Protectorate General to Pacify the North
|Protectorate General to Pacify the North|
|Common name (669–757)|
|Pinyin:||Anbei Duhu Fu|
|Wade-Giles:||Anpei Tuhu Fu|
|Alternate Name (647–663)|
|Pinyin:||Yanran Duhu Fu|
|Wade-Giles:||Yenjan Tuhu Fu|
|Alternate Name (663–669)|
|Pinyin:||Hanhai Duhu Fu|
|Wade-Giles:||Hanhai Tuhu Fu|
|Alternate Name (757–784)|
|Pinyin:||Zhenbei Duhu Fu|
|Wade-Giles:||Chenpei Tuhu Fu|
The Protectorate General to Pacify the North or Grand Protectorate General to Pacify the North (647–784) was a Chinese military government established by Tang Dynasty in 647 to pacify the former territory of Xueyantuo, which extended from Lake Baikal to the north, the Gobi Desert to the south, the Khingan Mountains to the east, and the Altay Mountains to the west.
In 646 the Tang dynasty conquered the Xuyantuo and on 9 January 647, 13 Tiele and Uyghur tribes surrendered to the Tang. Tang Taizong organized them into six commanderies and seven tributary prefectures under the Jimi system. The six commanderies were Hanhai (翰海府), Jinwei (金微府), Yanran (燕然府), Youling (幽陵府), Guilin (龜林府), and Lushan (盧山府). The seven prefectures were Gaolan (皐蘭州), Gaoque (高闕州), Jilu (雞鹿州), Jitian (雞田州), Yuxi (榆溪州), Dailin (蹛林州), and Douyan (竇顏州). Collectively these were known as the "Cantian Khan Circuit." On 10 April the Yanran Protectorate was created at the foothills of the Shanyu Plateau, southwest of present-day Urad Middle Banner, and governorship of the 13 tribes was handed over to the protector general, Li Suli (李素立), who served from 647-649.
On 5 February 663 the Yanran Protectorate was renamed Hanhai Protectorate .
In August 669 the Hanhai Protectorate was renamed the Protectorate General to Pacify the North, otherwise known as the Anbei Duhufu. Its seat was relocated to the city of Datong in present day Ejin Banner.
In 698 the seat was moved to Yunzhong near modern Horinger.
In 708 the Shuofang Army general Zhang Renyuan ordered the construction of three Shouxiang cities north of the Yellow River as military outposts to deter incursions from the Second Turkic Khaganate. The seat of Anbei was moved to the western Shouxiang city near modern Wuyuan County, Inner Mongolia.
In 711 the Chanyu Protectorate was re-established alongside the Anbei Protectorate in the city of western Shouxiang.
In 714 the Anbei and Chanyu protectorates were separated. Chanyu was re-located to Yunzhong while Anbei was re-located to the middle Shouxiang city, near modern Baotou.
Following the establishment of the Shuofang Jiedushi in 721, both the posts of Anbei and Chanyu protector generals were held concurrently by the Shuofang Jiedushi.
In 749 the seat was moved to the military settlement of Hengsai, near modern day Urad Middle Banner.
Following the An Lushan Rebellion, the Chanyu and Anbei protectorates lost any real authority and survived in name only. Due to the taboo of An Lushan's name, the Anbei Protectorate was renamed the Zhenbei Protectorate, which has the meaning of "Protectorate General to Suppress the North."
In 758 the Hengsai Army changed its name to Tiande Army.
In 784 the Anbei Protectorate was abolished.
In 843 the Chanyu Protectorate was renamed Anbei Protectorate.
List of protector generals
- Li Suli (李素立) 647-649
- Jiang Jian (姜簡)
- Ren Yaxiang (任雅相)
- Liu Shenli (劉審禮) 661
- Jiang Xie (姜協)
- Zang Shan'an (臧善安)
- Pang Tongfu (龐同福)
- Li Dazhi (李大志) after 672
- Sun Jun (孫俊) 694
- Li Dan, otherwise known as Emperor Ruizong of Tang (李旦) 699-702
- Zang Huailiang (臧懷亮)
- Wang Jun (王晙) before 714
- Li Sizhi (李嗣直)
- Zhang Zhiyun (張知運) around 716
- Zang Huaike (臧懷恪)
- Zang Xizhuang (臧希莊) 729
- Tian Wan (田琬)
- Li Guangbi (李光弼) 745-746
- Li Wan (李琬) 749
- Guo Ziyi (郭子儀) 749-754
- Li Linfu (李林甫)
- Zang Fangzhi (臧方直)
- Pugu Huai'en (僕固懷恩) 762
- Protectorate General to Pacify the East
- Protectorate General to Pacify the West
- Chinese military history
- Horses in East Asian warfare
- Tang dynasty in Inner Asia
- Ai, Chong. Tangdai Anbei Duhufu Qianxi Kaolun (A Study on the Change of Seats of the Anbei Protectorate During the Tang Dynasty). Journal of Shaanxi Normal University. 2001.4. ISSN 1000-5293.
- Li, Dalong. Youguan Tang Anbei Duhufu De Jige Wenti (On the Several Questions of the Tang Dynasty's Anbei Protectorate). Northern Cultural Relics. 2004.2. ISSN 1001-0483
- Wang, Jilin, "Anbei Duhufu" ("Protectorate General to Pacify the North"). Chinese Encyclopedia (Historiography Edition), 1st ed.
- Zhou, Weiyan, "Duhufu" ("Protectorate"). Encyclopedia of China (Chinese History Edition), 1st ed
- Xue, Zongzheng (1992). A History of Turks. Beijing: Chinese Social Sciences Press. ISBN 7-5004-0432-8. p. 404-429.
- Pulleyblank, Edwin G (2002). Central Asia and Non-Chinese Peoples of Ancient China. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-86078-859-8. II, p. 35-42.