Proportionality for Solid Coalitions

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Proportionality for Solid Coalitions (PSC) is a voting system criterion relating to ranked voting systems. It's the essential requirement[1] to guarantee a proportional representation of voters in multiple winner ranked voting systems.

Solid Coalitions[edit]

A set of voters is a solid coalition for a set of candidates , if every voter in ranks every candidate in ahead of every candidate that is not in .

In the following let be the number of voters, be the number of seats to be filled and be some positive integer.


–PSC is defined with respect to the Hare quota . If is a solid coalition for and the number of Voters in is at least Hare quotas, then at least candidates from must be elected (if has less than candidates at all, then all of them have to be elected).[2] This criterion was proposed by Michael Dummett.[3]


–PSC is defined like –PSC, but with respect to the Hagenbach-Bischoff quota instead of the Hare quota: the number of voters in must exceed Hagenbach-Bischoff quotas.[2] It is a generalization of the majority criterion in the sense that it relates to groups of supported candidates (solid coalitions) instead of just one candidate, and there may be more than one seat to be filled. Because some authors call the fraction Droop Quota, –PSC is also known as Droop proportionality criterion.[1]


  1. ^ a b D. R. Woodall: Monotonicity of single-seat preferential election rules. Discrete Applied Mathematics 77 (1997), p. 83–84.
  2. ^ a b Tideman N.: Collective Decisions and Voting. Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Aldershot, 2006, p. 268–269.
  3. ^ Dummett, M.: Voting procedures. Oxford Clarendon Press (1984).