Protestant work ethic
The Protestant work ethic, the Calvinist work ethic or the Puritan work ethic[a] is a concept in theology, sociology, economics and history which emphasizes that hard work, discipline and frugality are a result of a person's subscription to the values espoused by the Protestant faith, particularly Calvinism.
This contrasts with the focus upon religious attendance, confession, and ceremonial sacrament in the Roman Catholic tradition. A person does not need to be a religious Calvinist in order to follow the Protestant work ethic, as it is a part of certain cultures impacted by the Protestant Reformation.[b]
The concept is often credited with helping to define the societies of Northern, Central and Western Europe such as in Scandinavia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Switzerland. Even though some of these countries were more affected by Lutheranism or Anglicanism than Calvinism, local Protestants nevertheless were influenced by these ideas to a varying degree. As penal law was enacted to uphold the uniform teachings of the Church of England in England, only various English dissenters[c] held to those values. Among them were the Puritans who emigrated to New England, bringing the work ethic with them and helping define the culture of what would become the United States of America. Germanic immigrants brought their work ethic to the United States of America, Canada, South Africa and other European colonies.
A number of leading contemporary historians, including eminent historian Fernand Braudel (d. 1985) and British historian Hugh Trevor-Roper (d. 2003), assert that the existing consensus among scholars is that Protestant Work Ethic theory is false. They refer to the pre-Reformation existence of rapid economic development of Catholic capitalist communities.
Basis in Protestant theology
Protestants, beginning with Martin Luther, reconceptualized worldly work as a duty which benefits both the individual and society as a whole. Thus, the Catholic idea of good works was transformed into an obligation to consistently work diligently as a sign of grace. Whereas Catholicism teaches that good works are required of Catholics as a necessary manifestation of the faith they received, and that faith apart from works is dead (James 2:14–26) and barren, the Calvinist theologians taught that only those who were predestined (cf. the Calvinist concept of double predestination) to be saved would be saved.
Since it was impossible to know who was predestined, the notion developed that it might be possible to discern that a person was elect (predestined) by observing their way of life. Hard work and frugality were thought to be two important consequences of being one of the elect. Protestants were thus attracted to these qualities and supposed to strive for reaching them.
American political history
Writer Frank Chodorov argued that the Protestant ethic was long considered indispensable for American political figures:
There was a time, in these United States, when a candidate for public office could qualify with the electorate only by fixing his birthplace in or near the "log cabin." He may have acquired a competence, or even a fortune, since then, but it was in the tradition that he must have been born of poor parents and made his way up the ladder by sheer ability, self-reliance, and perseverance in the face of hardship. In short, he had to be "self made." The so-called Protestant Ethic then prevalent held that man was a sturdy and responsible individual, responsible to himself, his society, and his God. Anybody who could not measure up to that standard could not qualify for public office or even popular respect. One who was born "with a silver spoon in his mouth" might be envied, but he could not aspire to public acclaim; he had to live out his life in the seclusion of his own class.
There has been a revitalization of Weber's interest, including the work of Lawrence Harrison, Samuel P. Huntington, and David Landes. In a New York Times article, published in June 8, 2003, Niall Ferguson pointed that data from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) seems to confirm that "the experience of Western Europe in the past quarter-century offers an unexpected confirmation of the Protestant ethic. To put it bluntly, we are witnessing the decline and fall of the Protestant work ethic in Europe. This represents the stunning triumph of secularization in Western Europe—the simultaneous decline of both Protestantism and its unique work ethic."
It is common for those in a Protestant work culture to skip lunch (traditionally being sustained from a large breakfast) or to eat lunch while doing their job. This is in contrast to Catholic cultures which practice siesta at lunch time, and neo-Confucianist cultures such as China, Korea, and Japan which have a one- or two-hour lunch break. Some countries such as Spain have experimented with banning siesta in order to try to adopt the Protestant work ethic, with hopes of reducing their financial debt via hard-working and efficient employees. In Italy, many shops now remain open during siesta, while in China, companies are encouraging employees to give up their traditional break time.
The economist Joseph Schumpeter argues that capitalism began in Italy in the 14th century, not in the Protestant areas of Europe. Other factors that further developed the European market economy included the strengthening of property rights and lowering of transaction costs with the decline and monetization of feudalism, and the increase in real wages following the epidemics of bubonic plague.
Becker and Wossmann at the University of Munich have written a discussion paper describing an alternate theory. The abstract to this states that the literacy gap between Protestants (as a result of the Reformation) and Catholics sufficiently explains the economic gaps, and that the "[r]esults hold when we exploit the initial concentric dispersion of the Reformation to use distance to Wittenberg as an instrument for Protestantism." However, they also note that, between Luther (1500) and 1871 Prussia, the limited data available has meant that the period in question is regarded as a "black box" and that only "some cursory discussion and analysis" is possible.
An eminent historian Fernand Braudel (d. 1985) wrote "all historians have opposed this tenuous theory [the Protestant Ethic] , although they have not managed to be rid of it once and for all. Yet it is clearly false. The northern countries took over the place that earlier had been so long and brilliantly been occupied by the old capitalist centers of the Mediterranean. They invented nothing, either in technology or business management." Social scientist Rodney Stark moreover comments that "during their critical period of economic development, these northern centers of capitalism were Catholic, not Protestant — the Reformation still lay well into the future." He also summarized the finding of other leading modern historians thus, "Protestants were not more likely to hold the high-status capitalist positions than were Catholics. Catholic areas of western Europe did not lag in their industrial development. And even more obvious at the time Weber wrote was that fully developed capitalism had appeared in Europe many centuries before the Reformation!" British historian Hugh Trevor-Roper (d. 2003) said, "The idea that large-scale industrial capitalism was ideologically impossible before the Reformation is exploded by the simple fact that it existed."
- Achievement ideology
- Anglo-Saxon economy
- Critical responses to Weber
- Industrial Revolution
- Merton thesis
- Prosperity theology
- Prussian virtues
- Sloth (deadly sin)
- Especially in the United States.
- Other Protestant traditions, most notably Lutheranism, also tend to subscribe to this set of values.
- Further information: Puritanism, Independent (religion), Nonconformism, English Presbyterianism, Ecclesiastical separatism, 17th-century denominations in England.
- No exact date is known. The term appeared to the public with the publication of his book in 1905.
- The Idea of Work in Europe from Antiquity to Modern Times by Catharina Lis
- Ryken, Leland (2010). Worldly Saints: The Puritans As They Really Were. Harper Collins. pp. 51–. ISBN 978-0-310-87428-7.]
- "Protestant Ethic". Believe: Religious Information Source.
- Weber, Max (2003) [First published 1905]. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Translated by Parsons, Talcott. New York: Dover. ISBN 9780486122373.
- Chodorov, Frank (21 March 2011). "The Radical Rich". Mises Daily Articles. Mises Institute.
- Ferguson, Niall (8 June 2003). "The World; Why America Outpaces Europe (Clue: The God Factor)". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Bresiger, Gregory (2 February 2014). "Millions of Americans skipping lunch to work: study". New York Post.
- "Cubicle Curtis". "How to Take Productive Breaks". Work Awesome.
- Mills, George (4 July 2013). "'Working hours in Spain are too long'". The Local.
- "Business Hours in China". Travel China Guide.
- Hodgekinson, Tom (26 July 2008). "The Idle Parent". Daily Telegraph.
- Schumpeter, Joseph A., "Part II From the Beginning to the First Classical Situation (to about 1790), chapter 2 The scholastic Doctors and the Philosophers of Natural Law", History of Economic Analysis, pp. 74–75, ISBN 0-415-10888-8, OCLC 269819. In the footnote, Schumpeter refers to Usher, Abbott Payson (1943). The Early History of Deposit Banking in Mediterranean Europe. and de Roover, Raymond (December 1942). "Money, Banking, and Credit in Medieval Bruges". Journal of Economic History. The Economic History Association. 2, supplement S1: 52–65. doi:10.1017/S0022050700083431.
- Voigtlander, Nico; Voth, Hans-Joachim (9 October 2012). "The Three Horsemen of Riches: Plague, War, and Urbanization in Early Modern Europe" (PDF). The Review of Economic Studies. 80 (2): 774–811. doi:10.1093/restud/rds034.
- Becker, Sascha O.; Wößmann, Ludger (2007), Was Weber Wrong? A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic History - Munich Discussion Paper No. 2007-7 (PDF), Munich: Department of Economics University of Munich, retrieved 12 September 2012
- Becker, Wossmann (2007) page A5 Appendix B
- Braudel, Fernand. 1977. Afterthoughts on Material Civilization and Capitalism. Baltimore: Johns Hopskins University Press.
- Trevor-Roper. 2001. The Crisis of the Seventeeth Century. Liberty Fund
- Sascha O. Becker and Ludger Wossmann. "Was Weber Wrong? A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economics History". Munich Discussion Paper No. 2007-7, 22 January 2007. http://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/1366/1/weberLMU.pdf
- Frey, Donald (August 14, 2001), "Protestant Ethic Thesis", in Robert Whaples, EH.Net Encyclopedia, archived from the original on 2014-03-28
- Robert Green, editor. The Weber Thesis Controversy. D.C. Heath, 1973, covers some of the criticism of Weber's theory.
- Hill, Roger B. (1992), Historical Context of the Work Ethic, archived from the original on 2012-08-17
- McKinnon, Andrew (2010). "Elective affinities of the Protestant ethic: Weber and the chemistry of capitalism" (PDF). Sociological Theory. 28 (1): 108–126. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9558.2009.01367.x.
- Max Weber. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Chas. Scribner's sons, 1959.