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In prokaryotes, four elongation factors are required for translation: EF-Tu, EF-Ts, EF-G and EF-P.
- EF-Tu mediates the entry of the aminoacyl tRNA into a free site of the ribosome.
- EF-Ts serves as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for EF-Tu, catalyzing the release of GDP from EF-Tu.
- EF-G catalyzes the translocation of the tRNA and mRNA down the ribosome at the end of each round of polypeptide elongation.
- EF-P stimulates peptide formation by catalyzing the first synthesis step between the first amino acid (N-formylmethionine) and the second amino acid.