Protected areas of Australia

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Protected areas of Australia include Commonwealth and off-shore protected areas managed by the Australian government, as well as protected areas within each of the six states of Australia and two self-governing territories, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, which are managed by the eight state and territory governments.

Commonwealth and off-shore protected areas in the Australian Capital Territory, the Northern Territory, the Christmas Island Territory, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands Territory, the Norfolk Island Territory and the Australian Antarctic Territory are managed by Parks Australia, a division of the Department of the Environment, with the exception of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, which is managed by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, a separate body within the department.

Protected areas cover 895,288 km² of Australia's land area, or about 11.5% of the total land area. The Australian Capital Territory has the highest level of protection at nearly 55% of its territory, followed by Tasmania with nearly 40% and South Australia with 25%. Lowest level of protection is in Queensland and the Northern Territory with less than 6%.[1] Of all protected areas, two-thirds are considered strictly protected (IUCN categories I to IV), and the rest is mostly managed resources protected area (IUCN category VI). Over 80% of the protected area in Australia is publicly owned and managed by the Australian government or state and territory governments. The second largest component of protected areas are the Indigenous Protected Areas while only 0.3% are privately owned.[2]

Protected areas managed by the Australian government[edit]

The following list shows only the Commonwealth and off-shore protected areas that are managed by the Australian government which represents a small portion of all protected areas located in Australia. Each state and territory is responsible for the management of the protected areas under its jurisdiction with exception to protected areas such as the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park in the Northern Territory. The majority of Australian protected areas are managed by the state and territory governments.

National Parks[edit]

The following protected areas which are designated as national parks are managed by the Australian government and in some instances in conjunction with indigenous land owners:[3]

Australia's first national park - and the second in the world - is Royal National Park in New South Wales, established in 1879.[4]

Botanical Gardens[edit]

Specially Protected Areas (part of the Antarctic Treaty Areas)[edit]

Special Scientific Interest Sites (part of the Antarctic Treaty Areas)[edit]

Marine reserves[edit]

The Australian Government manages an estate of marine protected areas known as Commonwealth marine reserves (CMR) which was established under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act).[7][8]

South-West Network of Commonwealth Marine Reserves[edit]

The South-west Commonwealth Marine Reserve Network consists of the following reserves - Abrolhos, Jurien, Two Rocks, Perth Canyon, Geographe, South-west Corner, Eastern Recherche, Twilight, Bremer, Great Australian Bight, Murat, Western Eyre, Western Kangaroo Island and Southern Kangaroo Island.[9]

North-West Network of Commonwealth Marine Reserves[edit]

The North-west Commonwealth Marine Reserve Network consists of the following reserves - Carnarvon Canyon, Shark Bay, Gascoyne, Ningaloo, Montebello, Dampier, Eighty Mile Beach, Argo-Rowley Terrace, Mermaid Reef, Roebuck, Kimberley, Ashmore Reef and Cartier Island.[10]

North Network of Commonwealth Marine Reserves[edit]

The North Commonwealth Marine Reserve Network consists of the following reserves - Oceanic Shoals, Joseph Bonaparte Gulf, Arafura, Arnhem, Wessel, Limmen, Gulf of Carpentaria and West Cape York.[11]

Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve[edit]

The Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve covers part of the Coral Sea immediately east of the Great Barrier Reef.[12]

Temperate East Network of Commonwealth Marine Reserves[edit]

The Temperate East Commonwealth Marine Reserve Network consists of the following reserves - Jervis, Hunter, Cod Grounds, Solitary Islands, Central Eastern, Gifford, Lord Howe and Norfolk.[13]

South East Network of Commonwealth Marine Reserves[edit]

The South-east Commonwealth Marine Reserve Network consists of the following reserves - Apollo, Beagle, Boags, East Gippsland, Flinders, Franklin, Freycinet, Huon, Macquarie Island, Murray, Nelson, South Tasman Rise, Tasman Fracture and Zeehan.[14]

The Heard Island and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve[edit]

The Heard Island and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve covers the waters surrounding the Heard Island and McDonald Islands.[15]

Historic Shipwrecks[edit]

The following historic shipwrecks lie within protected or no-entry zones declared under the Historic Shipwrecks Act 1976 for protection and management purposes.[16]

Protection arising from Australian government policy and international treaty obligations[edit]

World Heritage listed areas[edit]

Source: UNESCO [18]

Ramsar sites[edit]

As a contracting party to the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (known as the Ramsar Convention), Australia is encouraged "to nominate sites containing representative, rare or unique wetlands, or that are important for conserving biological diversity, to the List of Wetlands of International Importance".[19] As of March 2014, the Australian Government has nominated 65 Ramsar sites.[20]

Biosphere reserves[edit]

The following biosphere reserves belonging to the UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve program are located within Australia:[21]

Indigenous protected areas[edit]

An indigenous protected area (IPA) is a class of protected area formed by agreement with Indigenous Australians and formally recognised by the Australian government as being part of the National Reserve System. As of August 2013, 60 IPAs with a total area of 48,000,000 hectares (120,000,000 acres) have been declared.[22][23]

Further information: Indigenous Protected Area

Protected areas managed by Australian states and territories[edit]

Refer:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Australian Government:State and territory levels of protection, retrieved 2009-09-22
  2. ^ Australian Government: Ownership of protected areas, retrieved 2009-09-22
  3. ^ "National Parks". Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 14 June 2015. 
  4. ^ Australian Government: National Reserve System, retrieved 2009-09-22
  5. ^ "Welcome to the Australian National Botanic Gardens". Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 14 June 2015. 
  6. ^ "Welcome to Booderee National Park". Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 14 June 2015. 
  7. ^ "Commonwealth marine reserves". Parks Australia, Department of the Environment. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  8. ^ "Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation (Commonwealth Marine Reserves) Proclamation 2012 - F2012L02188". Commonwealth of Australia, Comlaw. Retrieved 17 March 2015. 
  9. ^ "South-west Commonwealth Marine Reserves Network". Parks Australia, Department of the Environment. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  10. ^ "North-west Commonwealth Marine Reserves Network". Parks Australia, Department of the Environment. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  11. ^ "North Commonwealth Marine Reserves Network". Parks Australia, Department of the Environment. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  12. ^ "http://www.environment.gov.au/topics/marine/marine-reserves/coral-sea". Parks Australia, Department of the Environment. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  13. ^ "Temperate East Commonwealth Marine Reserves Network". Parks Australia, Department of the Environment. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  14. ^ "South-east Commonwealth Marine Reserves Network". Parks Australia, Department of the Environment. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  15. ^ "Marine reserve". Australian Antarctic Division, Department of the Environment. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  16. ^ 'Historic shipwreck protected zones,' http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/shipwrecks/protected-zones.html, retrieved 14/08/2012.
  17. ^ "Japanese ‘mother-shipwreck’ protected for future generations". Commonwealth of Australia. 28 July 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  18. ^ UNESCO, retrieved 2009-09-22
  19. ^ "Australia's Ramsar Sites". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  20. ^ "Australia's Ramsar Sites" (PDF). Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  21. ^ "Australia's Biosphere Reserves". Parks Australia. Retrieved 3 November 2014. 
  22. ^ "Fact Sheets: Indigenous Protected Areas". Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. 7 December 2007. Archived from the original on 23 July 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  23. ^ "Indigenous Protected Areas". Department of the Environment. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 

External links[edit]