The English-language personal name Roger is derived from the Old French personal name Roger, Rogier. This personal name is of Germanic origin, derived from the elements hrōd ("fame") and gār, gēr ("spear"). The Old French name was adopted by the Normans, and was introduced into Britain by them in the Middle Ages (replacing the Old English cognate Hrōðgār). The name became one of the most popular masculine names in the Middle Ages, and lost popularity afterwards.
Until the Tudor period Welsh names generally took the format X son of Y, or X daughter of Y. The Old Welsh word for son was map, which later lost the initial letter to become ap. Although some of the Welsh gentry began to adopt the English fashion for hereditary surnames even before the Act of Union between England and Wales in 1536, in general the Act marked the beginning of a gradual shift towards hereditary surnames in Wales that was not complete until the 18th century. In some cases ap was merged into the following personal name to create an hereditary name. So Ap Richard became Pritchard, ap Even became Bevan and ap Hugh emerged as Pugh. The shift from ap Rosser to Prosser is of this pattern, though the surname Rosser also occurs. The distribution of Prosser and Rosser in 1842-46 was strongly centred in south-east Wales, and largely absent from other parts of Wales.
Early examples of the surname include:
- 1529 Richard ap Rosser was a party to two deeds relating to 'a mansion place called the Van' in Senghenydd.
- 1556 Morgan Lewis ap Rosser was a party to a grant of land in Llywell, Co. Brecon.
This article is missing information about variants of surname Prosser.October 2011)(
There are various sources for surname maps charting the geographic distribution of surnames.
England and Wales
Ancestry.com's distribution map, based on their data from the 1891 England and Wales Census, shows Prossers are strongly present in southeast Wales and the western counties of England. Particularly high concentrations are in the Welsh historic counties of Glamorgan and Monmouthshire and the English county of Herefordshire, which each have more than 352 Prosser families.
The Italian Gens Project shows there are a small number of Prossers living in Italy. Their distribution map results show that the Prossers are concentrated in the northernmost province, Alto Adige/Südtirol.
Current distribution maps from the Gens Project in the United States based on the 2000 US census demonstrate that the name is most common in eight states: California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina, while still numbering less than a thousand individuals in each of those states.
Ancestry.com[not in citation given] has a surname map for the name's distribution according to the United States Census for 1920. At that time, the name Prosser was most common in six states: California, Illinois, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina, with a total of 93-183 Prosser households in each state.
Using data based on 142 Prosser immigrants to New York, the vast majority departed from Great Britain, while 11 are from Ireland and 21 from Germany.
Other demographic information
An Ancestry.com chart also exists for average life expectancy for people with the name Prosser since 1950.
Notable people with the surname Prosser
- Benjamin Wegg-Prosser (born 1974), Public relations professional
- Dai Prosser (1912–1973), Welsh rugby union and rugby league player
- David Prosser, Jr. justice of the Wisconsin Supreme Court
- David Lewis Prosser (1868–1950), Archbishop of Wales 1944–49
- Erastus S. Prosser (1809–1887), New York politician
- Francis Richard Wegg-Prosser (1824-1911), Member of Parliament for Herefordshire
- Gabriel Prosser (1776–1800), rebel slave in 1800 Virginia
- Geoff Prosser (born 1948), Australian politician
- George Henry Prosser (1867–1941), Australian businessman and politician
- Glyn Prosser, Wales international rugby player
- Gwyn Prosser (born 1943), British MP
- Hugh Prosser (1900–1952), film actor
- Sir Ian Prosser, Chairman of the Board of Six Continents PLC
- Ian Prosser (florist) florist
- Inez Beverly Prosser, the first black woman to receive a doctoral degree in psychology
- Joseph Prosser, Victoria Cross, 2nd Battalion 1st Regiment 16 June 1855 Crimea Sebastopol
- Julien Prosser, Australian beach volleyball player
- Keith Prosser, (1897–1954), Bishop of Burnley
- Luke Prosser (born 1988), English footballer
- Margaret Prosser, Baroness Prosser, British peer and politician
- Mrs. Prosser, sentimental Victorian author
- Patrick Prosser (born 1952), Scottish computer scientist
- Ray Prosser, Welsh rugby player, played for Pontypool and earned 22 caps as a prop for Wales between 1956 and 1961
- Richard Bissell Prosser
- Roy Prosser, once Australia’s most-capped prop with 25 Test appearances from 1967 to 1972
- Seward Prosser, tycoon, head of Bankers Trust 
- Skip Prosser (1950–2007), American college basketball coach
- Stuart Prosser, British rugby league footballer
- William Prosser (academic) (1898–1972), American legal scholar
- William Prosser (cricketer) (1870–1952), Welsh cricketer
- William Prosser (judge) (1934–2015), Scottish judge
- William Farrand Prosser (1834–1911), American politician
- "Learn about the family history of your surname". Ancestry.com. Retrieved 1 October 2011.. For the surname Prosser, this website cited: Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4.
- Reaney, Percy Hilde (1995), Wilson, Richard Middlewood, ed., A Dictionary of English Surnames (3rd ed.), Oxford University Press, p. 363, ISBN 0-19-863146-4.
- Hanks, Patrick; Hardcastle, Kate; Hodges, Flavia (2006), A Dictionary of First Names, Oxford Paperback Reference (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, p. 233, ISBN 978-0-19-861060-1.
- David Hey, Family Names and Family History (2000), pp. 91-4; T. J. Morgan and Prys Morgan, Welsh surnames (1985), pp. 13, 178.
- Wiltshire and Swindon Archives 436/16.
- Powys County Archives B/D/ACA/1/001.
- Ancestry.com Distribution of prosser Families in England and Wales in 1891 (retrieved 2011-10-12)
- Gens.labo.net Surname map (enter Prosser in search box for results)
- Gens.labo.net Search for your surname in the USA (enter Prosser in search box for results)
- Ancestry.com top places of origin for the name Prosser (retrieved 2011-10-12)
- 'The bankers Trust Company of New York: Seward Prosser succeeds Benjamin Strong, Jr. as President', Banking Law Journal, Jan-Dec 1914.
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