|Product type||Nicotine replacement therapy product|
|Owner||GlaxoSmithKline (US), Johnson & Johnson (outside the US)|
|Previous owners||AB Leo, Pharmacia, Pfizer|
Nicorette is the brand name of a number of products for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) that contain nicotine. Developed in the late 1970s in Sweden by AB Leo in the form of a chewing gum, Nicorette was the first nicotine replacement product on the market.
The product range encompasses chewing gum, lozenges, patches of two kinds (transparent and non-transparent), oral spray (Nicorette QuickMist), inhalator, sublingual tablets (Nicorette Microtab) and nasal spray.
The products are manufactured by McNeil Consumer Healthcare company, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson. GlaxoSmithKline is the licence holder of Nicorette gum in the United States while Johnson & Johnson markets Nicorette globally.
Nicorette products are indicated for the relief of withdrawal symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal and to aid in smoking cessation. It is suggested that Nicorette products should be used in "conjunction with a behavioural support programme".
Prior to 2005 nicotine products in Britain were only licensed to "assist smokers who were making an immediate and complete quit attempt". Following advice from a working group set up by the Committee on Safety of Medicines (since 2005 the Commission on Human Medicines) the MHRA concluded that NRT products should be used also by those who are unable to stop abruptly.
Currently Nicorette products in the UK are indicated to:
- relieve craving (the urge to smoke),
- relieve withdrawal symptoms (irritability, impatience; difficulty in concentrating),
- improve the likelihood of a successful abrupt quit attempt,
- reduce the amount smoked in those not immediately motivated to quit.
The products are intended for adults and children over 12 years of age as well as pregnant and lactating women (it has been concluded that "the use of NRT in pregnancy does not give undue concern and any harm caused by nicotine replacement must be compared with that caused by continued smoking – which is extremely harmful to both the woman and her child".)
Nicorette, like all other NRT products, are most beneficial for heavy smokers (more than 15 cigarettes per day). There are not enough studies to show that NRT helps those who smoke fewer than 10 cigarettes per day.
Up until recently cardiovascular disease was considered to be a contraindication to nicotine replacement therapy products. However, in 2003 the French Agency for the Safety of Health Products (AFSSAPS) removed all cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease contraindications. In 2005 the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency followed suit. The rationale is that the benefit of nicotine replacement therapy outweighs the risks of nicotine medication, even in smokers with cardiovascular disease.
The FDA approved labeling for Nicorette products with a warning concerning pregnancy and breastfeeding: "This medicine is believed to be safer than smoking. However, the risks to your child from this medicine are not fully known". The FDA suggests not using Nicorette products if the patient continues to smoke, or use chewing tobacco, snuff or other nicotine-containing products.
The FDA advises consulting a doctor before using the product if the patient previously had:
- heart disease, recent heart attack, or irregular heartbeat,
- high blood pressure,
- taken a prescription medicine for depression or asthma.
Specific contraindications listed by the FDA for various formats include sodium-restricted diet, stomach ulcer of diabetes (for gums and lozenges), or an allergy to adhesive tape or skin problems (for patches).
The FDA suggests stopping use of Nicorette products in cases of irregular heartbeat or palpitations, symptoms of nicotine overdose (nausea, vomiting, dizziness, weakness, and rapid heartbeat) or skin redness caused by the patch.
Nicorette chewing gum releases nicotine while chewing. Nicotine then is absorbed across the oral mucosa into the systemic circulation. Patients are advised to chew the gum slowly and intermittently to avoid the risk of releasing too much nicotine. It is also suggested not to eat or drink while chewing since foods and beverages can reduce nicotine absorption.
Nicorette chewing gum is available in two strengths: 2 mg/piece and 4 mg/piece. Dosing would depend on the degree of nicotine dependence: light smokers should use 2 mg gum, heavy smokers (more than 25 cigarettes a day) should use 4 mg gum. Patients should chew gum once they feel the craving. The average adult dosage is 9 to 12 pieces per day. FDA limits maximum daily amount of 2 mg gums to 24 pieces.
It is suggested to use gum following a 12-week schedule, reducing the amount of gums consumed by the end of the therapy.
The patches provide slow absorption of nicotine into blood within the day and work for 16 hours. They are usually applied in the morning and removed at bedtime.
The patch supports smoking cessation within 12 week programme: 25 mg patch (25 mg nicotine over 16 hours) for eight weeks (Step 1), 15 mg patch for two weeks (Step 2), 10 mg patch for the last two weeks (Step 3). Light smokers (less than 10 cigarettes per day) were recommended to start at Step 2 (15 mg) for eight weeks and reduce the dose to 10 mg for the last four weeks.
Microtab supplies nicotine to the body by mouth. It is different from the chewing gum because instead of chewing the patient should allow the tablet to dissolve slowly under the tongue (the tablet dissolves in about 20-30 minutes). The action is similar to 2 mg nicotine gum.
Microtabs are used either for smoking cessation or smoking reduction. For smoking cessation the standard dose is one tablet (2 mg) per hour for patients who smoke less than 20 cigarettes per day. When the craving is strong two tablets can be taken instead of one. Most patients require between 8 and 24 tablets per day. British Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency recommends not to exceed 40 tablets per day limit. Treatment should be stopped when daily consumption is around 1-2 tablets per day.
A spray of nicotine is available. Tentative evidence supports that it is better than a placebo. MHRA suggests not to use more than 2 sprays at a time, up to 4 sprays per hour and no more than 64 sprays per 24 hours period.
The Nicorette brand started with a nicotine chewing gum developed in Helsingborg (Sweden) by the company Leo AB, later part of Pharmacia & Upjohn. It was the first product for nicotine replacement therapy and gained its inventor, Ove Fernö, titles like "the founding father of modern pharmacotherapy for smoking".
On December 12, 1967,:1216 Fernö, Vice President of Research and Development at AB Leo,:1215 received a mail from his friend Dr. Claes Lundgren at the Department of Aviation Medicine at the Physiological Institute of Lund University, suggesting he develop an orally consumed substitute for tobacco. He and his colleague Stefan Lichtneckert noted how submariners and aviation crews switched from cigarettes to chewing tobacco and snus when smoking was not possible. They also suggested the product name "Nicorette".:145 Fernö began experimenting with nicotine gum in 1969 and quit smoking himself after one year of use.:1218
The first nicotine chewing gum was produced at AB Leo in 1971. The innovation was in the use of ion-exchange resin (polacrilex) in order to control the rate of release of nicotine during chewing. Fernö explained, "Putting nicotine into chewing gum is not an invention. Fixing the nicotine to an ion exchange resin and putting that in a chewing gum to enable the chewer to control the rate of release—that is an invention".:1220 The same year Håkan Westling, Professor of Clinical Physiology at Lund University, started the first clinical trials of the gum as an aid to smoking cessation at the university hospital. His findings were presented at the Second World Conference on Smoking and Health in London:146 and were published in 1973 in the journal Psychopharmacologia together with an article by Fernö.
Nicotine chewing gum was presented at the Third World Conference on Smoking and Health in New York in 1975 by Fernö in partnership with the British researcher Michael Russell from the Institute of Psychiatry, who pioneered the measurement of blood nicotine levels. Russell and his colleagues at the Addiction Research Unit at the Institute of Psychiatry became involved in further research into nicotine gum through randomised controlled trials funded by the British Medical Research Council and the UK Department of Health and Social Security.:147
Nicorette was registered as a drug in Switzerland in 1978, in Canada in 1979, and in the UK in 1980.:147 It was registered in Sweden in 1981. Initially the Swedish Medical Products Agency declined to approve Nicorette as a medicine because it considered smoking not an addiction, but a lifestyle choice; and the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare regarded orally consumed nicotine products not as medicine but as foodstuffs.
On January 13, 1984 Nicorette chewing gum was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration after a 34-month review. It was brought to the US market by Marion Merrell Dow under licence from AB Leo.
In 2016 it was the third biggest selling branded over-the-counter medication sold in Great Britain, with sales of £66.0 million.
In 2002 the FDA changed the status of Commit lozenges to over the counter in the US.
In 2004 Nicorette launched Peppermint, the first coated nicotine gum. A shell coating containing a sugar substitute (xylitol) and flavouring masks the nicotine taste. In 2005 Nicorette introduced Fresh Mint chewing gum.
In December 2008 Nicorette introduced a new semi-transparent nicotine patch under the trade name "Invisipatch". As stated by the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency, in addition to this more discreet patch to encourage better customer compliance, new Nicorette transdermal patches have been developed to: reduce patch size; add a higher dosage strength of 25 mg of nicotine to the previously available 5, 10 and 15 mg; and increase the proportion of bioavailable nicotine).
Yacht race sponsorship
|“||The tobacco companies were ousted from land-based sports due to legislation that stopped them from promoting themselves in other sports… They all realized that yachting is in international waters, under a totally different legal framework, and they all started to sponsor yachts… I was absolutely furious when yachts (with names of tobacco companies) started arriving on the scene… I thought it was unfair that they were using my sport. It's a green sport, it's a healthy sport ... it is not a sport to be hijacked.||”|
|— Ludde Ingvall, in an article|
In 1995 the Nicorette team was banned from the Cape to Rio Race, sponsored by the tobacco company Rothmans. The captain of “Nicorette” protested against the decision, saying that “Rothmans is scared of the boat and the healthy lifestyle it seeks to promote”. A spokesperson for the organizing committee of the race later admitted that the yacht was barred because they considered the product to be in competition with the sponsor's product. In the same year the yacht won the Fastnet Race.
In 1997 the yacht broke the Transatlantic mono-hull record, covering the route from New York City to Lizard Point (Great Britain) in 11 days 13:22.58. Second and third generations of the yacht won the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race in 2000 and 2004.
Car race sponsorship
During the 90s Nicorette (GlaxoSmithKline) has been sponsoring Dennis Vitolo (ex-smoker) in Payton Coyne Racing and The Grand Prix of Miami. In 2005 the brand entered NASCAR race sponsorship with Casey Mears. Since 2006 Nicorette is sponsoring Hendrick Motorsports with Jeff Gordon's car. The brand also runs the Nicorette's Quit Crew program to help racers quit smoking.
It has been reported that apparently the brand is supporting car races because NASCAR fans are heavy smokers.
- Karl Fagerstöm; Anders Axelsson; Lennart Sorelius. "In memoriam of Ove Fernö - the inventor or NRT and The Past, Present, and Future of NRT" (PDF). Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Newsletter, September/October 2008, vol. 14, № 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-25. Retrieved 2014-12-25.
During the late 1960s and 70s he was responsible for the development of the first NR product – a chewing gum
- "Nicotine replacement therapy". Nurse Prescribers' Formulary for Community Practitioners. Pharmaceutical Press. 2013. p. 16. ISBN 0857111256. Retrieved 2014-12-25. (Google Books)
- "4.10.2 Nicotine dependence: Nicotine". BNF for Children (BNFC) 2014-2015. Pharmaceutical Press. 2014. p. 244. ISBN 9780857111364. Retrieved 2014-12-25. (Google Books)
- Edney, Anna (2014-06-12). "E-Cigarettes May Get Advantage for Not Containing Tobacco". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 2014-12-25. Retrieved 2014-12-25.
- Higgins, Andrew (2013-11-09). "Aided by Army of 'Vapers,' E-Cigarette Industry Woos and Wins Europe". Brussels: The New York Times. p. 2. Archived from the original on 2014-12-25. Retrieved 2014-12-25.
- Norton, Amy (2012-02-27). "Nicotine quick-fix mouth spray helps some quitters". New York: Reuters. Archived from the original on 2014-12-25. Retrieved 2014-12-25.
- Rutter, Paul (2013). "Nicorette". Community Pharmacy: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 320. ISBN 9780702054730.
- Kitamura, Makiko (2014-02-19). "Glaxo Memo Shows Drug Industry Lobbying on E-Cigarettes". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 2014-12-25. Retrieved 2014-12-25.
- "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 18th list (April 2013) (Final Amendments – October 2013)" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-25. Retrieved 2014-12-25.
- Larsson, Bengt; Letell, Martin; Thörn, Håkan (2012). "9.5 The rise of medicinal nicotine in Sweden". Transformations of the Swedish Welfare State: From Social Engineering to Governance? (1st ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0230363954.
- "Nicorette Invisi 10 mg patch, Nicorette Invisi 15 mg patch, Nicorette Invisi 25 mg patch, PL 15513/0159-61" (PDF). Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. 2008-12-02. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-09. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "MHRA Public Assessment Report: The use of nicotine replacement therapy to reduce harm in smokers, February 2010" (PDF). Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-09. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "Nicorette Peppermint 2 and 4 mg gum, Nicorette Ice Mint 2 and 4 mg gum, Nicorette Spearmint 2 and 4 mg gum, PL 15513/0136-7, PL 15513/0143-4, PL 15513/0152-3" (PDF). Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. 2006-07-18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-09. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "Report of the Committee on Safety of Medicines Working Group on Nicotine Replacement Therapy, November 2005" (PDF). Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-14. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- David C. Dugdale, III. "Nicotine replacement therapy". MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2015-01-09. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "Nicotine is not a significant risk factor for cardiovascular events. The benefit of nicotine replacement therapy outweighs the risks of nicotine medication, even in smokers with cardiovascular disease". The Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT). 2014-12-16. Archived from the original on 2015-01-09. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "Nicotine Replacement Therapy Labels May Change". Food and Drug Administration. 2013-04-01. Archived from the original on 2015-01-09. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "Nicorette, Nicotine Polacrilex, Labeling Revision 10/30/2014" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration. 2014-10-30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-09. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "Nicoderm, Labeling Revision 10/30/2014" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration. 2014-04-30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-09. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- Burchum, Jacqueline; Rosenthal, Laura (2014). "Chapter 39: Drug Abuse III: Nicotine and Smoking". Lehne's Pharmacology for Nursing Care. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 427. ISBN 0323340261. Retrieved 2015-01-18.(Google Books)
- Rutter, Paul (2013). "Nicorette". Community Pharmacy: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment (3 ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 320. ISBN 0702054739. Retrieved 2015-01-18.(Google Books)
- "New high-strength nicotine patch". Monthly Index of Medical Specialities. 2009-02-24. Archived from the original on 2014-12-31. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
- Willis, Nicola (2012). "Which Treatment?". Stop! No Smoking Programme. Random House. p. 69. ISBN 1448148952.
- "Public Assessment Report: Nicorette Microtab Lemon 2mg sublingual tablets. Nicotine bitartrate dihydrate, PL 15513/0156" (PDF). Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. 2009-06-30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-18. Retrieved 2015-01-18.
- "Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Smoking Cessation or Reduction: A Review of the Clinical Evidence". 16 January 2014. PMID 24741730.
- "Nicorette Quickmist 1mg/spray Mouthspray - PL 15513/0357" (PDF). Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. 2010-11-30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-31. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
- West, Robert (2008). "Pillars of Smoke". In Edwards, Griffith. Addiction: Evolution of a Specialist Field (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 231. ISBN 1405147504. Retrieved 2015-01-05.(Google Books)
- Raw, Martin (2012). "Who invented NRT". How To Stop Smoking And Stay Stopped (1st ed.). Random House. p. 79. ISBN 1446417883.
- "JOURNAL INTERVIEW—35: Conversation with Ove Ferno". Addiction. 89 (10): 1215–1226. 1994. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1994.tb03300.x. Archived from the original on 2015-01-04. Retrieved 2015-01-05.
- Brantmark B, Ohlin P, Westling H (1973-07-19). "Nicotine-containing chewing gum as an anti-smoking aid". Psychopharmacologia. 31 (3): 191–200. doi:10.1007/bf00422509. PMID 4581737.
- Fernö O. (1973-07-19). "A substitute for tobacco smoking". Psychopharmacologia. 31 (3): 201–204. PMID 4732726.
- Kalkhoff, Will; Thye, Shane R.; Lawler, Edward J. (2012). "The Birth of Medicinal Nicotine". Critical Perspectives on Addiction (1st ed.). Emerald Group Publishing. p. 79. ISBN 1780529317.
- "Merrell Dow Nicorette Anti-Smoking Rx Chewing Gum Trade Shipments". The Pink Sheet. 1984-01-23. Archived from the original on 2015-01-06. Retrieved 2015-01-05.
- "A breakdown of the over-the-counter medicines market in Britain in 2016". Pharmaceutical Journal. 28 April 2017. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- "COMPANY NEWS; Nicotine Patch Marketing Deals". The New York Times. 1991-08-22. Archived from the original on 2015-01-01. Retrieved 2015-01-01.
- "Nicorette" (PDF). Superbrands. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-05. Retrieved 2015-01-18.
- "Now Available Without a Prescription". Food and Drug Administration. 2011-08-12. Archived from the original on 2015-01-18. Retrieved 2015-01-18.
- "P&U launches sublingual NRT". Chemist + Druggist. 1999-01-16. Archived from the original on 2015-01-01. Retrieved 2015-01-01.
- Prashant, K. Pagare; Chandrakant, S. Satpute; Varsha, M. Jadhav; Vilasrao, Kadam (2012-06-23). "Medicated Chewing Gum: A Novel Drug Delivery System" (PDF). Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 02 (06): 40–54. doi:10.7324/JAPS.2012.2706. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-18.
- Gad, Shayne Cox, ed. (2008). Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Handbook: Production and Processes. John Wiley & Sons. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-470-25980-1.
- Hendrix, Jerry; Hayes, Darrell (2009). "Exhibit 8-4a". Public Relations Cases (8 ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 300. ISBN 0495567787.
- "Nicorette Invisi 10mg, 15mg, 25mg patches - PL 15513/0159-61" (PDF). Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (UK). 2008-12-02. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-31. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
- "Gum ad screened during The Simpsons 'inappropriate'". Metro. 2009-09-30. Archived from the original on 2015-01-01. Retrieved 2015-01-01.
- Chaplin, Steve (July 2011). "Nicorette QuickMist: rapidly absorbed NRT mouthspray". Prescriber. Prescriber. 22 (13–14): 26–28. doi:10.1002/psb.776. Archived from the original on 2014-12-31.
- Ratcliffe, Jack (2011-01-05). "Nicorette's ActiveStop anti-cigarette iPhone app". Latestgadgets.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2014-12-31. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
- "New iPhone app launched to help smokers quit". Metro. 2011-03-09. Archived from the original on 2014-12-31. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
- Coomber, John (2004-12-23). "New super maxi a smoke-free zone: Ludde Ingvall reckons his new super maxi Nicorette goes so fast you can almost see the hull smoking". http://www.racingandsports.com.au. Racing and Sports. Archived from the original on 2015-01-23. Retrieved 2015-01-23. External link in
- Coakley, Jay J.; Dunning, Eric (2000). "Sport and Health". Handbook of Sports Studies (1st ed.). SAGE. p. 411. ISBN 1446224686. Retrieved 2015-01-23.(Google Books)
- Hammond, Ross (2000-01-07). "Tobacco Advertising & Promotion: The Need for a Coordinated Global Response" (PDF). New Delhi: World Health Organization. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-23. Retrieved 2015-01-23.
- "PLUS: YACHT RACING; Frenchman Breaks Trans-Atlantic Mark". The New York Times. 1998-07-08. Archived from the original on 2015-01-23. Retrieved 2015-01-23.
- Tait, Paul (2000-12-29). "Rough rider Nicorette takes Sydney-Hobart". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2015-01-23. Retrieved 2015-01-23.
- Schlotter, Bill (1997-09-26). "MOTOR SPORTS : DRIVING OFF TOBACCO ROAD.(SPORTS)". Los Angeles Daily News. Archived from the original on 2015-01-01. Retrieved 2015-01-01.
- "MARKETING: Breaking Away From the Packs". Newsweek. 1999-03-29.
- "NASCAR leaves smoking days farther behind". ESPN. 2005-01-27. Archived from the original on 2015-01-08. Retrieved 2015-01-01.
- Horovitz, Bruce (2005-01-26). "Nicorette, NASCAR sign sponsorship deal". USA Today. Archived from the original on 2015-01-01. Retrieved 2015-01-01.
- "Nicorette to Join No. 24 Team in 2006". Hendrickmotorsports.com. 2005-10-14. Archived from the original on 2015-01-01. Retrieved 2015-01-01.
- Coble, Don (2007-04-10). "Nicorette gum helps NASCAR shift gear on smoking sponsors". Savannah Morning News. Archived from the original on 2015-01-01. Retrieved 2015-01-01.