A pronic number is a number that is the product of two consecutive integers, that is, a number of the form  The study of these numbers dates back to Aristotle. They are also called oblong numbers, heteromecic numbers, or rectangular numbers; however, the term "rectangular number" has also been applied to the composite numbers.
The first few pronic numbers are:
- 0, 2, 6, 12, 20, 30, 42, 56, 72, 90, 110, 132, 156, 182, 210, 240, 272, 306, 342, 380, 420, 462 … (sequence A002378 in the OEIS).
Letting denote the pronic number we have Therefore, in discussing pronic numbers, we may assume that without loss of generality, a convention that is adopted in the following sections.
As figurate numbers
The pronic numbers were studied as figurate numbers alongside the triangular numbers and square numbers in Aristotle's Metaphysics, and their discovery has been attributed much earlier to the Pythagoreans. As a kind of figurate number, the pronic numbers are sometimes called oblong because they are analogous to polygonal numbers in this way:
The nth pronic number is the sum of the first n even integers, and as such is twice the nth triangular number and n more than the nth square number, as given by the alternative formula n2 + n for pronic numbers. The nth pronic number is also the difference between the odd square (2n + 1)2 and the (n+1)st centered hexagonal number.
Sum of pronic numbers
The partial sum of the first n positive pronic numbers is twice the value of the nth tetrahedral number:
So there is a square between any two consecutive pronic numbers. It is unique, since
Another consequence of this chain of inequalities is the following property. If m is a pronic number, then the following holds:
The fact that consecutive integers are coprime and that a pronic number is the product of two consecutive integers leads to a number of properties. Each distinct prime factor of a pronic number is present in only one of the factors n or n + 1. Thus a pronic number is squarefree if and only if n and n + 1 are also squarefree. The number of distinct prime factors of a pronic number is the sum of the number of distinct prime factors of n and n + 1.
If 25 is appended to the decimal representation of any pronic number, the result is a square number, the square of a number ending on 5; for example, 625 = 252 and 1225 = 352. This is so because
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