Prostate biopsy

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Prostate biopsy
Medical diagnostics
Diagram showing a transperineal prostate biopsy CRUK 473.svg
Diagram showing a transperineal prostate biopsy
ICD-9-CM 60.11-60.12

Prostate biopsy is a procedure in which small hollow needle-core samples are removed from a man's prostate gland to be examined for the presence of prostate cancer. It is typically performed when the result from a PSA blood test are high. It may also be considered advisable after a digital rectal exam (DRE) finds possible abnormality. PSA screening is controversial as PSA may become elevated due to non-cancerous conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), by infection, or by manipulation of the prostate during surgery or catheterization. Additionally many prostate cancers detected by screening develop so slowly that they would not cause problems during a man's lifetime, making the complications due to treatment unnecessary.

The most frequent side effect of the procedure is blood in the urine (31%).[1] Other side effects may include infection (0.9%) and death (0.2%).[1]

Ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy[edit]

The procedure may be performed transrectally, through the urethra or through the perineum. The most common approach is transrectally, and historically this was done with tactile finger guidance.[2] The most common method of prostate biopsy as of 2014 was transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate (TRUS) biopsy.[3][4]

Extended biopsy schemes take 12-14 cores from the prostate gland through a thin needle in a systematic fashion from different regions of the prostate.[5]

A biopsy procedure with a higher rate of cancer detection is template prostate mapping (TPM) or transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy (TTMB), whereby typically 50 to 60 samples are taken of the prostate through the outer skin between the rectum and scrotum, to thoroughly sample and map the entire prostate, through a template with holes every 5mm, usually under a general or spinal anaesthetic.[6][7]

Antibiotics are usually prescribed to minimize the risk of infection.[8] An enema may also be prescribed for the morning of the procedure. In the transrectal procedure, an ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum to help guide the biopsy needles. A local anesthetic is then administered into the tissue around the prostate. A spring-loaded prostate tissue biopsy needle is then inserted into the prostate, making a clicking sound. If local anesthetic is satisfactory, discomfort is minimal.

MRI-guided targeted biopsy[edit]

MRI-US fusion biopsy
Medical diagnostics
Targeted MRI-US fusion prostate biopsy at UCLA.jpg
3d-reconstructed prostate gland indicating suspicious lesions for targeted biopsy.

Since the mid-1980s, TRUS biopsy has been used to diagnose prostate cancer in essentially a blind fashion because prostate cancer cannot be seen on ultrasound due to poor soft tissue resolution. However, multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has since about 2005 been used to better identify and characterize prostate cancer.[9] A study correlating MRI and surgical pathology specimens demonstrated a sensitivity of 59% and specificity of 84% in identifying cancer when T2-weighted, dynamic contrast enhanced, and diffusion-weighted imaging were used together.[10] Many prostate cancers missed by conventional biopsy are detectable by MRI-guided targeted biopsy.[11] In fact, a side-by-side comparison of TRUS versus MRI-guided targeted biopsy that was conducted as a prospective, investigator-blinded study demonstrated that MRI-guided biopsy improved detection of significant prostate cancer by 17.7%, and decreased the diagnosis of insignificant or low-risk disease by 89.4%.[12]

Two methods of MRI-guided, or "targeted" prostate biopsy, are available: (1) direct "in-bore" biopsy within the MRI tube, and (2) fusion biopsy using a device that fuses stored MRI with real-time ultrasound (MRI-US). Visual or cognitive MRI-US fusion have been described.[13]

When MRI is used alone to guide prostate biopsy, it is done by an interventional radiologist. Correlation between biopsy and final pathology is improved between MRI-guided biopsy as compared to TRUS.[14]

In the fusion MRI-US prostate biopsy, a prostate MRI is performed before biopsy and then, at the time of biopsy, the MRI images are fused to the ultrasound images to guide the urologist to the suspicious targets. Fusion MRI-US biopsies can be achieved in an office setting with a variety of devices.[11]

MRI-guided prostate biopsy appears to be superior to standard TRUS-biopsy in prostate cancer detection. Several groups in the U.S.,[15][16] and Europe,[17][18] have demonstrated that targeted biopsies obtained with fusion imaging are more likely to reveal cancer than blind systematic biopsies. In 2015, AdMeTech Foundation, American College of Radiology and European Society of Eurogenital Radiology developed Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS v2) for global standardization of image acquisition and interpretation, which similarly to BI-RADS standardization of breast imaging, is expected to improve patient selection for biopsies and precisely-targeted tissue sampling.[19][20] PI-RADS v2 created standards for optimal mpMRI image reporting and graded the level of suspicion based on the score of one to five, with the goal to improve early detection (and exclusion) of clinically significant (or aggressive) prostate cancer.[21] The higher suspicion on mpMRI and the higher PI-RADS v2 score, the greater the likelihood of aggressive prostate cancer on targeted biopsy. Considerable experience and training is required by the reader of prostate mpMRI studies.

Up to 2013, indications for targeted biopsy have included mainly patients for whom traditional TRUS biopsies have been negative despite concern for rising PSA, as well as for patients enrolling in a program of active surveillance who may benefit from a confirmatory biopsy and/or the added confidence of more accurate non-invasive monitoring.[15] Increasingly, men undergoing initial biopsy are requesting targeted biopsy, and thus, the use of pre-biopsy MRI is growing rapidly.

Clinical trials of mpMRI and PI-RADS v2, including NIH-funded studies are underway to further clarify the benefits of targeted prostate biopsy.[22]

Side effects[edit]

Side effects of a TRUS or TPM biopsy include:[23][6]

  • rectal pain or discomfort (very common)
  • burning when passing urine (very common)
  • bruising (very common with TPM only)
  • bloody urine for 2–3 days (very common)
  • bloody semen for ~3 months (30% with TRUS; ~100% with TPM)
  • poor erections for ~8 weeks (30% with TRUS; ~100% with TPM)
  • infection of skin or urine (1-8%)
  • infection of skin or urine requiring hospitalisation and intravenous antibiotics (1-4%)
  • difficulty urinating (1% with TRUS; >5% with TPM)

Gleason score[edit]

The tissue samples are then examined under a microscope to determine whether cancer cells are present, and to evaluate the microscopic features (or Gleason score) of any cancer found. Gleason score, PSA, and digital rectal examination together determine clinical risk, which then dictates treatment options.

Tumor markers[edit]

Tissue samples can be stained for the presence of PSA and other tumor markers in order to determine the origin of malignant cells that have metastasized.[24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bell, N; Connor Gorber, S; Shane, A; Joffres, M; Singh, H; Dickinson, J; Shaw, E; Dunfield, L; Tonelli, M; Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health, Care. (4 November 2014). "Recommendations on screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen test". CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. 186 (16): 1225–34. doi:10.1503/cmaj.140703. PMC 4216256Freely accessible. PMID 25349003. 
  2. ^ Ghei, M; Pericleous S; et al. (September 2005). "Finger-guided transrectal biopsy of the prostate: a modified, safer technique". Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 87 (5): 386–7. PMC 1963966Freely accessible. PMID 16402467. 
  3. ^ Bennett, H. Y.; Roberts, M. J.; Doi, S. a. R.; Gardiner, R. A. (June 2016). "The global burden of major infectious complications following prostate biopsy". Epidemiology & Infection. 144 (8): 1784–1791. doi:10.1017/s0950268815002885. ISSN 0950-2688. 
  4. ^ Tales from a prostate biopsy, MSNBC.com
  5. ^ Patel A. R.; Jones J. S. (2009). "Optimal biopsy strategies for the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer". Current Opinion in Urology. 19 (3): 232–237. doi:10.1097/MOU.0b013e328329a33e. 
  6. ^ a b PROMIS - Prostate MRI Imaging Study. An evaluation of multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer. (UK) Medical Research Council - Clinical Trials Unit - PROMIS Trials Office. MRC: PR11, 2 February 2012
  7. ^ Taira A. V.; Merrick G. S.; Galbreath R. W.; Andreini H.; Taubenslag W.; Curtis R.; et al. (2010). "Performance of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in the initial and repeat biopsy setting". Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. 13 (1): 71–77. doi:10.1038/pcan.2009.42. PMC 2834351Freely accessible. 
  8. ^ Mohand Yaghi et al. Urol Ann. 2015 Oct-Dec;7(4):417-427. Epub 2015 Oct 14.
  9. ^ Bonekamp D, Jacobs MA, El-Khouli R, Stoianovici D, Macura KJ (May–June 2011). "Advancements in MR imaging of the prostate: from diagnosis to interventions". Radiographics. 31 (3 Suppl): 677–703. doi:10.1148/rg.313105139. PMC 3093638Freely accessible. PMID 21571651. 
  10. ^ Isebaert S., Van den Bergh L., Haustermans K., Joniau S., Lerut E., De Wever L.; et al. (2012). "Multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer localization in correlation to whole-mount histopathology". Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. 37 (6): 1392–1401. doi:10.1002/jmri.23938. 
  11. ^ a b Marks L. L.; Young S. S.; Natarajan S. S. (2013). "MRI-ultrasound fusion for guidance of targeted prostate biopsy". Current Opinion in Urology. 23 (1): 43–50. doi:10.1097/MOU.0b013e32835ad3ee. PMC 3581822Freely accessible. 
  12. ^ Pokorny, Morgan R.; de Rooij, Maarten; Duncan, Earl; Schröder, Fritz H.; Parkinson, Robert; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Thompson, Leslie C. (July 2014). "Prospective Study of Diagnostic Accuracy Comparing Prostate Cancer Detection by Transrectal Ultrasound–Guided Biopsy Versus Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging with Subsequent MR-guided Biopsy in Men Without Previous Prostate Biopsies". European Urology. 66 (1): 22–29. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.03.002. 
  13. ^ Moore, C. M., Kasivisvanathan, V., Eggener, S., Emberton, M., Futterer, J. J., Gill, I. S., et al. (2013). Standards of Reporting for MRI-targeted Biopsy Studies (START) of the Prostate: Recommendations from an International Working Group. European urology. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2013.03.030
  14. ^ Hambrock, T., Hoeks, C., de Kaa, C. H.-V., Scheenen, T., Fütterer, J., Bouwense, S., et al. (2011). Prospective Assessment of Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness Using 3-T Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Guided Biopsies Versus a Systematic 10-Core Transrectal Ultrasound Prostate Biopsy Cohort. European urology, 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2011.08.042
  15. ^ a b Sonn G. A.; Natarajan S.; Margolis D. J. A.; MacAiran M.; Lieu P.; Huang J.; et al. (2012). "Targeted biopsy in the detection of prostate cancer using an office based magnetic resonance ultrasound fusion device". JURO. 189 (1): 86–91. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2012.08.095. PMC 3561472Freely accessible. 
  16. ^ Vourganti S.; Rastinehad A.; Yerram N. K.; Nix J.; Volkin D.; Hoang A.; et al. (2012). "Oncology: Prostate/Testis/Penis/UrethraMultiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound Fusion Biopsy Detect Prostate Cancer in Patients with Prior Negative Transrectal Ultrasound Biopsies". JURO. 188 (6): 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2012.08.025. PMC 3895467Freely accessible. 
  17. ^ Kuru, T. H., Roethke, M. C., Seidenader, J., Simpfendörfer, T., Boxler, S., Alammar, K., et al. (2013). Critical evaluation of MRI-targeted TRUS-guided transperineal fusion biopsy for detection of prostate cancer. JURO, –. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2013.04.043
  18. ^ Fiard, G., Hohn, N., Descotes, J.-L., Rambeaud, J.-J., Troccaz, J., & Long, J.-A. (2013). Targeted MRI-guided Prostate Biopsies for the Detection of Prostate Cancer: Initial Clinical Experience With Real-time 3-Dimensional Transrectal Ultrasound Guidance and Magnetic Resonance/Transrectal Ultrasound Image Fusion. Urology, –. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2013.02.022
  19. ^ "AdMeTech". www.admetech.org. Retrieved 2015-09-28. 
  20. ^ "Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) - American College of Radiology". www.acr.org. Retrieved 2015-09-28. 
  21. ^ Shtern, Faina (September 28, 2015). "Synopsis of PI-RADS v2". Journal of European Urology. 69: 16–40. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2015.08.052. 
  22. ^ Search of: prostate mri biopsy - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov
  23. ^ Roberts, Matthew J.; Bennett, Harrison Y.; Harris, Patrick N.; Holmes, Michael; Grummet, Jeremy; Naber, Kurt; Wagenlehner, Florian M.E. (2017). "Prostate Biopsy-related Infection: A Systematic Review of Risk Factors, Prevention Strategies, and Management Approaches". Urology. 104: 11–21. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2016.12.011. 
  24. ^ Chuang AY, Demarzo AM, Veltri RW, Sharma RB, Bieberich CJ, Epstein JI (2007). "Immunohistochemical Differentiation of High-grade Prostate Carcinoma From Urothelial Carcinoma". The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 31 (8): 1246–1255. doi:10.1097/PAS.0b013e31802f5d33. PMID 17667550. 

External links[edit]