Propagule

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In biology, a propagule is any material that functions in propagating an organism to the next stage in its life cycle, such as by dispersal. The propagule is usually distinct in form from the parent organism. Propagules are produced by plants (in the form of seeds or spores), fungi (in the form of spores), and bacteria (for example endospores or microbial cysts).[1]

In disease biology, pathogens are said to generate infectious propagules, the units that transmit a disease. These can refer to bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protists, and can be contained within host material.[2][3][4] For instance, for influenza, the infectious propagules are carried in droplets of host saliva or mucus that are expelled during coughing or sneezing.

In horticulture, a propagule is any plant material used for the purpose of plant propagation. In asexual reproduction, a propagule is often a stem cutting. In some plants, a leaf section or a portion of root can be used. In sexual reproduction, a propagule is a seed or spore. In micropropagation, a type of asexual reproduction, any part of the plant may be used, though it is usually a highly meristematic part such as root and stem ends or buds.[5]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Chuang, T. Y.; Ko, W. H. (1981-01-01). "Propagule size: Its relation to population density of microorganisms in soil". Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 13 (3): 185–190. doi:10.1016/0038-0717(81)90018-3. ISSN 0038-0717.
  2. ^ Ellis, David; Pfeiffer, Tania (1990-10-13). "Ecology, life cycle, and infectious propagule of Cryptococcus neoformans". The Lancet. 336 (8720): 923–925. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(90)92283-N. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 1976940.
  3. ^ Sasaki, A.; Iwasa, Y. (1991). "Optimal growth schedule of pathogens within a host: switching between lytic and latent cycles". Theoretical Population Biology. 39 (2): 201–239. doi:10.1016/0040-5809(91)90036-f. ISSN 0040-5809. PMID 2057912.
  4. ^ Vega, Fernando E. (2012). Insect pathology. Harry K. Kaya, Yoshinori Tanada (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-384984-7. OCLC 778786616.
  5. ^ Hartmann, Hudson T. (2002). Plant propagation : principles and practices (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-679235-9. OCLC 48056156.