Proposed top-level domain

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The Domain Name System of the Internet consists of a set of top-level domains which constitute the root domain of the hierarchical name space and database. In the growth of the Internet, it became desirable to expand the set of initially six generic top-level domains in 1984. As a result new top-level domain names have been proposed for implementation by ICANN. Such proposals included a variety of models ranging from adoption of policies for unrestricted gTLDs that could be registered by anyone for any purpose, to chartered gTLDs for specialized uses by specialized organizations.[1] In October 2000, ICANN published a list of proposals for top-level domain strings it had received.[2]

Geographic proposals[edit]

Further information: GeoTLD
  • .geo - Generic geographical locations.
  • .wien - Vienna.
  • .lat - General category for Latin American websites.
  • .africa - General category for African websites.
  • .ln and .le - Currently being sold by Dennis Hope's "Lunar Embassy Commission" alongside .lunar, .moon, .venus, .mars, .jupiter, .saturn, .uranus, .neptune, .pluto, .space. People who purchase novelty deeds for outer space property from him are also given free domains.[3] None of these TLDs are supported at present by root servers.

Internationalized country code top-level domains[edit]

The following ccTLDs (Country code top-level domains) have been requested using a procedure known as Internationalized domain name (or IDN) ccTLD Fast Track Process.

DNS name IDN ccTLD Country Transliteration Script ccTLD
xn--4dbrk0ce ישראל.[4]  Israel Israel Hebrew .il
xn--wgv71a .日本[5][6]  Japan Nippon or Nihon Kanji (both Kyūjitai and Shinjitai) .jp
xn--vcst06ab2a .日本国[5] Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku Kanji (Shinjitai)
xn--q7ce6a .ລາວ [7]  Laos Lao or Laao Lao .la
xn--mgbb7fyab ليبيا.  Libya Lībyā Arabic .ly

Language and community[edit]

These proposals are centered on creating an independent Internet identity for linguistic and cultural communities. They are mostly inspired by the success of the .cat domain created for websites in the Catalan language or about the Catalan culture.

Domain name intended use sponsor year of proposal comments
.bzh Breton language and Brittany dot bzh 2006 A campaign has been organized in Brittany to support the request of creation of the .bzh domain. The campaign's website gives little information about the status of the proposal and the organization behind and mostly holds a petition for the creation of the domain. As of January 2012 there are over 20,000 signatories.
.cym Welsh language and Wales dotCYM Cyf 2006 It was proposed by dotCYM for Welsh language and Wales, but ICANN reserved for eventual assignment to the Cayman Islands. See also .cymru below.
.cymru Welsh language and Wales dotCYM Cyf 2010 Following a decision by ICANN in 2010 .cym[8] the dotCYM Cyf bid organisers made an appeal for supporters of the former dotCYM bid to suggest a new domain name for the Welsh linguistic and cultural community. The overwhelming choice of the community was for dotCYMRU. Since November 2010 dotCYMRU is the new domain name for the Welsh linguistic and cultural domain.
Wales Nominet UK 2012 In 2012, Nominet UK applied to ICANN for both .cymru and .wales.[9]
.eng England DotEng 2008 The website was set up by John Sewell of Maidenhead in Berkshire. Mentioned in PC Pro Online: Campaign begins for .eng domain, Stuart Turton, 23 April 2008
.eus Basque language PuntuEus association 2009 University professors, scientifics, several companies and institutions are involved in this campaign, including the Basque government (Eusko Jaurlaritza), the Basque Language Academy Euskaltzaindia and the University of the Basque Country.
.gal Galician language and Galicia PuntoGal 2006 Several companies and institutions are involved in this campaign, including the autonomous government, Xunta de Galicia. Approved by ICANN June, 14th 2013.[10]
.ker Cornish language and Cornwall (Kernow) in general Cornish World Magazine[11] 2008
.lli Leonese language and Leonese culture puntuLLI 2007 Several companies, associations, organisations and institutions are involved in this campaign.
.nai Native, Aboriginal, and Indigenous peoples of the Americas nai 1999 The original proposal for a Native American managed TLD predates ICANN, and its form was adopted by ICANN as the "sponsored" type of application and eventual contract in the 2001 new gTLD round. .nai's mission is to implement a top-level name space with an indigenous policy, provide an alternative to the several thousand indigenous public administrations, and the larger numbers of indigenous non-governmental, linguistic and cultural institutional, public and private economic enterprises, bands and individuals in the Western Hemisphere currently using name spaces operated under for-profit or colonial policies, and promote the economic development of Indian Country.
.quebec Quebec Pointquebec 2008 .quebec came to life following .cat success. As an incorporated NPO, PointQuebec's mission is to promote, broadcast and manage a new identity on the Internet, affirming the specificity and Quebec Culture.
.sco[12] Scotland dotSCO 2005 dotSCO began in late 2005 and has been campaigning to build support for a new TLD from among the Scots community around the world. The campaign now appears to be defunct, effectively replaced by .scot (q.v.)
.scot[13] Scotland, The Scots Community of Interest online, Scottish culture and Scotland's languages dotScot Registry Ltd 2009 A not-for-profit company, created to apply for and operate .scot, "an online identity for the worldwide family of Scots." "Will give people, organisations and businesses the opportunity to clearly identify themselves as Scottish."
.sic[14] Székely Land Pontsic Foundation 2009 pontSIC began in late 2008 and has been campaigning to build support for a new TLD from among the Székely community around the world. The campaign was started by the Szekler National Council, and now are involved several companies and institutions. As of September 2009 there are over 33,200 signatories.
.vlaanderen Flanders (Vlaanderen) DNS Belgium 2011
.wales Wales Nominet UK 2012 In 2012, Nominet UK applied to ICANN for both .cymru and .wales.[9]
  • Note: The dotCYMRU, dotEUS, dotSCOT and dotBZH have formed the ECLID [1], the European Cultural and Linguistic Internet Domains umbrella group to lobby for the successful and speedy application for the bids.

Domains for children[edit]

A top-level domain named kids has been proposed by several entities. As of 2009, none of these proposals have been implemented.

Applications for a kids domain have included:

  • Blueberry Hill Communications, Inc., a domain name registration and hosting company in California, submitted a proposal[15] Registry services would be subcontracted to Neustar and Melbourne IT. Registrars are selected under same criteria and process currently imposed by ICANN. This proposal would not rely on objective criteria for categorizing content.
  • DotKids, established in 2000 in Rosemont, Illinois intends to utilize SARAF Software Solutions Inc. for software development of a kids registry. DotKids would deal only with ICANN accredited registrars; content rating information is to be retained in the registry and is to describe ratings for an entire site.[16]
  • ICM Registry, Inc. request the kids TLD[17] as an integrated solution for improving child safety on the Internet by implicitly attempting to restrict content across both TLDs and targeting a narrow registrant group.
  • .KIDS Domains, Inc.[18] is a California for-profit corporation; the proposed registry operator is Toronto-based domain name registrar Tucows Inc. Kids would be a restricted TLD. .KIDS Domains therefore does not intend to allow other registrars to register domain names.

Current projects also aimed at creating a TLD for children include:

  • The DotJunior Project,[19] an organisation established in late 2014 trying to launch a .Junior TLD for child safety purposes.

The European Parliament has also proposed kid for websites designed for children.[citation needed] It would be monitored by an independent authority.

In US a sub-domain for children had established since 2003 based on "Dot Kids Implementation and Efficiency Act of 2002, PL 107-317".(us) exists a second-level domain However, on 27 July 2012 NTIA decided to suspend it.[20][21]

Technical domain name themes[edit]

Specialized and professional topics[edit]

Donuts Inc. has invested $57 million in more than 300 applications,[27][28] whilst Famous Four Media has applied for 61 applications.[29]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Names Council Solicitation of Comments for Consideration of New Generic Top-Level Domains". ICANN. 2000-04-01. 
  2. ^ "TLD Applications Lodged". ICANN. 2000-10-10. 
  3. ^ Hope, David. "The Lunar Embassy". Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  4. ^ IDN ccTLD Form of Interest | Israel
  5. ^ a b IDN ccTLD Form of Interest | Japan
  6. ^ "About '.日本'". 
  7. ^ IDN ccTLD Form of Interest | Laos
  8. ^ "Wales loses to Cayman Islands in battle for .cym domain". BBC. 2010-11-04. Retrieved 2010-12-07. 
  9. ^ a b [Nominet confirmed for Welsh bid]
  10. ^ "Presentación da aprobación do .gal, o dominio para a lingua e a cultura galega (Galician)". 2013-06-14. 
  11. ^ "The campaign for a KER Internet domain name". 
  12. ^ "First Minister announces support for Scots internet domain". Retrieved 2008-12-14. 
  13. ^ "Dot Scot Registry is the not-for-profit venture to establish and operate a new top-level internet domain of .scot for the worldwide family of Scots". dotScot Registry Ltd. Retrieved 2014-07-07. 
  14. ^ "SIC domain". Retrieved 2009-09-01.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  15. ^ Summary of Application of Blueberry Hill
  16. ^ "Summary of Application of dotKids Inc". 
  17. ^ "Summary of Application of ICM Registry". 
  18. ^ Summary of Application of .Kids Domains
  19. ^ "dotJunior". 
  20. ^ " - Play, Learn, and Surf...". 
  21. ^
  22. ^ "BBC NEWS - Technology - Al Gore says domain .eco logical". 
  23. ^ "Launch of .eco (Dot Eco) Application to Empower Global Community – Press Releases on". 
  24. ^ ".med : your safe namespace for medicine". .med. 
  25. ^ "Home of the dotShop (.shop) top-level domain (TLD) name from Commercial Connect LLC - Commercial Connect, LLC". 
  26. ^ "Setting a new world record  » The .Sport Registry". 
  27. ^ "Donuts full application list" (PDF). Donuts Inc. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  28. ^ Natasha Singer (August 17, 2013). "When You Can’t Tell Web Suffixes Without a Scorecard". The New York Times. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  29. ^ domaintyper. "List of new gTLDs Famous Four Media is applied for". 

External links[edit]