Protectorate General to Pacify the East

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Protectorate General to Pacify the East
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 安東都護府
Korean name
Hangul 안동 도호부
Hanja 安東都護府

The Protectorate-General to Pacify the East was a protectorate established by the Tang dynasty in the northeast after defeating the kingdom of Goguryeo.

History[edit]

The Protectorate General to Pacify the East, otherwise known as the Andong Protectorate, was created in 668 centered around Pyongyang when Goguryeo was conquered by the Tang dynasty.

The Tang established it to govern not only the commanderies established on former Goguryeo and Baekje territories, but also as an attempt to assert control over the kingdom of Silla. Silla retaliated against the protectorate by aiding Geom Mojam's rebellion in the north, and attacking protectorate forces in former Baekje territory.

In 671 Silla seized Sabi Castle from the Tang. The puppet state of Buyeo Yung which had been established there was overthrown. In retaliation Tang declared a younger brother of King Munmu of Silla to be the rightful ruler, but was unable to follow up militarily.

By 676 Silla forces had expelled the protectorate armies from the Korean Peninsula. The protectorate's capital was officially transferred to the former Goguryeo city of Liaoyang, where it continued to oversee the affairs of Goguryeo refugees and other portions of Goguryeo's former territory. The deposed Bojang of Goguryeo was designated "King of Joseon" (Hangul : 요동주도독 조선왕 Hanja: 遼東州都督朝鮮王) and made governor of the protectorate. However he engaged in aiding rebellions against the Tang, leading to his eventual banishment.

In 677 the seat was moved to Xincheng, in modern Fushun, Liaoning.

In 699 Go Deokmu was appointed as protectorate general of Andong, but declared independence and founded Lesser Goguryeo. The seat of Andong was moved to Youzhou.

In 714 the seat was moved to Pingzhou, in modern Lulong County, Qinhuangdao, Hebei.

In 743 the seat was moved to the Old City of Liaoxi, in modern Yi County, Liaoning.

The Protectorate General to Pacify the East, otherwise known as the Andong Protectorate, was abolished in 761.

List of protector generals[edit]

  • Wei Zhe (668-669)
  • Xue Rengui (669–670) - 안동도호부사/安東都護府使
  • Gao Kan (670-676)
  • Bojang of Goguryeo (677–681) - (Hangul : 요동주도독 조선왕 Hanja:遼東州都督朝鮮王) and (Hangul : 조선군왕 Hanja:朝鮮郡王)
  • Qu Tuquan (681-685)
  • Xue Na (685-696) 薛訥 - 安東道經略 안동도경락 - also military commander of Youjou
  • Pei Xuangui (696-698) 裴玄珪
  • Go Deokmu (698-699) (Hangul : 고덕무 Hanja: 高德武), Son of Bojang - 안동도독/安東都督
  • Tang Xiujing (704-705) 唐休璟
  • Pei Huaigu (712) 裴懷古
  • Sun Jian (712) 孫儉
  • Shan Sijing (713) 單思敬
  • Xu Qincou (714) 許欽湊
  • Xu Qindan (714) 許欽澹
  • Zhang Shuo (715-719) 張說
  • Xue Tai (720-725) 薛泰
  • Li Jiao (727-732) 李璬
  • Pei Min (733-741) 裴旻
  • Jia Xun (742-755) 賈循
  • Wang Xuanzhi (756-758) 王玄志
  • Hou Xiyi (758-761) 侯希逸

Administration[edit]

Administratively, it was intended to oversee nine commanderies, 42 prefectures (later reorganized into 14) and 100 counties.

Nine commanderies[edit]

14 prefectures(州)[edit]

References[edit]

  • Lee, K.-b. (1984). A new history of Korea. Tr. by E.W. Wagner & E.J. Schulz, based on the Korean rev. ed. of 1979. Seoul: Ilchogak. ISBN 89-337-0204-0

See also[edit]