Prostitution in Israel
The main centre of prostitution in Israel is Tel Aviv. It has been estimated that 62% of the brothels and 48% of the massage parlors in the country are in Tel Aviv. The traditional red-light district of the old bus station area was subjected to a number of raids and closures in 2017, and the area is subject to gentrification.
By World War I, prostitution was well established in Tel Aviv, Haifa, Ramla and most other cities. Brothels were owned by both Jews and Arabs. British soldiers added to the demand for prostitution in the 1930s and 1940s. Tel Aviv was considered to be the centre of the sex trade in the Middle East.
Prostitution was legalized in Israel in 1949 under the Prostitution and Abomination Act, although homosexual prostitution was not legalized till 1954. However, in 1962, indoor prostitution, but not street prostitution, was prohibited, and is controlled by the Israeli Criminal Law 1966, Sections 199-202. However, indoor prostitution has continued to thrive. It was not perceived as a major problem till the 1970s, (Cnaan 1982), and prostitution policy has been described as "benign neglect". A 1975 inquiry (Ben-Eato) recommended legalization, but this was not implemented. (Cnaan 1982)
In the 1990s, as in other countries, trafficking in women became a political issue in women's movements in Israel, who engaged in political lobbying for legislative action. In 2003, Israel passed a law that would allow the state to confiscate the profits of traffickers, but watchdog groups claim it is rarely enforced.
In 2007, a ban on advertising was debated. In December 2009, a bill outlawing the purchase of sex was introduced into the Israeli parliament. In February 2012, another draft bill received cabinet approval.
In 2017 'The Criminal Prohibition of Consumption of Prostitution Services and Community Treatment Bill' was introduced to the Knesset. This proposed law criminalises the purchase of sex and provides for the client to pay the prostitute compensation. A government committee, headed byJustice Ministrys director-general, Emmy Palmor, was set up to find the best model for criminalising clients. In January 2018 they reported that they had failed to agree on a method, but ultimately recommend "that if using prostitutes is deemed a criminal offense, they favor scaled criminalization" The current version of the bill would subject those arrested for prostitution to a fine of up to NIS 1,500 for paying for prostitution services, and NIS 3,000 if the offense is repeated within three years. The accused will be allowed to contest the fine and go to trial if they so choose, but if convicted the fine will be increased up to NIS 75,300.
Despite the penal code, using the services of a prostitute carries widespread legitimacy in Israel, and social norms distinguish between prostitution and trafficking.
The sex trade in Israel generates up to $500 million in revenue a year.
Israel is a country of immigrants, including a large number of Russians (the term in Israel includes Ukrainians and Central Asians). Immigrant women have included prostitutes, while others turned to prostitution due to economic hardship in their new land. Prostitution in Israel has been dominated by immigrants from the former Soviet Union since the mass immigration in the 1990s. A study published in 2005 found 1,000 Russian prostitutes working in Israel, mostly in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. From 1991 to 1994, the number of "massage parlors" run by Russian immigrants rose from 14 to 111.
According to the findings released in March 2005 by a Parliamentary Inquiry Committee, between 3,000 and 5,000 women had been smuggled into Israel and sold into prostitution in the previous four years. Most of the prostitutes came from Ukraine, Moldova, Uzbekistan, China and Russia, and many were smuggled through Egypt. 
In 2007, a report by the Knesset's Committee on the Status of Women reported that in recent years the number of trafficked women had dropped to less than 1,000. In 2007, the United States State Department placed Israel as a "Tier 2" in its annual Trafficking in Persons reports, meaning that it does not fully comply with the standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so. In 2011 the country was upgraded to "Tier 1".
An organization calling itself the Task Force on Human Trafficking claims that every month, men in Israel visit brothels up to one million times.
Various groups have advocated legalizing prostitution, or criminalizing the buyers. Conservative religious political parties have consistently opposed legalization on grounds of immorality. (Cnaan 1982)
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