Prophecy of Seventy Weeks
The Prophecy of Seventy Weeks (chapter 9 of the Book of Daniel) tells how Daniel, pondering the meaning of Jeremiah's prediction that Jerusalem would remain desolate for seventy years, is told by the angel Gabriel that the 70 years should be taken to mean seventy weeks (literally "sevens") of years.
- 1 Summary
- 2 Composition and structure
- 3 Genre and themes
- 4 Historical background
- 5 Daniel and Christian millennialism
- 6 Appendix 1
- 7 Appendix 2
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Daniel reads in the book of Jeremiah that the desolation of Jerusalem will last seventy years, and prays for God to act. ("Let your face shine upon your desolated sanctuary ... Listen and act and do not delay!") The angel Gabriel tells him that the word went forth when he began to pray. Jeremiah's prophecy is not of seventy years, however, but seventy sevens ("weeks") of years (490 years) "to bring in everlasting righteousness ... and to anoint a most holy place." Seven sevens (49 years) will pass from the "going forth of the word ... to the coming of an anointed one, a prince;" after sixty-two sevens (434 years) an "anointed one" will be "cut off," and in the final seven a future ruler will bring war and desolation. In the last half "week" sacrifice and offerings will cease and "an abomination that causes desolation" will be set up, "until the decreed end is poured out upon the desolator."
Composition and structure
Book of Daniel
It is generally accepted that the Book of Daniel originated as a collection of folktales among the Jewish community in Babylon in the Persian and early Hellenistic periods (5th to 3rd centuries BCE), and was later expanded in the Maccabean era (mid-2nd century) with the visions of chapters 7-12. Modern scholarship agrees that Daniel is a legendary figure, and it is possible that his name was chosen for the hero of the book because of his reputation as a wise seer in Hebrew tradition.
Daniel 9 consists of an introduction (verses 1-3), a prayer (verses 4-19), and an angelic discourse (verses 20-27):
- Introduction, verses 1-3: setting ("the first year of Darius son of Xerxes"), place (Babylon), and subject ("the word of the Lord given to Jeremiah the prophet, that the desolation of Jerusalem would last seventy years.")
- Prayer of Daniel, verses 4-19: Daniel asks God to forgive Israel's sins and restore the city and the temple.
- Angelic discourse, verses 20-27: The angel Gabriel explains the true meaning of Jeremiah 25:11-12 and 29:10.
A more complex six-part structure has been described by Professor E.C. Lucas:
- Circumstances (vv.1-2)
- Supplication (vv. 3.19)
- Appearance of messenger (vv. 20-21)
- Word of assurance (vv. 22-23)
- Revelation (vv.24-27)
- Instruction to seer (omitted from Daniel 9, but present in Daniel 12:4)
Genre and themes
The Book of Daniel is an eschatology, meaning a divine revelation concerning the end of the present age, a moment in which God will intervene in history to usher in the final kingdom. It is also an apocalypse, a literary genre in which a heavenly reality is revealed to a human recipient. Apocalypses were common from 300 BCE to 100 CE, not only among Jews and Christians, but Greeks, Romans, Persians and Egyptians. Daniel, the book's hero, is a representative apocalyptic seer, the recipient of the divine revelation: has learned the wisdom of the Babylonian magicians and surpassed them, because his God is the true source of knowledge; he is one of the maskil, the wise, whose task is to teach righteousness.
Daniel 9 contains an introductory epiphany (the appearance of the (angel) a prayer, and an angelic discourse. The theology of the prayer is heavily Deuteronomistic, implying that God may relent in his punishment of Israel if his people show penitence. This creates an apparent contradiction with the theology of the discourse (and the rest of the book), whose theme is that history is predetermined and not to be altered, but it is possible that the prayer is not intended to influence God but is an act of piety, the act "of a faithful man ... testifying to his utter dependance on a God of righteousness."
The Jews from Nebuchadnezzar to Antiochus Epiphanes
In 605 BCE King Nebuchadnezzar II defeated Egypt at the Battle of Carchemish and established Babylon as the dominant power of the Middle East; in 597 he removed Judah's King Jehoiachin after a revolt, and in 586, after a second revolt, he destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple of Solomon and carried much of its population off to Babylon. The subsequent period from 586 to 538 BCE is known as the Babylonian exile.
The exile ended when Babylon was conquered by the Persian king Cyrus the Great, who allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem. The Persian period in turn ended in 332 BCE with the arrival of Alexander the Great, and on Alexander's death his empire split into rival kingdoms, two of which, the Ptolemies of Egypt and the Seleucid dynasty in Syria, fought for control of Palestine. By 200 BCE the Seleucids had the upper hand, but the wars had left them almost bankrupt. The Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes attempted to recoup his fortunes by selling the post of high priest of Jerusalem to the highest bidder, and in 171 BCE the existing high priest, Onias III, was deposed and murdered. Jerusalem became split between those Jews who supported the Greeks and those who supported tradition, and in December 168 BCE Jewish worship was forbidden, the daily sacrifice abolished, and an altar to Zeus set up in the Temple. For Jews living through the 2nd century persecution, Antiochus was the new Nebuchadnezzar.
Daniel's "seventy sevens"
Verse 1 sets the time of Daniel's vision as the "first year of Darius son of Ahasuerus, by birth a Mede;" no Darius the Mede is known to history, but it can be assumed that the author means 538 BCE. Verse 2 tells how Daniel reads in Jeremiah that God has allotted 70 years "for the devastation of Jerusalem." The verses are presumably Jeremiah 25:11-12 and Jeremiah 29:10, and their meaning is straightforward: Babylon's world-domination would last for 70 years from 605 BCE, followed by punishment for Babylon and restoration for Judah. Jeremiah probably did not intend his 70 years to be taken literally–the figure represents a normal lifespan, and Jeremiah was telling his readers that their exile would last their lifetime–but his prestige was greatly enhanced when Babylon fell to the Persians in 539 BCE, proving him approximately correct.
Daniel is set in the courts of Nebuchadnezzar and Darius the Mede, but commentators since the 3rd century have dated it to the time of Antiochus. But Jeremiah's seventy years could not apply literally to Jews in the time of Antiochus, so the author of Daniel provided a creative solution: Jeremiah's shiv'im years is to be understood as shavu'im shiv'im, seventy sevens, or 490 years. The resulting prophecy is one of the most controversial in the Book of Daniel. Many proposals have been put forward, but none yield historically significant dates when projected 490 years into the future, and as a result there is no consensus. It is possible that Daniel's author simply had a faulty understanding of history, but more likely is that his scheme is a sacred allegory: 7 is the Biblical number symbolising heavenly perfection, 70 represents supreme perfection, and at the end of this time God will bring in the eternal and perfect heavenly kingdom.
Divisions and signs
The "seventy sevens" are divided in three. The first "seven sevens" (49 years) will begin with the sending-out of the "word" to rebuild Jerusalem and end with the arrival of an "anointed prince." The word translated as "prince" may mean either an actual prince or a priest; candidates have included Cyrus, who is called "anointed" in Isaiah and came to power approximately 49 years after 605 BCE, or Joshua the High Priest (the first high priest after the fall of Babylon), who was also an "anointed one" and came into office approximately 49 years after 586 BCE.
In the next period of 62 sevens the city will be rebuilt, but at their end "an anointed one shall be cut off and have nothing." This is most probably the high priest Onias III, who was deposed and expelled from Jerusalem ("he shall have neither the city nor the sanctuary") and later murdered ("cut off") in 171 BCE.
Daniel 9:26 introduces a "prince who is to come" who will "destroy the city and the sanctuary." This is usually taken to mean Antiochus, but may be the leader of the pro-Greek faction within Jerusalem, a certain Menelaus, remembered in Second Maccabees as "the cause of all the trouble," and responsible for the murder of Onias and for the plundering of the Temple. The angelic explanation ends with the events of the final week (7 years), when sacrifices and offerings are stopped in the Temple and an "abomination that desolates" put in their place. The "abomination" is probably a reference to the sacrifice of a pig to Zeus Olympius in 167 BCE, halfway through the seven years between the murder of Onias and the cleansing of the Temple by Judas Maccabee in 164. Judgement is then "poured out upon the desolator," a reference taking in Menelaus, Antiochus, and their false god.
Daniel and Christian millennialism
Historicism interprets prophecy as an overview of the history of the Christian church, comparing the books with history to determine which events have already occurred and which are still to come. This approach was particularly associated with Protestantism and the Reformation, and although its heyday was in the 18th and 19th centuries it still has many followers, including Seventh-day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses.
Seventh-day Adventists equate the beginning of the 490 years and the “going forth of the word to restore and build Jerusalem” (Dan 9:25) with the decree by Artaxerxes I in 458/7 BCE, The appearance of "Messiah the Prince" at the end of the 69 weeks (483 years) is equated with Jesus' baptism in 27 CE, in the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar, and the "cutting off" of the "anointed one" refers to the crucifixion 3½ years after the end of the 483 years, bringing "atonement for iniquity" and "everlasting righteousness". Jesus "confirms" the "covenant" between God and mankind by his death on the cross in the Spring of 31 CE, "in the midst of" the last seven years. At the moment of his death the curtain between the Holy and Most Holy Places in the Temple was ripped from top to bottom, marking the end of the Temple's sacrificial system. The last week ends 3½ years after the crucifixion (i.e., in 34 CE) when the gospel was redirected from the Jews to all peoples.
Some of the representative voices among exegetes of the last 150 years are E. W. Hengstenberg, J. N. Andrews, E. B. Pusey, J. Raska, J. Hontheim, Boutflower, Uriah Smith, and O. Gerhardt.
Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Artaxerxes' first year of rule was 474 BCE, and that the 490 years began when Nehemiah went to rebuild the walls around Jerusalem in the king's 20th year, which they believe was 455 BCE. The 69th week ended in 29 CE, when Jesus was identified as the Messiah at his baptism. Jesus was then "cut off" (executed) half way through the 70th week, which ended in 36 CE.
Preterism interprets each prophetic book in terms of its immediate historical context. It is particularly associated with the Catholic Church, which identifies the “going forth of the word to restore and build Jerusalem” (Dan 9:25) as having occurred when Artaxerxes issued his proclamation to restore and rebuild Jerusalem in 453 BCE, the 69th week as ending with the baptism of Jesus in 30 CE, and his death in 33 CE matching the prediction of the anointed one who is "cut off" in the middle of the 70th week. The 70th week, rounding off the entire 490 years, ends in 36 or 37 CE, the year of Saint Paul's conversion to Christianity and Saint Peter's vision of the unclean animals and the baptism of non-Jewish believers.
Futurism interprets prophecies as relating future events in a literal and global context. Futurist beliefs usually have a close association with Premillennialism and Dispensationalism. According to Futurism, the 70th week of Daniel will occur at some point in the future, culminating in seven years (or 3.5 years depending on denomination) of Tribulation and the appearance of the Antichrist.
Such a thesis is paradigmatic for Dispensational Premillennialism. In contradistinction, Historic Premillennialism may or may not posit Daniel's 70th week as future yet retain the thesis of the future fulfillment of many of the prophecies of Major and Minor Prophets, the teachings of Christ (e.g., Matthew 24) and the book of Revelation. Dispensationalists typically hold that a "hiatus" or "biblical parenthesis" occurred between the 69th and 70th week of the prophecy, into which the "church age" is inserted (this is also known as the "gap theory" of Daniel 9). The seventieth week is expected to commence after the rapture of the church; for those left behind the final week will see the reign of the beast (the Antichrist), the establishment of an economic system using the number 666, a false religious system (the harlot), the Great Tribulation and Armageddon.
Controversy exists regarding the antecedent of he in Daniel 9:27. Many within the ranks of premillennialism do not affirm the "confirmation of the covenant" is made by Jesus Christ (as do many Amillennarians) but that the antecedent of "he" in vs. 27 refers back to vs. 26 ("the prince who is to come"—i.e., the Antichrist). Antichrist will make a "treaty" as the Prince of the Covenant (i.e., "the prince who is to come") with Israel's future leadership at the commencement of the seventieth week of Daniel's prophecy; in the midst of the week, the Antichrist will break the treaty and commence persecution against a regathered Israel.
As a system, dispensationalism is expounded in the writings of John Nelson Darby (1800–82) and the Plymouth Brethren movement,:10 and propagated through works such as Cyrus Scofield's Scofield Reference Bible. The theology of dispensationalism consists of a distinctive eschatological end times perspective, as all dispensationalists hold to premillennialism and most hold to a pretribulation rapture. Dispensationalists believe that God has yet to fulfill his promises to national Israel, notably the Promised Land, which will result in a millennial kingdom and Third Temple where Christ, upon his return, will rule the world from Jerusalem for a thousand years. In other areas of theology, dispensationalists hold to a wide range of beliefs within the evangelical and fundamentalist spectrum.:13
With the rise of dispensationalism, some Protestants, where the dispensationalist view is particularly salient, came to interpret elements of the Book of Revelation not as an account of past events (with specific reference to the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70, a position known as Preterism), but as predictions of the future.
In the view of historic premillennialism, Philip Mauro (1921) proposed that the discourse on the Mount Olivet (Matthew 24, Mark 13, Luke 21) is an expansion of Daniel's "seventy weeks" prophecy. His research was influenced by the works of Martin Anstey (1913). In addition to the historical-messianic interpretation above, Mauro adds that, "the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary" (9:25) is prophetic of the "desolation" of Jerusalem and the temple in 70 CE (Matthew 24:1-22; Luke 21:20-24) Mauro compares the words of Gabriel: "seventy weeks are determined upon thy people to finish the transgression" (Daniel 9:24) with Jesus' words: "Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers" (Matthew 23:32), interpreting these narratives as referring to the rejection and crucifixion of the Christ.
The Dispensational interpretation (beginning in the 19th century) extends the last week beyond the present day:
- The consistent symbolical interpretation reads the numbers in verses 24 to 27 as symbolic. In this view the 490 years begin with the edict of Cyrus in 538 BCE, which permitted the Jews to return to Jerusalem2 Chronicles 36:22-23 = Ezra 1:2-4. The first division of 7 weeks ends with the first advent of Christ. The second division is the period of the Christian church, stretching from the first and to Second Advent. The third division of one week is the last period of history—the time of tribulation caused by the Antichrist—which begins with the advent of the Antichrist and ends with his defeat. Supporters of this view include Kliefoth, who is credited to be the first to establish exegetically the symbolic interpretation. He is followed, by and large, by Keil, Delitzsch, Leupold, Philip, Grelot and others.
The dispensational interpretation begins the 490 years with the permission Artaxerxes I Longimanus gave to NehemiahNehemiah 2:5-8. This is dated by most dispensationalists to 445 BCE (e.g. Sir Robert Anderson), but by some to 444 BCE. The “messiah” at the end of the 7+62 weeks is Jesus Christ, but because 7+62 = 69 weeks = 483 years from 445/4 BCE would extend to about CE 40—far beyond the lifetime of Christ—the 483 years are reduced to 476 years by interpreting these 490 years as "prophetic years" each consisting of only 360 literal days. Consequently the 483 years end with the crucifixion in CE 33 or 32. The 70th week is separated from the 69th week by a vast gap of over nineteen centuries. The entire "church age" is a gap during which the prophetic clock has stopped ticking. The 70th week does not start until the end of the church age, when the church will be "raptured” from the earth. During the 70th week the Antichrist—a revived Roman tyrant that will oppose God—will oppress the Jews and bring upon the world, during the latter half of a delayed seventieth week, a 3½ year tribulation.
The dispensational interpretation of the chronological scheme of 9:24-27 is very widely used today in the English-speaking world and beyond. Of the leading voices the following are representative JA Seiss, Sir Robert Anderson, The Scofield Reference Bible; LS Chafer; AJ McClain and HA Ironside.
In dispensational premillennialism, described in more detail above, a 'hiatus', which some refer to as a 'biblical parenthesis', occurs between the 69th and 70th week of the prophecy, into which the "church age" is inserted (also known as the "gap theory" of Daniel 9). The seventieth week of the prophecy is expected to commence after the rapture of the church, which will incorporate the establishment of an economic system using the number '666', the reign of the beast (the Antichrist), the false religious system (the harlot), the Great Tribulation and Armageddon.
|List of Historicist Biblical Expositors on the 70 weeks
from the 3rd to 19th centuries
|The beginning and ending dates of the 70 weeks according to Seventh-day Adventist interpretation|
- Olivet discourse
- Post Tribulation Rapture
- Two Witnesses
- Year-day principle
- Collins 2003, p. 75.
- Seow & 2003 134-135.
- Collins 1984, p. 29,34-35.
- Collins 1984, p. 28.
- Redditt 2008, p. 176-177,180.
- Knibb 2006, p. 435.
- Hill 2009, p. no pagination.
- Carroll 2000, p. 420-421.
- Crawford 2000, p. 73.
- Davies 2006, p. 397-406.
- Collins 1984, p. 91.
- Collins 1984, p. 94, quoting Towner.
- Brettler 2010, p. 173.
- Brettler 2010, p. 36.
- Brettler 2010, p. 25-26.
- Hammer 1976, p. 8-11.
- Seow 2003, p. 30.
- Newsom & Breed 2014, p. 289 fn.1.
- Levine 2010, p. 1251 fn.9.1-19.
- Kratz 2001, p. 109.
- Brettler 2010, p. 214.
- Seow 2003, p. 139.
- Bergsma 2007, p. 176.
- Wessinger 2011, p. 136.
- Gallagher 2011, p. 137.
- Brettler 2010, p. 214-215.
- Seow 2003, p. 127.
- Seow 2003, p. 137.
- Seow, p. 148.
- Seow, p. 149-150.
- Seow 2003, p. 151.
- Weber 2007, p. 366.
- Ezra 7:15-26
- Daniel 9:25
- Daniel 9:24
- Daniel 9:27
- E.W. Hengstenberg, Christology of the Old Testament (reprint; McDill AFB, FL, 1973), pp. 803-930
- J.N. Andrews, The Commandment to Restore and to Rebuild Jerusalem (Battle Creek, MI 1865)
- E.B. Pusey, Daniel the Prophet, 2nd ed. (New York 1885), pp. 184-269
- J. Raska, Zur Berechnung der Siebzig Wochen Daniels, Theologisch-Praktische Quartal-schrift 54 (1904), pp. 13-27
- J. Hontheim, Das Todesjahr Christi und die Danielische Wochenprophetie, Katholik 34 (1906): 12-36, 96-128, 176-88, 254-81
- Boutflower, In and Around the Book of Daniel, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, 1963), pp. 168-211
- Smith, Uriah (1878). The Prophecies of Daniel and the Revelation. p. 828.
- O. Gerhardt, Die messianische Weissagung Daniel 9:24-27, NKZ 38 (1927): 561-87
- "11". Pay Attention to Daniel's Prophecy!. Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.
- "How Daniel’s Prophecy Foretells the Messiah’s Arrival". Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 2009.
- Insight on the Scriptures (Vol. II ed.). Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. pp. 899–901.
- Marshall 2012, p. =43-45.
- Marshall 2012, p. 43-45.
- Dictionary of Biblical Prophecy and End Times, by J. Daniel Hays, J. Scott Duvall, C. Marvin Pate
- J. Dwight Pentecost. Things to Come. Zondervan Publishing House.
- Sir Robert Anderson, The Coming Prince (ISBN 0-8254-2115-2)
- Blaising, Craig A.; Bock, Darrell L (1993). Progressive Dispensationalism. Wheaton, IL: BridgePoint. ISBN 1-56476-138-X.
- Ryrie, Charles Caldwell (1986). Basic Theology. Wheaton, Ill: Victor Books. pp. 508–9. ISBN 0-89693-814-X..
- Hasel, Gerhard (July 3, 1990), Crossroads in Prophetic Interpretation: Historicism versus Futurism (paper), Indianapolis, IN: World Ministers Council.
- Lee, Francis Nigel (2000), John's Revelation Unveiled.
- Gullon, David Pio (June 1998), Two Hundred Years From Lacunza: The Impact of His Eschatalogical Thought on Prophetic Studies and Modern Futurism, The First International Jerusalem Bible Conference.
- A Case for Historic Premillennialism, edited by Craig L. Blomberg, Sung Wook Chung, p28, estimates 18-25 million in the United States
- Evangelicals and Israel : The Story of American Christian Zionism, By Stephen Spector Professor of English Stony Brook University, p188, estimates 5 million "hard core" dispensationalists in the United States
- The Oxford Handbook of Millennialism, edited by Catherine Wessinger, p515, estimates as much as 40 million depending on criteria
- Mauro, Philip (1944) . The Seventy Weeks and the Great Tribulation. Philip Mauro Library. pp. 136:3.
- Mauro, Philip (1921). The Seventy Weeks and the Great Tribulation (1988 Revised ed.). Grace Abounding Ministries. pp. 1–4.
- T Kliefoth, Das Buch Daniel (1868)
- C. F. Keil, "The Book of Daniel," Commentary on the Old Testament, eds. C. F. Keil
- F. Delitzsch (Edinburgh, 1891), pp. 399-402
- H. C. Leupold, Exposition of Daniel, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, 1969) pp. 403-410
- J. Philip, By the Rivers of Babylon. Studies in the Book of Daniel (Aberdeen, 1972), p. 134
- P. Grelot, "Soixante-dixsemaines d'annees," Bib 50 (1969): 169-86
- J. A. Seiss, Voices From Babylon (Philadelphia, 1879)
- Sir Robert Anderson, The Coming Prince (London, 1909)
- C. I. Scofield, ed.. The Scofield Reference Bible (New York, 1911)
- L. S. Chafer, The Kingdom in History and Prophecy (Chicago, 1936)
- A. J. McClain, Daniel's Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks (Grand Rapids, 1940)
- H. A. Ironside, The Great Parenthesis (Grand Rapids, 1943)
- Pentecost, J. Dwight (1958). Things to Come: A Study in Biblical Eschatology (Zondervan reprint ed.). Dunham Publishing Co. ISBN 0310873959.
- After table in Froom 1950, pp. 456–7
- After table in Froom 1950, pp. 894–5
- After table in Froom 1948, pp. 528–9
- After table in Froom 1948, pp. 784–5
- After table in Froom 1946, pp. 252–3
- After table in Froom 1946, pp. 744–5
- Bandstra, Barry L. (2008). Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Wadsworth Publishing Company.
- Bergsma, John Sietze (2007). The Jubilee from Leviticus to Qumran. BRILL.
- Boyer, Paul S. (1992). When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-95129-8.
- Brettler, Mark Zvi (2005). How To Read the Bible. Jewish Publication Society.
- Carroll, John T. (2000). "Eschatology". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Cohn, Shaye J.D. (2006). From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Westminster John Knox Press.
- Collins, John J. (1984). Daniel: With an Introduction to Apocalyptic Literature. Eerdmans.
- Collins, John J. (1998). The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature. Eerdmans.
- Collins, John J. (2001). "Current Issues in the Study of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception I. BRILL.
- Collins, John J. (2003). "From Prophecy to Apocalypticism: The Expectation of the End". In McGinn, Bernard; Collins, John J.; Stein, Stephen J. The Continuum History of Apocalypticism. Continuum.
- Coogan, Michael (2009). A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 400.
- Crawford, Sidnie White (2000). "Apocalyptic". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Davidson, Robert (1993). "Jeremiah, Book of". In Metzger, Bruce M.; Coogan, Michael D. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press.
- Davies, Philip (2006). "Apocalyptic". In Rogerson, J. W.; Lieu, Judith M. The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. Oxford Handbooks Online.
- DeChant, Dell (2009). "Apocalyptic Communities". In Neusner, Jacob. World Religions in America: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press.
- Doukhan, Jacques (2000). Secrets of Daniel: wisdom and dreams of a Jewish prince in exile. Review and Herald Pub Assoc.
- Dunn, James D.G. (2002). "The Danilic Son of Man in the New Testament". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1950). Early Church Exposition, Subsequent Deflections, and Medieval Revival. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation 1. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 1006.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1948). Pre-Reformation and Reformation Restoration, and Second Departure. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation 2. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 863.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1946). PART I, Colonial and Early National American Exposition. PART II, Old World Nineteenth Century Advent Awakening. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation 3. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 802.
- Gallagher, Eugene V. (2011). "Millennialism, Scripture, and Tradition". In Wessinger, Catherine. The Oxford Handbook of Millennialism. Oxford University Press.
- Goldingay, John J. (2002). "Daniel in the Context of OT Theology". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception II. BRILL.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2010). An Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel, and Jesus. Continuum.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2002). Judaic Religion in the Second Temple Period: Belief and Practice from the Exile to Yavneh. Routledge.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2002). "A Dan(iel) For All Seasons". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Hammer, Raymond (1976). The Book of Daniel. Cambridge University Press.
- Harrington, Daniel J. (1999). Invitation to the Apocrypha. Eerdmans.
- Hill, Andrew E. (2008). "Daniel-Malachi". In Longman, Tremper; Garland, David E. The Expositor's Bible Commentary 8. Zondervan.
- Hill, Charles E. (2000). "Antichrist". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Holbrook, Frank B. (1986). The Seventy Weeks, Leviticus, and the Nature of Prophecy (Volume 3 of Daniel and Revelation Committee Series ed.). Biblical Research Institute, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. ISBN 0925675024.
- Horsley, Richard A. (2007). Scribes, Visionaries, and the Politics of Second Temple Judea. Presbyterian Publishing Corp.
- Knibb, Michael (2009). Essays on the Book of Enoch and Other Early Jewish Texts and Traditions. BRILL.
- Knibb, Michael (2006). The Septuagint and Messianism. Peeters Publishers.
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- Koch, Klaus (2002). "Stages in the Canonization of the Book of daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
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- Levine, Amy-Jill (2010). "Daniel". In Coogan, Michael D.; Brettler, Marc Z.; Newsom, Carol A. The new Oxford annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical books : New Revised Standard Version. Oxford University Press.
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- Nichol, F., ed. (1954). "chronology chart". SDA Bible Commentary. pp. 326–327.
- Niskanen, Paul (2004). The Human and the Divine in History: Herodotus and the Book of Daniel. Continuum.
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- Daniel 9 The Seventy Weeks, Jews for Judaism audio file
- The 9th chapter of Daniyyel by Mordochai ben Tziyyon, former Professor of Jewish Bible Studies at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
- The 70 Weeks and 457 B.C.
- When Did the Seventy Weeks of Daniel 9:24 Begin?
- A Critical Examination of the Seventy Weeks Prophecy