Cyclic propylene carbonate
Carbonic acid propylene ester
Cyclic 1,2-propylene carbonate
Propylene glycol cyclic carbonate
|Molar mass||102.09 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||−48.8 °C (−55.8 °F; 224.3 K)|
|Boiling point||242 °C (468 °F; 515 K)|
Refractive index (nD)
|Safety data sheet||MSDS by Mallinckrodt Baker|
|Flash point||132 °C (270 °F; 405 K)|
|455 °C (851 °F; 728 K)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is: / ?)(|
Propylene carbonate (often abbreviated PC) is an organic compound with the formula CH3C2H3O2CO. It is a carbonate ester derived from propylene glycol. This colorless and odorless liquid is useful as a polar, aprotic solvent. Propylene carbonate is chiral but is used exclusively as the racemic mixture.
- CH3CHCH2O + CO2 → CH3C2H3O2CO
The process is particularly attractive since the production of these epoxides consumes carbon dioxide. Thus this reaction is a good example of a green process. The corresponding reaction of 1,2-propanediol with phosgene is complex, yielding not only propylene carbonate but also oligomeric products.
As a solvent
Propylene carbonate is used as a polar, aprotic solvent. It has a high molecular dipole moment (4.9 D), considerably higher that those of acetone (2.91 D) and ethyl acetate (1.78 D). It is possible, for example, to obtain potassium, sodium, and other alkali metals by electrolysis of their chlorides and other salts dissolved in propylene carbonate.
Due to its high dielectric constant of 64, it is frequently used as a high-permittivity component of electrolytes in lithium batteries, usually together with a low-viscosity solvent (e.g. dimethoxyethane). Its high polarity allows it to create an effective solvation shell around lithium ions, thereby creating a conductive electrolyte. However, it is not used in lithium-ion batteries due to its destructive effect on graphite.
Clinical studies indicate that propylene carbonate does not cause skin irritation or sensitization when used in cosmetic preparations, whereas moderate skin irritation is observed when used undiluted. No significant toxic effects were observed in rats fed propylene carbonate, exposed to the vapor, or exposed to the undiluted liquid. In the US, propylene carbonate is not regulated as a volatile organic compound (VOC) because it does not contribute significantly to the formation of smog and because its vapor is not known or suspected to cause cancer or other toxic effects.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Propylene carbonate.|
- Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 1439855110.
- Propylene carbonate at Sigma-Aldrich
- WebBook page for propylene carbonate
- Hans-Josef Buysch (2005), "Carbonic Esters", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a05_197
- Dieter Stoye (2005), "Solvents", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a24_437
- J. Jorné; C. W. Tobias (1975). "Electrodeposition of the alkali metals from propylene carbonate". J. Appl. Electrochem. 5 (4): 279–290. doi:10.1007/BF00608791.
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- Record in the Household Products Database of NLM
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- "Environmental Profile for Propylene Carbonate". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1998.
- Johnson, William L. "REVISION TO DEFINITION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS - EXCLUSION OF PROPYLENE CARBONATE AND DIMETHYL CARBONATE". US Environmental Protection Agency. US EPA. Retrieved 11 July 2015.