称将回应此事--时政--人民网". politics.people.com.cn. Archived from the original on September 3, 2022. Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  7. ^ "教育部宣布985、211工程多份文件失效 释放啥信号?-新华网". www.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on September 4, 2022. Retrieved September 4, 2022.
  8. ^ "国务院关于印发统筹推进世界一流大学和一流学科建设总体方案的通知_政府信息公开专栏". www.gov.cn. Archived from the original on April 6, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2021.
  9. ^ "教育部国务院学位委员会国家语委关于宣布失效一批规范性文件的通知 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". www.moe.gov.cn. Archived from the original on March 7, 2019. Retrieved September 4, 2022.
  10. ^ ""985""211"工程将废除 教育部:年内启动"双一流"_新闻频道_中华网". news.china.com. Archived from the original on December 19, 2022. Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  11. ^ "Higher education making steady progress". global.chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on October 30, 2022. Retrieved May 7, 2022.
  12. ^ "China to develop 42 world-class universities". People's Daily. September 21, 2017. Archived from the original on August 12, 2020. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
  13. ^ "'World-class' universities list expanded". global.chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on October 30, 2022. Retrieved May 7, 2022.
  14. ^ "关于985、211名单的咨询 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". www.moe.gov.cn. Archived from the original on December 23, 2021. Retrieved December 23, 2021.
  15. ^ Liu, Ye (October 8, 2016). The Gaokao as a Meritocratic Selection?. In: Higher Education, Meritocracy and Inequality in China. Higher Education in Asia: Quality, Excellence and Governance. Springer. p. 88. ISBN 978-981-10-1588-5.
  16. ^ ""985""211"工程将废除 教育部:年内启动"双一流"_新闻频道_中华网". news.china.com. Archived from the original on December 19, 2022. Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  17. ^ "教育部 财政部 国家发展改革委   关于公布第二轮"双一流"建设高校及   建设学科名单的通知 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". www.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved January 25, 2023.
  18. ^ "16个首轮"双一流"建设学科被公开警示或撤销,如何看待--教育--人民网". edu.people.com.cn. Retrieved January 25, 2023.
  19. ^ "教育部答网民关于"'双一流'高校及学科评选,不能'只进不出'"的留言_教育部_中国政府网". www.gov.cn. Retrieved January 25, 2023.
  20. ^ "我国"照顾性"的8所211高校,分数线都很低,值得关注_大学_的发展_实力". www.sohu.com. Retrieved January 26, 2023.
  21. ^ "名校教授"支援"地方_腾讯新闻". new.qq.com. Retrieved January 26, 2023.
  22. ^ "浙江大学中文系百年学脉的传承与拓展". The Paper. Archived from the original on June 4, 2022. Retrieved June 4, 2022.

External links[edit]