Promotion to the Bundesliga

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Promotion to the Bundesliga
Organising body Deutsche Fußball Liga
Founded 1963; 55 years ago (1963)
Region Germany
Number of teams 2
Qualifier for Bundesliga
Current champions Fortuna Düsseldorf
1. FC Nürnberg
(2017–18)
2017–18 2. Bundesliga

The Promotion to the Bundesliga (German: Aufstiegsrunde zur Bundesliga) was an end-of-season competition, held annually to determine the clubs that were promoted from the Regionalligas, later the 2. Bundesligas to the Bundesliga. Originally, it was necessary because there were more second division champions than promotion spots available. From 1974 onwards, it involved only two clubs who determined the third possible promotion spot to the Bundesliga.

Leagues[edit]

1963–74[edit]

When the Bundesliga was formed in 1963, the German Football Association established five regional second divisions below it, the Regionalligas, these being:

Because the boundaries of these five leagues went along historical lines, determined by the boundaries of the five German sub-federations, the playing strength of the leagues was not equal. To determine the two teams to be promoted to the Bundesliga each season, a promotion round was held. The number of teams from each Regionalliga qualified for this event was not equal, for the above-mentioned reason.

From 1963, the first two teams in each Regionalliga was qualified for the promotion round, except from Berlin, who would only send the champions. To reduce the number of clubs from nine to eight, a home-and-away decider was played between two of the runners-ups. The origin of the two teams in this altered annually. The eight teams would then play a home-and-away round in two groups of four with the winners qualified for the Bundesliga. Teams from the same Regionalliga would not play in the same group. This system was in place till 1966.

From 1967, the groups were expanded to five clubs and all five Regionalligas send their runners-up to the competition. Otherwise, the modus remained unchanged. This system remained in place until 1974, when the Regionalligas were disbanded.

1974–81[edit]

In 1974, the five Regionalligas were replaced by two 2. Bundesligas, those being:

The two league champions would now be directly promoted to the Bundesliga while the two runners-up played a home-and-away round to determine the third promoted team. This system remained in place until the single 2. Bundesliga replaced the two leagues.

1981–91[edit]

With the introduction of the single-division 2. Bundesliga in 1981, a promotion round would have become unnecessary as the top-three teams could have been directly promoted. Instead, only the top-two teams archived direct promotion. The third placed club had to play the 16th placed club from the Bundesliga in a home-and-away round for the last spot in the first division. This series was played until 1991.

With the German reunion in 1991 and the influx of clubs from the former DDR-Oberliga, the promotion round between the two clubs was stopped. In the 1990–91 season, five clubs were promoted to the Bundesliga, three from the west and two from the east.

1991–92[edit]

As a transition season due to the integration of the East German clubs, only two clubs were promoted from the second to the first division. Also, the 2. Bundesliga was split into two regional groups for this season.

1992–2008[edit]

In this era, the top-three teams of the 2. Bundesliga were directly promoted to the Bundesliga.

2008–present[edit]

From 2009, the promotion series between the 16th placed Bundesliga club and the third placed 2. Bundesliga team was reestablished.[1] The Bundesliga follows thereby its own, past example[2] and the one set by the English Premier League and the Italian Serie A, where these games are in place, too and quite popular.

[edit]

1963–74[edit]

Season First Second Third
1963–64 Hannover 96 Borussia Neunkirchen
1964–65 Bayern Munich Borussia Mönchengladbach Tasmania Berlin
1965–66 Fortuna Düsseldorf Rot-Weiss Essen
1966–67 Alemannia Aachen Borussia Neunkirchen (2)
1967–68 Kickers Offenbach Hertha BSC
1968–69 Rot-Weiss Essen (2) Rot-Weiß Oberhausen
1969–70 Arminia Bielefeld Kickers Offenbach (2)
1970–71 VfL Bochum Fortuna Düsseldorf (2)
1971–72 Wuppertaler SV Kickers Offenbach (3)
1972–73 Rot-Weiss Essen (3) Fortuna Köln
1973–74 Eintracht Braunschweig Tennis Borussia Berlin
  • In 1965, Tasmania Berlin was promoted to replace Hertha BSC in the league, without having qualified for it.

1974–81[edit]

Season South North Third
1974–75 Karlsruher SC Hannover 96 (2) Bayer Uerdingen
1975–76 1. FC Saarbrücken Tennis Borussia Berlin (2) Borussia Dortmund
1976–77 VfB Stuttgart FC St. Pauli 1860 Munich
1977–78 Darmstadt 98 Arminia Bielefeld (2) 1. FC Nürnberg
1978–79 1860 Munich (2) Bayer Leverkusen Bayer Uerdingen (2)
1979–80 1. FC Nürnberg (2) Arminia Bielefeld (3) Karlsruher SC (2)
1980–81 Darmstadt 98 (2) Werder Bremen Eintracht Braunschweig (2)

1981–90[edit]

Season First Second Third
1981–82 Schalke 04 Hertha BSC (2)
1982–83 Waldhof Mannheim Kickers Offenbach (4) Bayer Uerdingen (3)
1983–84 Karlsruher SC (3) Schalke 04 (2)
1984–85 1. FC Nürnberg (3) Hannover 96 (3) 1. FC Saarbrücken (2)
1985–86 FC Homburg Blau-Weiß Berlin
1986–87 Hannover 96 (4) Karlsruher SC (4)
1987–88 Stuttgarter Kickers FC St. Pauli (2)
1988–89 Fortuna Düsseldorf (3) FC Homburg (2)
1989–90 Hertha BSC (2) SG Wattenscheid

1990–91[edit]

Season First Second Third East First East Second
1990–91 Schalke 04 (3) MSV Duisburg Stuttgarter Kickers (2) Hansa Rostock Dynamo Dresden

1991–92[edit]

Season South North
1991–92 1. FC Saarbrücken (3) Bayer Uerdingen (4)

1992–present[edit]

Season First Second Third
1992–93 SC Freiburg MSV Duisburg (2) VfB Leipzig
1993–94 VfL Bochum (2) Bayer Uerdingen (5) 1860 Munich (3)
1994–95 Hansa Rostock (2) FC St. Pauli (3) Fortuna Düsseldorf (4)
1995–96 VfL Bochum (3) Arminia Bielefeld (4) MSV Duisburg (3)
1996–97 1. FC Kaiserslautern VfL Wolfsburg Hertha BSC (3)
1997–98 Eintracht Frankfurt SC Freiburg (2) 1. FC Nürnberg (4)
1998–99 Arminia Bielefeld (5) SpVgg Unterhaching SSV Ulm
1999–2000 1. FC Köln VfL Bochum (4) Energie Cottbus
2000–01 1. FC Nürnberg (5) Borussia Mönchengladbach (2) FC St. Pauli (4)
2001–02 Hannover 96 (5) Arminia Bielefeld (6) VfL Bochum (5)
2002–03 SC Freiburg (3) 1. FC Köln (2) Eintracht Frankfurt (2)
2003–04 1. FC Nürnberg (6) Arminia Bielefeld (7) Mainz 05
2004–05 1. FC Köln (3) MSV Duisburg (4) Eintracht Frankfurt (3)
2005–06 VfL Bochum (6) Alemannia Aachen (2) Energie Cottbus (2)
2006–07 Karlsruher SC (5) Hansa Rostock (3) MSV Duisburg (5)
2007–08 Borussia Mönchengladbach (3) 1899 Hoffenheim 1. FC Köln (4)
2008–09 SC Freiburg (4) Mainz 05 (2) 1. FC Nürnberg (7)
2009–10 1. FC Kaiserslautern (2) FC St. Pauli (5)
2010–11 Hertha BSC (4) FC Augsburg
2011–12 Greuther Fürth Eintracht Frankfurt (4) Fortuna Düsseldorf (5)
2012–13 Hertha BSC (5) Eintracht Braunschweig (3)
2013–14 1. FC Köln (5) SC Paderborn
2014–15 FC Ingolstadt Darmstadt 98 (3)
2015–16 SC Freiburg (5) RB Leipzig
2016–17 VfB Stuttgart (2) Hannover 96 (6)
2017–18 Fortuna Düsseldorf (6) 1. FC Nürnberg (8)
  • Number in brackets behind club denotes the number of promotion when there was more than one.

Clubs taking part in the promotion round[edit]

Participating clubs 1963–74[edit]

The southern clubs:

Season RL Süd (1st) RL Süd (2nd) RL Südwest (1st) RL Südwest (2nd)
1963–64 Hessen Kassel Bayern Munich Borussia Neunkirchen FK Pirmasens
1964–65 Bayern Munich SSV Reutlingen 1. FC Saarbrücken Wormatia Worms
1965–66 Schweinfurt 05 Kickers Offenbach FK Pirmasens 1. FC Saarbrücken
1966–67 Kickers Offenbach Bayern Hof Borussia Neunkirchen 1. FC Saarbrücken
1967–68 Bayern Hof Kickers Offenbach SV Alsenborn TuS Neuendorf
1968–69 Karlsruher SC Freiburger FC SV Alsenborn TuS Neuendorf
1969–70 Kickers Offenbach Karlsruher SC SV Alsenborn FK Pirmasens
1970–71 1. FC Nürnberg Karlsruher SC Borussia Neunkirchen FK Pirmasens
1971–72 Kickers Offenbach Bayern Hof Borussia Neunkirchen Röchling Völklingen
1972–73 Darmstadt 98 Karlsruher SC Mainz 05 Röchling Völklingen
1973–74 FC Augsburg 1. FC Nürnberg Borussia Neunkirchen 1. FC Saarbrücken

The northern clubs:

Season RL West (1st) RL West (2nd) RL Nord (1st) RL Nord (2nd) RL Berlin (1st) RL Berlin (2nd)
1963–64 Alemannia Aachen Wuppertaler SV FC St. Pauli Hannover 96 Tasmania Berlin
1964–65 Borussia Mönchengladbach Alemannia Aachen Holstein Kiel FC St. Pauli Tennis Borussia Berlin
1965–66 Fortuna Düsseldorf Rot-Weiss Essen FC St. Pauli SC Göttingen Hertha BSC
1966–67 Alemannia Aachen Schwarz-Weiß Essen Arminia Hannover SC Göttingen Hertha BSC Tennis Borussia Berlin
1967–68 Bayer Leverkusen Rot-Weiss Essen Arminia Hannover SC Göttingen Hertha BSC Tennis Borussia Berlin
1968–69 Rot-Weiß Oberhausen Rot-Weiss Essen VfL Osnabrück VfB Lübeck Hertha Zehlendorf Tasmania Berlin
1969–70 VfL Bochum Arminia Bielefeld VfL Osnabrück VfL Wolfsburg Hertha Zehlendorf Tennis Borussia Berlin
1970–71 VfL Bochum Fortuna Düsseldorf VfL Osnabrück FC St. Pauli Tasmania Berlin Wacker Berlin
1971–72 Wuppertaler SV Rot-Weiss Essen FC St. Pauli VfL Osnabrück Wacker Berlin Tasmania Berlin
1972–73 Rot-Weiss Essen Fortuna Köln FC St. Pauli VfL Osnabrück Blau-Weiß Berlin Wacker Berlin
1973–74 SG Wattenscheid Rot-Weiß Oberhausen Eintracht Braunschweig FC St. Pauli Tennis Borussia Berlin Wacker Berlin
  • Bold denotes promoted team.
  • In 1964, Wuppertaler SV lost to FK Pirmasens 1–2 and 0–2 in the qualifying, missing out on the promotion round.
  • In 1965, FC St.Pauli lost to SSV Reutlingen 1–0 and 1–4 aet in the qualifying, missing out on the promotion round.
  • In 1966, SC Göttingen 05 lost to 1. FC Saarbrücken 0–3 and 0–4 in the qualifying, missing out on the promotion round.

North-South promotion games 1974–1981[edit]

1974–75
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
FK Pirmasens (S) 4–10 Bayer Uerdingen (N) 4–4 0–6
1975–76
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
1. FC Nürnberg (S) 2–4 Borussia Dortmund (N) 0–1 2–3
1976–77
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg 3rd leg
TSV 1860 Munich (S) 4–6 Arminia Bielefeld (N) 4–0 0–4 2–0
1977–78
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
1. FC Nürnberg (S) 3–2 Rot-Weiss Essen (N) 1–0 2–2
1978–79
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
SpVgg Bayreuth (S) 2–3 Bayer Uerdingen (N) 1–1 1–2
1979–80
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
Karlsruher SC (S) 6–4 Rot-Weiss Essen (N) 5–1 1–3
1980–81
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
Kickers Offenbach (S) 1–2 Eintracht Braunschweig (N) 1–0 0–2

Bundesliga versus 2. Bundesliga 1981–91[edit]

1981–82
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
Bayer Leverkusen (B) 3–0 Kickers Offenbach (2B) 1–0 2–0
1982–83
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
Schalke 04 (B) 2–4 Bayer Uerdingen (2B) 1–3 1–1
1983–84
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
Eintracht Frankfurt (B) 6–1 MSV Duisburg (2B) 5–0 1–1
1984–85
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
Arminia Bielefeld (B) 3–1 1. FC Saarbrücken (2B) 2–0 1–1
1985–86
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg 3rd leg
Borussia Dortmund (B) 11–3 Fortuna Köln (2B) 0–2 3–1 8–0
1986–87
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
FC Homburg (B) 4–3 FC St. Pauli (2B) 3–1 1–2
1987–88
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg 3rd leg
Waldhof Mannheim (B) 4–4
(5–4 p)
Darmstadt 98 (2B) 2–3 2–1 0–0
(5–4 p)
1988–89
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
Eintracht Frankfurt (B) 3–2 1. FC Saarbrücken (2B) 2–0 1–2
1989–90
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
VfL Bochum (B) 1–0 1. FC Saarbrücken (2B) 1–0 0–0
1990–91
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg 3rd leg
FC St. Pauli (B) 3–5 Stuttgarter Kickers (2B) 1–1 1–1 1–3

Bundesliga versus 2. Bundesliga 2008–present[edit]

2008–09[3]
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
Energie Cottbus (B) 0–5 1. FC Nürnberg (2B) 0–3 0–2
2009–10[4]
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
1. FC Nürnberg (B) 3–0 FC Augsburg (2B) 1–0 2–0
2010–11[5]
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
Borussia Mönchengladbach (B) 2–1 VfL Bochum (2B) 1–0 1–1
2011–12[6]
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
Hertha BSC (B) 3–4 Fortuna Düsseldorf (2B) 1–2 2–2
2012–13[7]
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
1899 Hoffenheim (B) 5–2 1. FC Kaiserslautern (2B) 3–1 2–1
2013–14[8]
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
Hamburger SV (B) 1–1 (a) Greuther Fürth (2B) 0–0 1–1
2014–15[9]
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
Hamburger SV (B) 3–2 Karlsruher SC (2B) 1–1 2–1 (a.e.t.)
2015–16[10]
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
Eintracht Frankfurt (B) 2–1 1. FC Nürnberg (2B) 1–1 1–0
2016–17[11]
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
VfL Wolfsburg (B) 2–0 Eintracht Braunschweig (2B) 1–0 1–0
2017–18[12]
Team 1 Agg. Team 2 1st leg 2nd leg
VfL Wolfsburg (B) 4–1 Holstein Kiel (2B) 3–1 1–0

Key[edit]

  • Winner in bold.
Symbol Key
(B) Bundesliga — 16th-placed team
(2B) 2. Bundesliga — 3rd-placed team
(N) 2. Bundesliga North — 2nd-placed team
(S) 2. Bundesliga South — 2nd-placed team

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2. Bundesliga – Spieltag / Tabelle" [2. Bundesliga – Matchday / Table] (in German). kicker.de. Retrieved 7 October 2011. 
  2. ^ "2. Bundesliga – Modus" (in German). DFB. Retrieved 7 October 2011. 
  3. ^ "Relegation Bundesliga 2009" (in German). weltfussball.de. Retrieved 5 October 2011. 
  4. ^ "Relegation Bundesliga 2010" (in German). weltfussball.de. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  5. ^ "Relegation Bundesliga 2011" (in German). weltfussball.de. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  6. ^ "Relegation Bundesliga 2012" (in German). weltfussball.de. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  7. ^ "Relegation Bundesliga 2013" (in German). weltfussball.de. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  8. ^ "Relegation Bundesliga 2014" (in German). weltfussball.de. Retrieved 13 May 2014. 
  9. ^ "Relegation Bundesliga 2015" (in German). weltfussball.de. Retrieved 19 May 2015. 
  10. ^ "Relegation Bundesliga 2016" (in German). weltfussball.de. Retrieved 6 May 2016. 
  11. ^ "Relegation Bundesliga 2017" (in German). weltfussball.de. Retrieved 22 April 2018. 
  12. ^ "Relegation Bundesliga 2018" (in German). weltfussball.de. Retrieved 17 May 2018. 

Sources[edit]

  • Deutsche Liga Chronik seit 1945 (in German) Historic tables of German football (First, Second and Third Division), publisher: DSFS, published: 2006
  • kicker Almanach 1990 (in German) Yearbook of German football, publisher: kicker, published: 1989, ISBN 3-7679-0297-4

External links[edit]