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Temporal range: middle Ordovician - early Cretaceous
Orthonybyoceras duseri, Late Ordovician, Waynesville Formation, Warren County, Ohio, USA - Houston Museum of Natural Science - DSC01658.JPG
Orthonybyoceras duseri
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Cephalopoda
Subclass: Nautiloidea
Order: Orthocerida
Family: Proteoceratidae
Flower, 1962

Proteoceratidae is an extinct family of actively mobile aquatic carnivorous cephalopods belonging to the subclass Nautiloidea endemic to what would be Asia, Australia, Europe, South America and North America during the Ordovician living from 490—445.6 Ma, existing for approximately 44.4 million years.[1]


An image showing the siphuncle, the tube which connects the current living shell to the previous ones.

Proteoceratidae was named by Flower (1962). Its type is Proteoceras. It was assigned to Michelinoceratida by Flower (1962); to Pseudorthocerataceae by Teichert et al. (1964), Sweet (1964) and Evans (1994); to Pseudorthocerida by Kröger and Isakar (2006); and to Orthocerida by Kröger et al. (2007).[2][3][4] [5] [6]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Proteoceratidae, basic info
  2. ^ R. H. Flower. 1962. Part 1, Revision of Buttsoceras, Part 2, Notes on the Michelinoceratida. State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Memoir 10:1-58
  3. ^ C. Teichert, B. Kummel, W.C. Sweet, H.B. Stenzel, W.M. Furnish, B.F. Glenister, H.K. Erben, R.C. Moore, and D.E. Nodine Zeller. 1964. Cephalopoda - general features - Endoceratoidea - Actinoceratoidea - Nautiloidea - Bactritoidea. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology K(3):1-519
  4. ^ D. H. Evans. 2005. The Lower and Middle Ordovician cephalopod faunas of England and Wales. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society 623:1-81
  5. ^ Kröger, Björn, & Isakar, Mare (2006). "Revision of annulated orthoceridan cephalopods of the Baltoscandic Ordovician". Fossil Record. 9 (1): 137–163. doi:10.1002/mmng.200600005. 
  6. ^ B. Kröger, M. S. Beresi, and E. Landing. 2007. Early orthoceratoid cephalopods from the Argentine Precordillera (Lower-Middle Ordovician). Journal of Paleontology 81(6):1266-1283

External links[edit]