Project 985

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Universities of Project 985
Formation4 May 1998; 24 years ago (1998-05-04)
Founded atPeking University, Beijing, China
Defunct2016; 6 years ago (2016)
TypePublic Universities, National Key Universities, Project 211
Legal statusMinistry of Education of the People's Republic of China
Region served
39 Chinese Universities

Project 985 (Chinese: 985工程; pinyin: 985 Gōngchéng) was a terminated project that was first announced by General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party Jiang Zemin at the 100th anniversary of Peking University on May 4, 1998, to promote the development and reputation of the Chinese higher education system by founding world-class universities in the 21st century.[1] The name derives from the date of the announcement, May 1998, or 98/5 according to the Chinese date format.[2] The project involves both national and local governments allocating large amounts of funding to certain universities in order to build new research centers, improve facilities, hold international conferences, attract world-renowned faculty and visiting scholars, and help Chinese faculty attend conferences abroad.[3]


On May 4, 1998, a project that was first announced by General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party Jiang Zemin at the 100th anniversary of Peking University to promote the development and reputation of the Chinese higher education system by founding world-class universities in the 21st century.[1]

In 2006, another 33 universities were selected from universities that had not been included in Project 985. The 33 selected universities are jointly sponsored by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China to support their developments in certain scientific or engineering subjects to meet the urgent need of the state. These 33 universities together are included in a sub-project of Project 985, called the "985 Project Innovation Platform Project".[1][4]

In 2009, the original nine founding member universities of Project 985 formed the C9 League.[3][5] By the end of the second phase of the project, 39 universities were sponsored. It was announced in 2011 that the project had closed, and no new schools would be able to join.[6]

In 2014, some universities of Project 985 claimed that the project funding had been stopped in 2013.[7]

In October 2015, the State Council of P.R.China published the 'Overall Plan for Promoting the Construction of World First-Class Universities and First-Class Disciplines (Double First Class University Plan)' , and made new arrangements for the development of higher education in China.[8]

In 2016, the Ministry of Education of China confirmed that Project 985 had been abolished and replaced by the Double First Class University Plan.[9][10]

In September 2017, a related plan started in 2015 called the Double First Class University Plan was formally announced; 140 universities were included in this plan, representing a reshuffle in the rankings of China's most prestigious universities.[11]

In 2019, the Ministry of Education of China reconfirmed that the Project 985 had been replaced by the Double First-Class University Plan.[12]


The Project 985 universities are elite academic institutions that admit students through an extremely competitive process of the National Higher Education Entrance Examination ("Gaokao") for undergraduate programs.[13][14][15]

Rankings and reputation[edit]

Project 985 members are classified as doctoral universities with very high research activities among all Chinese universities,[16] regarded as the tier 1 universities out of more than 3,000 higher education institutions in China,[17][15][18] and viewed as some of the most prestigious universities of all Chinese universities and consistently ranked among the best in the world.[19][20] As of 2022, 32 universities in the Project 985 ranked in the Top 300, including 24 Top 200 universities and 8 Top 100 universities according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, also known as "Shanghai Ranking".[21] As of 2022, 33 universities were ranked in the top 500 by the AppliedHE Rankometer, a composite ranking system combing five of the world's most influential university rankings, namely, ARWU, QS, THE, CWTS Leiden Ranking, and Webometrics Ranking.[22]

Project 985 universities have been compared to other elite university projects or groupings worldwide, such as UK Russell Group universities, Association of American Universities' sixty members, Canada's U15, and German Universities Excellence Initiative.[23][1] Project 985 universities as a grouping have been rapidly catching up with other elite groupings in terms of global rankings.[24][25][20][26]

A significant proportion of their graduates is considered the prerequisite credential for any top government, academic fields and high-tech corporate position in China.[14][27][28][29]

List of sponsored universities[edit]

39 Project 985 universities are sponsored by the Ministry of Education.[30][31] All the universities of Project 985 are members of several categories of national key universities, including the former Project 211, the former Plan 111, and the current Double First Class University Plan, representing China's most prestigious universities.[32]

Province/Municipality City University Year Founded
North (10)
Beijing (8) Beijing (8) Peking UniversityC9 1898
Tsinghua UniversityC9 1911
Renmin University of China 1937
Beijing Normal University 1902
Beihang University 1952
Beijing Institute of Technology 1940
China Agricultural University 1905
Minzu University of China 1941
Tianjin (2) Tianjin (2) Nankai University 1919
Tianjin University 1895
Northeast (4)
Liaoning (2) Dalian Dalian University of Technology 1949
Shenyang Northeastern University 1923
Heilongjiang Harbin Harbin Institute of TechnologyC9 1920
Jilin Changchun Jilin University 1946
East (11)
Shanghai (4) Shanghai (4) Fudan UniversityC9 1905
Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityC9 1896
Tongji University 1907
East China Normal University 1951
Jiangsu (2) Nanjing (2) Nanjing UniversityC9 1902
Southeast University 1902
Shandong (2) Jinan Shandong University 1901
Qingdao Ocean University of China 1924
Anhui Hefei University of Science and Technology of ChinaC9 1958
Zhejiang Hangzhou Zhejiang UniversityC9 1897
Fujian Xiamen Xiamen University 1921
South (2)
Guangdong (2) Guangzhou (2) Sun Yat-sen University 1924
South China University of Technology 1952
Central (5)
Hunan (3) Changsha (3) Hunan University 1903
Central South University 2000
National University of Defense Technology 1953
Hubei (2) Wuhan (2) Wuhan University 1893
Huazhong University of Science and Technology 1953
Northwest (4)
Shaanxi (3) Xi'an (2) Northwestern Polytechnical University 1938
Xi'an Jiaotong UniversityC9 1896
Xianyang Northwest A&F University 1934
Gansu Lanzhou Lanzhou University 1909
Southwest (3)
Sichuan (2) Chengdu (2) Sichuan University 1896
University of Electronic Science and Technology of China 1956
Chongqing Chongqing Chongqing University 1929

Note: C9 represents the university included in the C9 League.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Ying, Cheng (September 1, 2011). "A Reflection on the Effects of the 985 Project". Chinese Education & Society. 44 (5): 19–30. doi:10.2753/CED1061-1932440502. ISSN 1061-1932. S2CID 144398847.
  2. ^ "Project 211 and 985". China Education Center Ltd. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  3. ^ a b "International Rankings and Chinese Higher Education Reform". World Education News and Reviews. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  4. ^ Li, Jian; Xue, Eryong (2021), Li, Jian; Xue, Eryong (eds.), "The Policy Analysis of Creating World-Class Universities in China", Creating World-Class Universities in China : Ideas, Policies, and Efforts, Singapore: Springer, pp. 1–33, doi:10.1007/978-981-16-6726-8_1, ISBN 978-981-16-6726-8, S2CID 240467383
  5. ^ "9所首批"985工程"建设高校签订《一流大学人才培养合作与交流协议书》". Archived from the original on October 15, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
  6. ^ "Ministry of Education: no new "211" "985" project of the school". Archived from the original on May 11, 2019. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
  7. ^ "网传"985""211"废除教育部称将回应此事--时政--人民网". Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  8. ^ "国务院关于印发统筹推进世界一流大学和一流学科建设总体方案的通知_政府信息公开专栏". Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  9. ^ ""985""211"工程将废除 教育部:年内启动"双一流"_新闻频道_中华网". Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  10. ^ "教育部国务院学位委员会国家语委关于宣布失效一批规范性文件的通知 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  11. ^ "China to develop 42 world-class universities". People's Daily. September 21, 2017.
  12. ^ "关于985、211名单的咨询 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". Retrieved December 23, 2021.
  13. ^ "China's Entrance Exam Is More Competitive Than Ever | Inside Higher Ed". Retrieved April 12, 2022.
  14. ^ a b Eesley, Charles; Li, Jian Bai; Yang, Delin (March 1, 2016). "Does Institutional Change in Universities Influence High-Tech Entrepreneurship? Evidence from China's Project 985". Organization Science. 27 (2): 446–461. doi:10.1287/orsc.2015.1038. ISSN 1047-7039.
  15. ^ a b Liu, Ye (October 8, 2016). The Gaokao as a Meritocratic Selection?. In: Higher Education, Meritocracy and Inequality in China. Higher Education in Asia: Quality, Excellence and Governance. Springer. p. 88. ISBN 978-981-10-1588-5.
  16. ^ Jiang, Jiali; Lee, Soo Kyoung; Rah, Min-Joo (September 1, 2020). "Assessing the research efficiency of Chinese higher education institutions by data envelopment analysis". Asia Pacific Education Review. 21 (3): 423–440. doi:10.1007/s12564-020-09634-0.
  17. ^ ROBINSON, BIN W. U. AND BERNADETTE (2015), Wu, Bin; Morgan, W. John (eds.), "Social justice through financial distribution at China's universities: a student survey in Shaanxi Province", Chinese Higher Education Reform and Social Justice, Routledge, doi:10.4324/9781315884691, ISBN 9781134650187, retrieved April 26, 2022
  18. ^ "Higher education making steady progress". Retrieved May 7, 2022.
  19. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2021". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved August 15, 2021.
  20. ^ a b "2021 USNEWS Best Global Universities in China".
  21. ^ "ShanghaiRanking's Academic Ranking of World Universities". Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  22. ^ Raj, Suba. "Rankometer 2022 – AppliedHE™". Retrieved July 31, 2022.
  23. ^ Qi, Wang (September 1, 2011). "A Discussion on the 985 Project from a Comparative Perspective". Chinese Education & Society. 44 (5): 41–56. doi:10.2753/CED1061-1932440504. ISSN 1061-1932. S2CID 154013993.
  24. ^ "ShanghaiRanking's Academic Ranking of World Universities". Retrieved April 12, 2022.
  25. ^ "World University Rankings". Times Higher Education (THE). August 20, 2019. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  26. ^ Zhang, Han; Patton, Donald; Kenney, Martin (April 1, 2013). "Building global-class universities: Assessing the impact of the 985 Project". Research Policy. 42 (3): 765–775. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2012.10.003. ISSN 0048-7333.
  27. ^ "University rankings influence graduates' salaries". Retrieved April 12, 2022.
  28. ^ Bingqi, Xiong; Boqing, Wang (January 1, 2010). "21. Analysis on the Correlation between College Graduate Majors and Occupations". The China Educational Development Yearbook, Volume 2: 243–255. doi:10.1163/9789047427001_022. ISBN 9789047427001.
  29. ^ "Top 10 Chinese universities with most billionaire alumni[1]-". Retrieved September 26, 2022.
  30. ^ "985工程一期重点共建". Ministry of Education PR CHINA. Retrieved August 28, 2010.[permanent dead link]
  31. ^ "985工程二期重点共建". Ministry of Education PR CHINA. Retrieved August 28, 2010.[permanent dead link]
  32. ^ "China to develop 42 world-class universities - People's Daily Online". Retrieved December 22, 2021.