Proposed states and union territories of India

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Aspirant States and Union territories of India.
The states of India in 1951. Note that Sikkim was independent until 1975.

The constitutional power to create new states and union territories in India is solely reserved to the Parliament of India. Parliament can do so by announcing new states/union territories, separating territory from an existing state or merging two or more states/union territories or parts of them.[1] In addition to the existing 28 states and 8 union territories,[2] some new states and union territories of India have at various times been proposed to be established.[3]

Indian constitution under (Part I: The Union and its territory) allows certain provisions for creation of new states and union territories under Indian union-:

1) Name and territory of the Union.

2) Admission or establishment of new States.

3) Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States.

4) Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.[4] However, at the same time, demanding separate statehood from the existing state can lead to criminal charges under Secession law in India.[5]

History[edit]

Before independence, India was divided into British-administered provinces and nominally autonomous princely states, which were governed by the British administration. After the partition of India, some of these administrative divisions became part of the Dominion of Pakistan, whilst the remaining states and provinces formed the Dominion of India. The colonial system of administration continued until 1956 when the States Reorganisation Act abolished the provinces and princely states in favour of new states which were based on language and ethnicity.

Several new states and union territories have been created out of the existing states since 1956. The Bombay Reorganisation Act split the Bombay State into the present-day states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 on a linguistic basis.[6] The state of Nagaland was created on 1 December 1963.[7] The Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 carved out a new Hindi-speaking state of Haryana from the southern districts of Punjab state,[8] transferred the northern districts to Himachal Pradesh and designated a union territory around Chandigarh, the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana.[9]

Statehood was conferred upon Himachal Pradesh on 25 January 1971,[10] and upon Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura on 21 January 1972.[11] The Kingdom of Sikkim joined the Indian Union as a state on 26 April 1975.[12] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May of the same year. Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu became a separate union territory.[13]

Three new states were created in November 2000: Chhattisgarh (1 November) was created out of eastern Madhya Pradesh;[14] Uttaranchal (9 November), which was later renamed Uttarakhand,[15] was created out of the mountainous districts of northwest Uttar Pradesh;[16] and Jharkhand (15 November) was created out of the southern districts of Bihar.[17]

On 2 June 2014, Telangana was separated from Andhra Pradesh as the 29th state of the union.[18] On 31 October 2019, Jammu and Kashmir state was split into two new Union Territories: Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.[19] On 26 January 2020, the Union Territory of Daman and Diu and the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli were merged into one Union Territory: the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.[20]

India may have 50 states in near future if all statehood demands are conceded.[21]

Table of all proposed States[edit]

A hypothetical administrative division map of India with 40 states, 2 union territories (Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep) and 1 National Capital Territory (Delhi), with their capitals
Proposed State Current States Districts People Language Ref.
Awadh Uttar Pradesh Ambedkar Nagar, Bahraich, Balrampur, Barabanki, Basti, Siddharth Nagar, Faizabad, Gonda, Lakhimpur Kheri, Sitapur, Hardoi, Lucknow, Pratapgarh, Raebareli, Amethi, Shravasti, Jaunpur, Bhadohi, Sultanpur, Unnao, Fatehpur, Kaushambi, Allahabad, Kanpur, Kanpur Dehat , Etawah, Auraiya, Kannauj Awadhi Awadhi
Bagelkhand Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh Singrauli, Rewa, Satna, Shahdol, Sidhi, Anuppur, Umaria in Madhya Pradesh

Chitrakoot in Uttar Pradesh

Baghel Bagheli
Barak State Assam Cachar, Karimganj, Hailakandi Bengalis Bengali [22]
Bhil Pradesh Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat Bhils Bhili [23]
Bhojpur Uttar Pradesh, Bihar Basti, Sidharthanagar, Sant Kabir Nagar, Gorakhpur, Deoria, Kushinagar, Maharajganj, Azamgarh, Ballia, Mau, Varanasi, Chandauli, Ghazipur, Jaunpur, Mirzapur, Bhadohi in Uttar Pradesh and Kaimur, Bhojpur, Buxar, Rohtas, Saran, Siwan, Gopalganj, Vaishali, Champaran, Sheohar, Sitamarhi, Muzaffarpur in Bihar Bhojpuri Bhojpuri [24]
Bodoland Assam Kokrajhar, Chirang, Baksa, Udalguri Bodo Boro [25]
Braj Uttar Pradesh Mathura district, Agra, Aligarh, Farrukhabad, Etawah, Auraiya Braj Bhasha
Bruland Mizoram Reang Reang
Bundelkhand Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh Jhansi, Lalitpur, Urai, Jalon, Banda, Chitrakoot, Hamirpur, Mauranipur, Mahoba in Uttar Pradesh

Sagar, Damoh, Panna, Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh, Shivpuri, Datia and some parts of Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh

Bundela Bundeli [26]
Chakmaland Mizoram Chakma Chakma Chakma [27]
Dimaraji Nagaland, Assam Dima Hasao, parts of Cachar, Nagaon, Hojai, Karbi Anglong in Assam

part of Dimapur in Nagaland

Dimasa Dimasa [28]
East Nagaland Nagaland [29]
Garoland Meghalaya East Garo Hills, West Garo Hills, South Garo Hills, North Garo Hills, South West Garo Hills Garo Garo [30]
Gorkhaland West Bengal Kalimpong, Darjeeling Gurkha Nepali [31]
Gondwana Madhya Pradesh Mandla, Chinndwara, Dindori, Seoni and Balaghat Gondi Gondi [32]
Harit Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Agra, Aligarh, Bareilly, Meerut, Moradabad, Saharanpur, Farrukhabad, Etawah, Auraiya
Hmarland Mizoram Hmar Hmar
Indraprasta state Delhi All 11 districts [33]
Jammu Jammu and Kashmir Anantnag, Baramulla, Budgam, Bandipore, Ganderbal, Kupwara, Kulgam, Pulwama, Shopian, Srinagar Dogras Dogri [34]
JungleMahal West Bengal Purulia, Jhargram, Bankura, parts of Birbhum, Purbo Medinipur, Paschim Medinipur [35]
Kamtapur West Bengal, Assam Goalpara, Dhubri, Kamrup in Assam and Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri in West Bengal Rangpuri [36]
Karbi Anglong Assam Karbi Anglong, West Karbi Anglong [37]
Kashmir Jammu and Kashmir Jammu, Doda, Kathua, Ramban, Reasi, Kishtwar, Poonch, Rajouri, Udhampur, Samba
Kodagu Karnataka Kodagu Kodava Kodagu [38]
Kongu Nadu Tamil Nadu Coimbatore, Erode, Dharmapuri, Salem, Karur, Tirupur Kongu Tamil [39]
Konkan Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka Palghar, Thane, Mumbai Suburban, Mumbai City, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg in Maharastha

Goa

Uttara Kannada in Karnataka

Konkani Konkani
Kosal Odisha Nuapada, Nabarangpur, Kalahandi, Balangir, Subarnapur, Bargarh, Sambalpur, Deogarh, Jharsuguda, Sundargarh Some part of Anugul & Some parts of Gariaband Sambalpuri [40]
Kukiland Manipur Kuki Kuki
Kutch Gujarat Kutch Kutchi Kutchi
Mahakoshal Madhya Pradesh Jabalpur, Chhindwara, Katni, Narsinghpur, Mandla, Dindori, and Seoni [41]
Malwa Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan Agar, Dewas, Dhar, Indore, Jhabua, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Shajapur, Ujjain, and parts of Guna and Sehore in Madhya Pradesh

Jhalawar and parts of Banswara and Pratapgarh in Rajasthan

Malvi
Marathwada Maharashtra Aurangabad, Beed, Hingoli, Jalna, Latur, Nanded, Osmanabad, Parbhani
Maru Pradesh Rajasthan Barmer, Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Jhunjhunu, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali, Jalore, Sirohi, Sikar. Marwari Marwari [42]
Mithila/Mithilanchal Bihar, Jharkhand Araria, Begusarai, Bhagalpur, Banka, Darbhanga, Katihar, Khagaria, Kishanganj, Madhepura, Madhubani, Muzaffarpur, Purnia, Saharsa, Samastipur, Sheohar, Sitamarhi, Supaul, Vaishali, Munger, Jamui in Bihar

Deoghar, Dumka, Godda, Jamtara, Pakaur, Sahebganj in Jharkhand

Maithils Maithili [43]
North Bengal West Bengal Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Jalpaiguri, Alipurduar, Cooch Behar, Malda, Uttar Dinajpur, Dakshin Dinajpur [44]
North Karnataka Karnataka Belgaum, Bijapur, Bagalkot, Bidar, Bellary, Gulbarga, Yadgir, Raichur, Gadag, Dharwad, Haveri, Koppal, Vijayanagar [45]
Panun Kashmir Jammu and Kashmir Kashmiri Hindus [46]
Pashchim Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Agra, Aligarh, Bareilly, Meerut, Moradabad, Saharanpur, Farrukhabad, Etawah, Auraiya
Purvanchal Uttar Pradesh Azamgarh, Ballia, Basti, Chandauli, Deoria, Ghazipur, Gorakhpur, Jaunpur, Kushinagar, Maharajganj, Mau, Mirzapur, Sant Kabir Nagar, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Siddharth Nagar, Varanasi. Purvanchali Bhojpuri [47]
Rayalaseema Andhra Pradesh Anantapur, Chittoor, Kadapa, Kurnool [48]
Rewakhand Madhya Pradesh
Saurashtra Gujarat Devbhoomi Dwarka, Jamnagar, Morbi, Rajkot, Porbandar, Junagadh, Gir Somnath, Amreli, Bhavnagar, Botad, Surendranagar and part of Ahmedabad Saurashtrians Saurashtra
Sindhi State Rajasthan, Gujarat Kutch Sindhis Sindhi [49]
Taniland Arunachal Pradesh, Assam Tani Tani
Tipraland Tripura TTAADC Tripuri Kokborok [50]
Tulu Nadu Karnataka, Kerala Dakshina Kannada, Udupi in Karnataka

Kasaragod in Kerala

Tuluva Tulu [51]
Vidarbha Maharashtra Nagpur, Amravati, Wardha, Chandrapur, Bhandara, Gadchiroli, Gondia, Yavatmal, Akola, Washim, Buldhana Marathi Marathi [52]
Vindhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Panna, Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh, Datia, Rewa, Satna, Sidhi, Shahdol, Singrauli [53]

Andhra Pradesh[edit]

Rayalaseema[edit]

Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh comprises four districts namely, Kurnool, Kadapa, Anantapur and Chittoor. On various occasions, there have been demand for the statehood of Rayalaseema.[54] Grievances include lack of development, not establishing Kurnool City as the capital and non-implementation of Sribagh Pact.[55] Rayalaseema Parirakshana Samithi was formed by Byreddy Rajasekhar Reddy in 2013 to champion the cause for a separate Rayalaseema state. There have also been demands to include two coastal districts of Prakasam and Nellore district to form Greater Rayalaseema.[56]

Assam[edit]

Bodoland[edit]

The agitation for the creation of a separate Bodoland state resulted in an agreement between the Indian Government, the Assam state government and the Bodo Liberation Tigers Force. According to the agreement made on 10 February 2003, the Bodoland Territorial Council, an entity subordinate to the government of Assam, was created to govern four districts covering 3082 Bodo Kachari-majority villages in Assam.[57][58] Elections to the council were held on 13 May 2003, and Hagrama Mohilary was sworn in as the chief of the 46-member council on 4 June.[59]

Karbi Anglong[edit]

Karbi Anglong is one of the 35 districts of Assam. Karbi Anglong was previously known as Mikir Hills. It was part of the Excluded Areas and Partially Excluded Areas (the present North East India) in British India. The British Indian government had never included this area under their government's jurisdiction. Thereby, no government development work or activity were done, nor any tax levied from the hills including Karbi Anglong. The first memorandum for a Karbi homeland was presented to Governor Reid on 28 October 1940 by Semsonsing Ingti and Khorsing Terang at Mohongdijua.[60] The Karbi leaders were then, a part of the All Party Hill Leaders' Conference (APHLC) which was formed on 6 July 1960.[61] The movement again gained momentum when the Karbi Anglong District Council passed a resolution demanding a Separate State in 1981. Then again from 1986 through the leadership of Autonomous State Demand Committee (ASDC), demanded Autonomous statehood of Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao under Article 244(A). In 2002, the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council passed another resolution to press for the demand of statehood. Several other memoranda were submitted at different times by several organisations. The demand for a separate state turned violent on 31 July 2013 when student demonstrators set government buildings on fire. Following the incident, the elected leaders of Karbi Anglong jointly submitted a memorandum to the Prime Minister of India demanding a separate State.

Dimaraji[edit]

The Dimasa people of northeast India have been demanding a separate state called Dimaraji or "Dimaland" for several decades. It would comprise the Dimasa-Kachari inhabited areas, namely Dima Hasao district, Cachar district, parts of Hojai district, Karimganj district, Hailakandi district and Karbi Anglong district in Assam together with part of Dimapur district in Nagaland.

Barak State[edit]

The Barak Valley comprising the present districts of Cachar, Karimganj and Hailakandi is contiguous to Sylhet (Bengal plains), where the Bengali Hindus, according to historian J.B. Bhattacharjee, had settled well before the colonial period, influencing the culture of Dimasa Kacharis.Karimganj was previously part of the Sylhet District of Assam before the Partition of India.The Karimganj area remained a part of India and Assam despite being Muslim majority, according to the terms of Sylhet referendum.[62] Bhattacharjee describes that the Dimasa kings spoke Bengali and the inscriptions and coins written were in Bengali script.[62] Migrations to Cachar increased after the British annexation of the region.[62]

The native Bengali people of Assam demanded separate state for themselves within the Bengali majority areas of Assam particularly Bengali majority Barak valley comprising three districts: Cachar, Hailakandi, Karimganj along with Dima Hasao and Lumding was also demanded to meet the criteria for creating a separate state for themselves by carving out from Assam's Assamese majority Brahmaputra valley post NRC.[63][64][65][66] Silchar is the proposed capital of Barak state.[67] Barak valley is the most neglected part of Assam in terms of its infrastructure development, tourism sector, educational institutions, hospitals, IT industries, G.D.P, H.D.I etc. which is still lagging behind in comparison to the Assam's mainland Brahmaputra valley which have access to all of those facilities mentioned above.[68][69][70][71][72][73] In fact, the southern Assam have an overall indigenous Bengali majority population particularly Lumding have (95%) Bengali majority,[74] Barak Valley region have an overwhelming Bengali majority of about (80.3%), while Dima Hasao have approximately (30.2%) significant Bengali plurality on certain pockets specially in the urban areas of the district.[75]

Bihar[edit]

Bhojpur[edit]

There have been demands for a Bhojpur state, comprising the Bhojpuri speaking districts of western Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh.[76][77][78]

Mithila[edit]

Mithila is a proposed state which would cover the Maithili speaking regions of Bihar and Jharkhand. There is no consensus on a proposed capital though Begusarai, Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur and Purnia have been suggested as candidate cities for the proposed capital.[79]

Delhi[edit]

The political administration of Delhi more closely resembles that of a state than a union territory, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the Union government and the local government of Delhi. The previous National Democratic Alliance government introduced a bill in Parliament in 2003, to grant full statehood to Delhi, but the legislation was not passed. Till today Formation of a state from territories of UT of Delhi and parts of surrounding states by the name Indraprastha is not possible.[80]

Gujarat[edit]

Bhil Pradesh[edit]

The establishment of Bhil Pradesh[81] has been a demand for over 30 years.[82] The 1999 book Untouchable Dalits in Modern India by S. M. Michael reported the demand for Bhil Pradesh.[83] Media outlets reported that the Bhil Pradesh movement has been gaining ground in the tribal regions of Bharuch.[84] The Daily News and Analysis reported in 2013 that the formation of Telangana state has reignited hopes for the demand of statehood to this region, comprising the tribal dominated parts of Gujarat and neighbouring states Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Maharashtra.[82]

Kutch[edit]

Kutch State or Cutch State, covering Kutch district of Gujarat, Great Rann of Kutch and Little Rann of Kutch, is an aspirant, both as an independent state and as a combined Saurashtra. Saurashtra State (alias Kathiawar, uniting very many former princely states) and former Salute state Kutch State existed as separate states from 1947 to 1956.[85][86] They were Part-B and Part-C states of India respectively. They were later merged with Bombay state following the States Re-organisation Act.[87] They became part of Gujarat after the bifurcation of Bombay state on 1 May 1960 following the Mahagujarat Movement. Some people demand a return of statehood to Saurashtra and Kutch citing slow development of the regions.[88] Apart from these two separate state-hood demands there is as demand for separate Bhilistan state.[85][82][89]

At the time of the integration of the princely state of Kutch with India in 1947, the accession was done on the condition that Kutch would retain the status of a separate state. It enjoyed this status till 1960, when a separate state of Gujarat was carved out of Maharashtra and Kutch was merged with it. The main reason behind a separate state is cultural and geographical distance from Gandhinagar. In 1960, Kutch was promised an autonomous development board under Article 371(2) of the Constitution, which never came into existence due to lack of political will. Water from river Narmada does not reach the farms of this region.[90]

Saurashtra[edit]

The Saurashtra state movement for separate Saurashtra state was initiated in 1972 by advocate Ratilal Tanna, who was a close aide of former Prime Minister Morarji Desai. As per the Saurashtra Sankalan Samiti, more than 300 organisations across the Saurashtra region support the demand of the separate State. The Samiti also claims that compared to other parts of Gujarat, Saurashtra is underdeveloped. Lack of better water supply to the region, lack of job opportunities and subsequent youth migration have been cited as major reasons for the demand of statehood.[85][82][91] Saurashtra is linguistically different from the rest of the state with its Saurashtra dialect being in use.[92]

Jammu and Kashmir[edit]

Jammu state and Kashmir state[edit]

Ethnic Kashmiri leaders, including writer and opinion leader Ghulam Nabi Khayal, have called for the division of Jammu and Kashmir into separate states as a possible solution to the Kashmir conflict.[citation needed] The proposed state of Kashmir comprises the Kashmir Division and the proposed state of Jammu comprises the Jammu Division. The Jammu region is demographically very different from the Kashmir valley. It is primarily inhabited by Dogras, Gujjars and Sikhs who speak the Dogri, Gojri, Punjabi languages.

In late 2020, IkkJutt Jammu was launched as a party and demanded Jammu Division be separated and given statehood. The party also supports splitting Kashmir Division into two union territories, with one for Kashmiri Hindus.[93]

Panun Kashmir[edit]

Panun Kashmir is a superficial proposed union territory in the Kashmir Valley which is advocated by the Kashmiri Pandit Network as a homeland for Kashmiri Hindus who have fled the Kashmir valley as a result of ongoing violence and hope to return.[94]

Karnataka[edit]

Karu Nadu[edit]

North Karnataka is a geographical region consisting of mostly semi-arid plateau from 300 to 730 metres (980 to 2,400 ft) elevation that constitutes the northern part of the Karnataka state in India. It is drained by the Krishna River and its tributaries the Bhima, Ghataprabha, Malaprabha, and Tungabhadra. North Karnataka lies within the Deccan thorn scrub forests ecoregion, which extends north into eastern Maharashtra.

The proposed state of North Karnataka includes the districts of Bagalkot, Belagavi, Bellary, Bidar, Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri, Kalaburagi, Koppal, Raichur, Vijayanagar, Vijayapura and Yadgir.

Major cities and towns in the region are Bagalkot, Belgaum, Bellary, Bidar, Bijapur, Dharwad, Gadag, Gangavati, Gokak, Haveri, Hospet, Hubli, Ilkal, Kalaburgi, Koppal, Raichur, Ranebennur, Sindhanur and Yadgir.

There is a notable difference from the regions of Old Mysore, Coastal Karnataka and Central Karnataka in terms of language, cuisine and culture. The region is well known for its contributions to the literature, arts, architecture, economy and politics of Karnataka.[95][96]

Tulu Nadu[edit]

Tulu Nadu is a border region between the states of Karnataka and Kerala in southern India. The demand for a separate state is based on a distinct culture and language (Tulu, which does not have official status), and neglect of the region by the two state governments.[97][98] To counter these demands and accusations, the Karnataka and Kerala state governments have created the Tulu Sahitya Academy to preserve and promote Tuluva culture.[99] The proposed state would comprise three existing districts; Dakshina Kannada and Udupi from Karnataka, and Kasaragod district from Kerala.

Konkan[edit]

Konkan is a rugged section of the western coastline of India. It consists of the coastal districts of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. The ancient sapta-Konkan is a slightly larger region described in the Sahyadrikhanda which refers to it as "Parashuramakshetra". The proposed Konkan state includes the districts of Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg of Maharashtra, north and south districts of Goa and Karwar up to Aghanashini in Karnataka.[100][101][102]

Kodagu[edit]

Kodagu is a district of Karnataka that is predominantly inhabited by Kodava people. Codava National Council (CNC) is demanding to make it an "autonomous region."[103]

Madhya Pradesh[edit]

Madhya Pradesh is the second largest by area and holds nearly 9.37% of land area of country. It also has approximately 10% of India's population. The regions of Madhya Pradesh are ethno-linguistically very different and find no connect to each other. Hence there has been a constant demand to divide the state into smaller states with homogenous population

Baghelkhand, Bundelkhand and Vindhya Pradesh[edit]

Vindhya Pradesh is a newly proposed state of India. It occupied an area of 23,603 sq. miles.[104] It was created in 1948, shortly after the independence of India, from the territories of the princely states in the eastern portion of the former Central India Agency. It was named for the Vindhya Range, which runs through the center of the province. The capital of the state was firstly Singrauli, then Rewa. It lay between Uttar Pradesh to the north and Madhya Pradesh to the south, and the enclave of Datia, which lay a short distance to the west, was surrounded by the state of Madhya Bharat.

Vindhya Pradesh was merged into Madhya Pradesh in 1956, following the States Re-organisation Act.[87] In 2000, Sriniwas Tiwari, ex-speaker of the Madhya Pradesh assembly, called for nine districts to be separated from Madhya Pradesh to create a new state of Vindhya Pradesh, although this was rejected by the Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh.[105] Separate Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand states instead of a single Vindhya Pradesh is advocated as well to accommodate the districts claimed by these regions from neighboring state of Uttar Pradesh.[106][107]

Demand of Bundelkhand state is gaining popularity nowadays, Ex Chief Minister of MP, Member of Parliament, BJP Veteran leader Uma Bharti has assured people of the region to raise voice for separate Bundelkhand state, apart from her Ex Chief Minister of UP Mayawati has also expressed her support for Bundelkhand state, Bundelkhand state would comprise more than 16 districts, prominent districts and areas are Jhansi, Lalitpur, Urai, Jalon, Banda, Chitrakoot, Hamirpur, Mauranipur, Mahoba in Uttar Pradesh and Sagar, Damoh, Panna, Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh, Shivpuri, Datia and some parts of Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh. Recently, voice for Bundelkhand state is raised by Bundelkhand Mukti Morcha headed by Raja Bundela of Lalitpur, who is continuously working to get it organised but still there is no serious action have been taken by any government of MP and UP.

Mahakoshal and Gondwana[edit]

Mahakoshal is a region which lies in the upper or eastern reaches of the Narmada River valley in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Cities and districts of the region include Jabalpur, Chhindwara, Katni, Narsinghpur, Mandla, Dindori, and Seoni. The largest city and a possible capital is Jabalpur. Organisations such as Mahakaushal Mukti Morcha and Bharatiya Janashakti have demanded separate statehood for the region.[108][109]

It is alleged that though the Mahakoshal region is rich in minerals, forests, water and land resources, related industries were set up in nearby states.[109] Also, the region has a distinct cultural identity owing to Jabalpur city, known as the Sanskardhani (cultural capital) of the State, one of the oldest towns of central India. Culturally and socially, the Mahakoshal region differs greatly from the neighbouring Vindhya Pradesh. One of the key reasons for this is said to be that large parts of Mahakoshal were under direct British rule from the nineteenth century onwards, turning it into a relatively progressive, modern and liberal area and infusing democratic values into its body politic. Casteism and feudalism are said to be not as deeply rooted in this region as they are in Vindhya Pradesh.[110]

A parallel demand for a state of Gondwana from the same Mahakoshal region of Madhya Pradesh has arisen owing to the fact that vast areas of Mahakoshal were ruled by Gond kings and even today, Mandla, Chinndwara, Dindori, Seoni and Balaghat have a predominantly Gond tribal population. Tribals constitute 64 per cent of the total population of Dindori district. For Mandla, the corresponding figure is 57 per cent. The Gondwana Gantantra party (GGP) was established in 1991, with the objective to struggle for the creation of a separate Gondwana State comprising regions that were ruled by Gonds. The Gondwana Gantantra party (GGP) has since divided into numerous factions such as Rashtriya Gondwana party and Gondwana Mukti Dal.[110]

Malwa[edit]

There have been demands for a separate Malwa state with the probable capital at Indore. The region includes the Madhya Pradesh districts of Agar, Dewas, Dhar, Indore, Jhabua, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Shajapur, Ujjain, and parts of Guna district and Sehore, and the Rajasthan districts of Jhalawar and parts of Banswara and Pratapgarh.

The main language of Malwa is Malvi, although Hindi is widely spoken in the cities. This Indo-European language is subclassified as Indic. The language is sometimes referred to as Malavi or Ujjaini. Malvi is part of the Rajasthani branch of languages; Nimadi is spoken in the Nimar region of Madhya Pradesh and in Rajasthan. The dialects of Malvi are, in alphabetical order, Bachadi, Bhoyari, Dholewari, Hoshangabadi, Jamral, Katiyai, Malvi Proper, Patvi, Rangari, Rangri and Sondwari. A survey in 2001 found only four dialects: Ujjaini (in the districts of Ujjain, Indore, Dewas and Sehore), Rajawari (Ratlam, Mandsaur and Neemuch), Umadwari (Rajgarh) and Sondhwari (Jhalawar, in Rajasthan). About 55% of the population of Malwa can converse in and about 40% of the population is literate in Hindi, the official language of the Madhya Pradesh state.[111]

Rewakhand[edit]

An initiative has been started by MP High Court Bar council with a demand of a new state of "Rewakhand" from the eastern half of the state combining all the regions of Vindhya Pradesh, Bundelkhand, Baghelkhand and Mahakoshal.

Maharashtra[edit]

Konkan[edit]

The Konkan region is a section of land along the north-western coast of India and the north Western Ghats, Konkan lies in between the Deccan plateau and the Arabian sea. It consists of the westernmost districts of Damaon, Maharashtra & Goa. The ancient sapta-Konkan is a slightly larger region described in the Sahyadrikhanda which refers to it as "Parashuramakshetra".[100] The proposed Konkan state includes the historically Konkani speaking districts of the Konkan division, Goa and Damaon and a portion of the Carwar district.[101][102]

Marathwada[edit]

Marathwada is one of the five divisions of Maharashtra. The region coincides with the Aurangabad Division of Maharashtra. Marathwada came under the rule of the Nizam of Hyderabad, which later became the princely state of Hyderabad, under the suzerainty of British India. Subsequently, through Operation Polo, a "police action" on 17 September 1948, the Indian army annexed Hyderabad to India and on 1 November 1956, Marathwada was formed by merging Hyderabad State and Bombay state. On 1 May 1960, Bombay state was divided into Maharashtra and Gujarat states, Marathwada becoming a part of the former. There have been demands for a separate Marathwaada state.[112]

Vidarbha[edit]

Vidarbha is a region that comprises the Amravati and Nagpur divisions of eastern Maharashtra. The State Reorganisation Act of 1956 placed Vidarbha in Bombay State. Shortly after this, the States Reorganisation Commission recommended the creation of Vidarbha state with Nagpur as the capital, but instead it was included in Maharashtra state, which was formed on 1 May 1960. Support for a separate state of Vidarbha had been expressed by Loknayak Bapuji Aney and Brajlal Biyani. The demand for the creation of a separate state are based on allegations of neglect by the Maharashtra state government. Jambuwantrao Dhote led a popular struggle for Vidarbha statehood in the 1970s. Two politicians, N. K. P. Salve and Vasant Sathe, have led attempts to bring about a state of Vidarbha in recent times.

The BJP supported the Vidarbha statehood demand and it won 44 out of the 62 seats in Vidarbha region in the 2014 Maharashtra Legislative assembly election and got majority in the Maharashtra Legislative assembly. However, BJP didn't create a separate state after winning the election. In the following 2019 legislative assembly election, BJP was defeated badly and it won only 29 seats.[113]

Meghalaya[edit]

North Eastern autonomous divisions

Garoland[edit]

Garo Hills Autonomous District Council (GHADC) is seated at Tura and covers East Garo Hills district, West Garo Hills district, South Garo Hills District, North Garo Hills District and South West Garo Hills District is one of the three Autonomous District Councils within Meghalaya state, and one of fourteen autonomous regions of India.

The Garo National Council is a political party in Meghalaya in northeastern India. Founded by Clifford R. Marak, the party fights for the creation a new state Garoland of a Garo-majority state, to be carved out of three districts of Meghalaya, West Garo Hills, East Garo Hills, and South Garo Hills. The Garoland demand of GNC is different from that of the separatist guerrilla Achik National Volunteer Council. ANVC also demands that parts of Assam ought to be part of Garoland.

GNC won one seat in the Garo Hills Autonomous District Council elections in 2002.

In the state assembly elections in Meghalaya of 2003, GNC had put up seven candidates, whom together received 8,483 votes. Clifford Marak, the only GNC MLA in the state legislature, died on 1 March 2015 of liver and kidney disease.

Mizoram[edit]

Chakmaland[edit]

The Chakma people has been demanding to change the status of the Chakma Autonomous District Council into a union territory under the name Chakmaland.[114][115]

Chakmaland is a proposed union territory for the predominantly Buddhist Chakma people in Mizoram which is their own homeland (Western Mizoram) that came under Indian territory from Chittagong Hill Track (CHT Bangladesh) in 1947 during partition. Chakmas have been demanding to convert the existing Chakma Autonomous District Council and areas of Tlabung in Mizoram into a union territory. The Chakma people have faced discrimination by the Mizo people, who are predominantly Christian.[116]

Odisha[edit]

Kosal[edit]

The Kosal state movement is an effort by people of the Western Odisha region of India to secede from the state of Odisha.[when?][citation needed] Organizations like Western Odisha Yuva Manch (WOYM), Kosal Youth Coordination Committee (KYCC), Kosal State Coordination Committee (KSCC), KOSHAL SENA are mainly leading this.

The demand for secession from the state of Odisha arose mostly because of the prolonged underdevelopment and backwardness of this region. Pro-separatist groups have repeatedly claimed the state government is not doing enough for the development of undeveloped districts of western Odisha.[citation needed]

To develop the western Odisha region, the state government has established a Western Odisha Development Council (WODC).[117] A significant budget is allotted to this council from the total budget of Odisha. But the WODC headquarter is located in the state capital Bhubaneswar rather than in Western Odisha.[118]

Rajasthan[edit]

Maru Pradesh[edit]

Maru Pradesh (मरुप्रदेश) is a proposed desert state in North West India, to be carved out from the state of Rajasthan.[119] The proposed state consists of Barmer district, Jaisalmer district, Bikaner district, Churu district, Ganganagar district, Hanumangarh district, Jhunjhunu district, Jodhpur district, Nagaur district, Pali district, Jalore district, Sirohi district and Sikar district.

When the then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee created three new states in the year 2000, Bhairon Singh Shekhawat wrote a letter saying that for the development of the entire Rajasthan and the internal security of the country, two parts of the state were go done.

Tamil Nadu[edit]

Kongu Nadu[edit]

Kongu Nadu region within state of Tamil Nadu

There is a demand for the formation of Kongu Nadu State by bifurcating Tamil Nadu.[120] In 2021 the Bharatiya Janata Party's (BJP) Coimbatore North district demanded separate statehood to Kongu Nadu.[121] Kongunadu Munnetra Kazhagam party has supported the statehood demand.[122] The Kongu Vellalar Gounder caste organization Kongu Vellala Goundergal Peravai has also passed a resolution in favor of formation of Kongu Nadu state by bifurcating Tamil Nadu.[123] The DMK has opposed the move.[124]

Tripura[edit]

Tipraland[edit]

The places of Tripura where indigenous tribals are still in majority, came under the autonomy of Tipraland

Tipraland is the name of a proposed state in India. The formation of "Tipraland", a state within the TTAADC, under articles 2 and 3 of the Indian Constitution is demanded by the Indigenous People's Front of Tripura (IPFT) as one of their political agenda. Another registered regional political party Tipraland State Party (TSP) also demanding the same demand of Tipraland. The Kingdom of Tripura is a former kingdom which was ruled by 184 Tripuri/Tipra kings. The first king of the Manikya Dynasty of Tripura was Maha Manikya, who ruled the kingdom in the early 15th century.[125] The earlier kings are partly mythological and partly legendary or semi-legendary. The second last king was Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarman Manikya Bahadur. After his death in 1947, Tipra kingdom joined India as a C-Model State on 15 October 1949 under the name Tripura, and later achieved statehood on 21 January 1972.[126]

Historically, the Kirati Tripuri converted Hindu rulers of Tripura's Manikya dynasty had always encouraged the immigration of and settlement of non-tribals, especially Bengalis to Tripura. Rajmala authenticates the fact that Ratna Manikya (1464-1468) was the first to 'settle 4000 Bengalis in four places' in Tripura. During Noakhali riots in 1946 many Bengali Hindu survivors referred to as East Bengali Refugees were sheltered in temporary relief camps in Comilla, Chandpur, Agartala the present capital of Tripura and other places. A large migration of Bengali Hindus and Muslims took place in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and other places during Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.

The indigenous Tipra people demanded an autonomous district, which they finally achieved on 23 March 1979 which is known as Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTAADC). The politically important TTAADC constitutes two-thirds of Tripura's 10,491 km2 area, which has 12,16,465 (mostly tribals) of the state's 37 lakh population residing in it. Tribal Welfare Department (Government of Tripura) strictly monitoring the implementation of the Tripura Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Reservation Act, 1991 (As amended up to February, 2006) for departmental promotion / direct recruitment in all Government Departments / PSUs and local bodies. For admission in schools / colleges, allotment of seats in Medical / Engineering and other Technical and General Courses, 31% reservation for ST is strictly followed. Schedule Tribes in Tripura are exempted from income tax.

Uttar Pradesh[edit]

At least four states have been proposed to be carved out of Uttar Pradesh.[127]

Awadh Pradesh[edit]

The population of proposed Awadh state, consisting of Awadhi speaking districts of central Uttar Pradesh, would be approximately 50 million people with an area of approximately 75,000 km2 and Lucknow as the capital.

Braj Pradesh and Harit Pradesh/Pashchim Pradesh[edit]

Harit Pradesh is a proposed state, which would comprise 22 districts of Western Uttar Pradesh, currently forming six divisions – Agra, Aligarh, Bareilly, Meerut, Moradabad, Saharanpur and some parts of the Kanpur Division, (Farrukhabad, Etawah and Auraiya districts). The most prominent advocate for the creation of the new state is Ajit Singh, the leader of the Rashtriya Lok Dal party. Mayawati also supported the formation of Harit Pradesh in December 2009.

There is another demand within the same region – Braj Pradesh, consisting of Agra division, Aligarh division and some districts of the Kanpur division (Farrukhabad, Etawah and Auraiya) from Uttar Pradesh, and the districts of Bharatpur, Dholpur and Gwalior from Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. The proposed capital would be in Agra.[128][129] So far, Braj has remained as a historical and cultural region, rather than a political entity. The language of Braj is Braj Bhasha.

Bundelkhand[edit]

Bundelkhand across UP & MP

Bundelkhand comprises parts of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. In 2011, the Bahujan Samaj Party government under Chief Minister Mayawati proposed the creation of Bundelkhand from seven districts of Uttar Pradesh, with Allahabad as the capital. Organisations such as Bundelkhand Mukti Morcha (BMM) also demanded its formulation, along with the inclusion of six other districts from Madhya Pradesh as well.[130] Uma Bharati of the Bharatiya Janata Party promised a separate state of Bundelkhand within three years if her party was voted to power, during campaigning for the 2014 Loksabha Elections at Jhansi.[131] A similar promise was made by Congress leader Pradeep Jain Aditya during these elections.[132]

Since the early 1960s, there has been a movement for establishing a Bundelkhand state for promoting the development of the region. Bundelkhand is geographically the central part of India covering part of Madhya Pradesh and part of Uttar Pradesh. Despite being rich in minerals, the people of Bundelkhand are poor and the region is underdeveloped and underrepresented in state and central politics.[106][133] Agrarian crisis and farmer's suicides are also cited as the reason for separate statehood.[134]

Purvanchal[edit]

Purvanchal

Purvanchal is a geographic region of north-central India, which comprises the eastern end of Uttar Pradesh state. It is bounded by Nepal to the north, Bihar state to the east, Baghelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh state to the south, the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh to the west. Purvanchal comprises three divisions – Awadhi region in the west, Bhojpuri region in the east and the Baghelkhand region in the south. The most commonly spoken language in Purvanchal is Bhojpuri. Purvanchal area is represented by 23 Members of Parliament to the lower house of Indian Parliament, and 117 legislators in the 403 member Uttar Pradesh state assembly or Vidhan Sabha.[135] Districts-Azamgarh, Ballia, Basti, Chandauli, Deoria, Ghazipur, Gorakhpur, Jaunpur, Kushinagar, Maharajganj, Mau, Mirzapur, Sant Kabir Nagar, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Siddharth Nagar, and Varanasi.

As a fallout of the movement for Telangana, then state chief minister Mayawati, proposed on 13 December 2009, to carve out a separate state of Purvanchal out of Uttar Pradesh with Gorakhpur or Varanasi as its capital.[136]

West Bengal[edit]

Gorkhaland[edit]

Proposed Gorkhaland State(in Yellow)
Proposed Gorkhaland state

Gorkhaland is a proposed state covering areas inhabited by the ethnic Gorkha (Nepali) people, namely Darjeeling hills and Dooars in the northern part of West Bengal.[137] In the Darjeeling district, Nepali is spoken by 40% of the population[138] and in the Kalimpong district Nepali is Spoken by 51% of the population.[139] The movement for Gorkhaland has gained momentum in the line of ethno-linguistic-cultural sentiment of the people who desire to identify themselves as Gorkha.[140]

The demand for a separate administrative region has existed since 1907, when the Hillmen's Association of Darjeeling submitted a memorandum to the Morley-Minto reforms committee.[141] After Indian independence, the Akhil Bharatiya Gorkha League (ABGL) was the first political party from the region to demand greater identity for the Gorkha ethnic group and economic freedom for the community. In 1980, the Pranta Parishad of Darjeeling wrote to the then Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, with the need to form a state for the Gorkhas.

The movement for a separate state of Gorkhaland gained serious momentum during the 1980s, when a violent agitation was carried out by Gorkha National Liberation Front (GNLF) led by Subhash Ghising. The agitation ultimately led to the establishment of a semiautonomous body in 1988 called the Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council (DGHC) to govern certain areas of Darjeeling district. However, in 2008, a new party called the Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (GJM) raised the demand for a separate state of Gorkhaland once again.[142] In 2011, GJM signed an agreement with the state and central governments for the formation of Gorkhaland Territorial Administration, a semiautonomous body that replaced the DGHC in the Darjeeling hills.[143] On 28 March 2022, Gorkha Janmukti Morcha have permanently dropped Gorkhaland statehood demand & seeks political solution within West Bengal.[144][145]

Kamtapur[edit]

Kamtapur lies in the northern parts of West Bengal.[146] The proposed state consists of the districts of Koch Behar (majority of whom are Bengalis[139]), Goalpara, Dhubri, Kamrup and southern plains of Darjeeling, including Siliguri city as well as Jalpaiguri.

Junglemahal State[edit]

The proposed state has majority of its region falling in Medinipur division

In 2021, Saumitra Khan, Lok Sabha BJP MP advocated for the creation of Junglemahal state by carving out Junglemahal area from the West Bengal. He claimed that the Junglemahal area is least developed and the demands of employment and development for locals could be met only if it gets statehood. The proposed Junglemahal state consisting of Purulia, Jhargram, Bankura, parts of Birbhum, Purbo Medinipur, Paschim Medinipur and along with some other areas.[147] Currently 15 of the 40 MLAs from the Bankura, Purulia, West Midnapore and Jhargram are from BJP.[148]

However, the West Bengal state BJP unit distanced itself from the demand.[149] Following the Junglemahal statehood demand, a Trinamool congress leader filed Complaint against Saumitra Khan for demanding separate statehood.[5]

North Bengal[edit]

Map of proposed North Bengal Union Territory

In 2021, BJP MP John Barla demanded carving out a state or union territory comprising North Bengal districts out of the West Bengal state. The demand was supported by BJP MP Jayanta Roy,[150] MLA Aanandamay Barman and MLA Sikha Chatterjee.[151] The proposed Union Territory will comprise eight districts of North Bengal; Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Jalpaiguri, Alipurduar, Cooch Behar, Malda, Uttar Dinajpur and Dakshin Dinajpur.[150] Currently, 30 out of the 54 MLAs in the North Bengal are from BJP.[148]

The West Bengal state BJP unit distanced itself from the union territory/statehood demand.[150] The West Bengal Congress president Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury said that this is a plot to carve out Muslim-dominated regions in the state and added that RSS is behind this move.[152] A Trinamool congress leader filed Complaint against John Barla for demanding a separate state.[5] However, North Bengal's different native linguistic ethnic groups like Bengalis, Nepalis, Adivasis, Koch Rajbongshis have rejected the separate statehood demand and are against the division of West Bengal.[153]

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