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Temporal range: Middle Miocene
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Borophaginae
Tribe: Borophagini
Subtribe: Borophagina
Genus: Protepicyon
Wang et al., 1999
P. raki
Binomial name
Protepicyon raki
Wang et al., 1999

Protepicyon is an extinct monospecific genus of the Borophaginae subfamily of canids native to North America. It lived during the Barstovian stage of the Middle Miocene 16.0—13.6 mya.[1] One of the top predators of its time, it was the probable ancestor of the better known Epicyon, and is known from remains in California and New Mexico.[2]


  1. ^ Paleobiology Database: Protepicyon basic info.
  2. ^ Wang, Xiaoming; Tedford, Richard H. (2008). Dogs, Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History. Columbia. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-231-13528-3.
  • Flynn, J.J., 1998. Early Cenozoic Carnivora ("Miacoidea"). pages 648-651 in C.M. Janis, K.M. Scott, and L.L. Jacobs (eds.) Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America. Volume 1: Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulatelike Mammals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-35519-2
  • The Biology and Conservation of Wild Canids by David W. Macdonald, and Claudio Sillero-Zubiri; published Published 2004 (Oxford University Press). Page 40, ISBN 0-19-851555-3