Protests against Faure Gnassingbé
|Protests against Faure Gnassingbé|
Member of the National Alliance for Change protesting the government in 2013
|Methods||Demonstrations, riots, sex strike, barricading|
Opposition protesters have called on the Togolese government to establish term presidential term limits according to the 1992 constitutional referendum and have called on Gnassingbé to resign. Opposition parties contested the results of the 2010 and 2015 presidential elections. From 2012 until the 2013 Togolese parliamentary election, opposition supporters protested certain electoral reforms believed to favour the ruling party. Starting in August 2017, the opposition has held anti-government protests on a near-weekly basis.
Gnassingbé Eyadéma helped lead two military coups, one in 1963 and another in 1967, in which he became President of Togo. Opposition to Eyadéma's regime grew in the late 1980s as many people believed he was only working to benefit the army, his tribesmen, and his political allies. Inspired by anti-communism revolutions throughout Europe, and sparked by the trial of students for distributing anti-government tracts, Togolese students held demonstrations and strikes on 5 October 1990. This protest marked the start of a protest movement against Eyadéma's military regime.
During a wave of protests against Eyadéma, the government established a curfew, and announced it on 10 April 1991 one hour after it went into force. The next day, inhabitants of Lomé found 28 bodies on the lagoon of Bé. The National Human Rights Commission determined that Togolese Armed Forces had carried out the massacre.
The Togolese government held a constitutional referendum in 1992 which included a two-term presidential limit, and Togo started holding multi-party elections in 1993. In December 2002, Eyadéma removed the presidential term limit.
Eyadéma died on 5 February 2005, and the Togolese military immediately installed his son Faure Gnassingbé as president. Army Chief of Staff Zakari Nandja said this was meant to avoid a power vacuum. The Togolese government initially banned protests for two months. However, about 1,000 people attended an anti-government rally in Lomé on 11 February 2005. The next day, about 3,000 people attended the protest. Security forces used tear gas, batons, and stun grenades on the protesters, killing at least three people. The Togolese government said the security forces fired because the protesters tried to steal their guns.
Gnassingbé lifted the government's ban on protests on 18 February and announced that there would be a presidential election in 60 days. Opposition groups called on Gnassingbé to step down and held large protests in Lomé, Aného, Sokodé and Sinkanse. On 25 February, Gnassingbé, citing domestic and international pressure, announced he would resign as president. Opposition supporters objected to the appointment of Bonfoh Abass as interim president instead of Fambaré Ouattara Natchaba. Protesters threw stones at the police, who fired tear gas back at them.
The presidential election was held on 24 April 2005 between Gnassingbé and Emmanuel Bob-Akitani. Gnassingbé was declared the winner on 26 April. The Economic Community of West African States declared the results were fair, though opposition supporters heard reports of fraudulent ballot practices. Hundred of people rioted in the streets and clashed with the police and military. Young men reportedly threw Molotov cocktails at the police, and the opposition formed barriers in Bé. According to hospital sources, 11 people died and about 100 people were injured in the riot. Opposition supporters broke into a police station in Aného, attacked police officers, and set fire to the station. The police killed nine people and injured 61.
The Togolese government only confirmed 22 people died during post-election violence. Amnesty International reported a death toll of 150. The United Nations estimated that between 400 and 500 people were killed in electoral violence. In May 2017, around 35,000 Togolese fled to Benin and Ghana, citing abductions and disappearances believed to be politically motivated.
Gnassingbé defeated Jean-Pierre Fabre in the 2010 Togolese presidential election on 4 March. Fabre's supporters ignored a government ban on protests on 7 March 2010 and faced off with security forces who blocked their access to the Bé neighbourhood. Opposition supporters held a demonstration on 9 March 2010. Those who resisted the security forces were given tear gas. Some demonstrators threw stones at the police and burned cars.
On 12 February 2011, about 15,000 opposition protesters marched through Lomé and called for the resignation of Gnassingbé. Claude Améganvi of the Workers' Party said the march was also in support of the Egyptian revolution of 2011. On 17 March 2011, security forces fired tear gas and rubber bullets on protesters in Lomé, who threw stones at them and burned tires.
In early June 2012, the Togolese parliament amended the country's electoral code. The opposition criticised these changes, saying they favoured the ruling party. Thousands of protesters gathered in Lomé on 12–14 June 2012, forcing the city's main market to close. Protesters threw stones and vandalised buildings, and police fired tear gas at them. At least 27 people, including policemen and protesters, were injured during the protests.
Hundreds of supporters of the Let's Save Togo campaign protested the Togolese government on 5 July 2012 in front of the French embassy in Lomé. The police fired tear gas on the protesters, causing them to disperse. The opposition held protests on 21–23 August 2012. On the first day, protesters planned to march from Bé to the commercial area Deckon, an area the government prohibited protesters from entering. Togolese authorities fired tear gas on the protesters ten minutes after the it started. According to Let's Save Togo, more than 100 people were injured, and more than 125 people were arrested during the rallies. Thousands of opposition supporters participated in peaceful protests on 24–25 August 2012.
Thousands of people attended a Let's Save Togo rally in Lomé on 26 August 2012 which encouraged Togolese women to participate in a week-long sex strike to encourage men to participate in the opposition movement against Gnassingbé. Opposition leader Isabelle Ameganvi said this was inspired by the 2003 sex strike of Liberian women led by Ellen Johnson Sirleaf which pushed for peace during the Second Liberian Civil War. Protesters gathered in Bé on 28 August 2012 and prepared to march. Before they could start marching, Togolese security forces fired tear gas on them. The opposition held sit-ins, and the security forces fired tear gas on them on 6 September 2012.
In response to these protests, the government held electoral reform in September 2012. Opposition groups boycotted the talks because they believed the proposed term limits would allow Gnassingbé to stay in office until 2025. On 15 September 2012, a crowd with sticks and machetes entered an area where opposition supporters planned to protest. The crowd prevented the opposition protest from proceeding and prevented journalists from taking photographs. Several ambassadors from Western countries expressed "deep concern" over the mob violence.
Thousands of women wearing red participated in a peaceful march organised by Let's Save Togo on 20 September 2012. The colour red was chosen to protest the precarious economic situation of women in Togo, as Togolese women traditionally made and sold red garments at markets. Let's Save Togo held an opposition rally on 5 October 2012, the anniversary of the 1990 demonstration against Eyadéma. Security forces fired tear gas on them, injuring several people.
At an opposition protest in Lomé on 10 January 2013, journalist were reportedly targeted during the protests, and at least four of them were injured. In late February 2013, three opposition supporters were charged with involvement in the fires that destroyed two Togolese markets in January 2013. On 12 March 2013, while Jean-Pierre Fabre was being questioned in Lomé, hundreds of his supporters tried to block the building's entrance. The police fired tear gas on them as the protesters threw stones.
On 14–17 March 2013, Togolese journalists held sit-ins to protest recently adopted media regulations which gave the government authority to shut down news outlets. On the first and last day of these protests, police fired tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse the crowd. Gnassingbé requested the amendments go through a constitutional review, and Togo's Constitutional Court declared them unconstitutional on 20 March 2013.
In April 2013, Togolese teachers went on strike to call for higher wages, and students protested in support of their teachers. The government temporarily closed its primary and secondary schools, citing property damage from the student protests. Two students were killed as a result of police efforts to disperse protests on 15 April in Dapaong. The government re-opened its schools on 22 April, though many teachers continued their strike and told their students to go back home.
Étienne Yakanou, one of the opposition leaders detained in connection to the Lomé market fire, died on 10 May 2013. According to the government he died from malaria. The National Alliance for Change (ANC) accused the Togolese government of committing a "political assassination" by deliberately holding back treatment from Yakanou, and Amnesty International called for an investigation into his death. On 18 May 2013, a group of women from Let's Save Togo participated in topless protests inspired by the Femen.
The opposition protests delayed the parliamentary election, originally scheduled for October 2012, to 25 July 2013. Gnassingbé's party won the majority of seats in the election, and the opposition declared that the results were fraudulent.
Anti-government protesters marched through Lomé on 21 November 2014, while government supporters held a counter-protest on the beach. Agence France-Presse reported that protesters broke the law by marching near the country's parliament. Reuters reported that some protesters threw stones at security forces, who fired tear gas on them. Two opposition supporters were injured during the clashes. Thousands of Togolese continued protesting on 28 November 2014.
Gnassingbé won the country's April 2015 presidential election with 59% of the vote. The United Nations approved of how the election was conducted, but the main opposition party considered these results fraudulent. Thousands of people marched through Lomé on 16 May 2015 to protest these election results. Opposition parties held demonstrations on 21 May 2016 in Lomé calling for electoral reform under the Global Political Agreement of 2007 to introduce term limits.
On 19 August 2017, thousands of protesters took to the streets, mostly in the city of Sokodé. Protests also occurred in Lomé, Bafilo, Anié, and Kara. Security forces shot and killed two civilians while dispelling protesters. Other civilians burned security vehicles and killed seven security men. About 27 people were arrested, and 15 protesters identified as supporters of the Pan African National Party were given jail sentences of 5–9 months. Opposition parties called for a general strike to take place on 25 August, which slowed business and caused Lomé to enter a security lockdown. Togolese minister Gilbert Bawara criticised the strike, calling it "the campaign of terror, intimidation and threats".
On 5 September 2017, in an effort to counter scheduled protests, the Toglose government cut off the internet, blocked the use of WhatsApp, and filtered international calls. Despite this, opposition parties started a large three-day protest in Lomé. Amnesty International estimated that about 100,000 people participated in a protest on 6 September 2017. At least 80 protesters were arrested the next day, and security forces in Lomé fired tear gas to disperse protesters. Normal access to the internet was restored on 11 September.
On 18 September 2017, the opposition boycotted the National Assembly's vote on a bill that would introduce term limits, saying it would allow, making it subject to a referendum. The next day, the Togolese government slowed down the country's internet as the opposition prepared for more protests. According to Amnesty International, security forces used batons, bullets, and tear gas against protesters in Mango, killing a 9-year-old boy. Security minister Damehane Yark blamed the opposition for the boy's death, saying the protesters were using weapons. The next day, opposition leaders blamed the government for repressing protests in Northern Togo, and thousands of Togolese participated in anti-government demonstrations.
On 4 and 5 October 2017, thousands of protesters marched through Lomé and some created barricades. In response, the Togolese government shut down internet communication and mobile access to the internet. The Togolese government announced a ban on weekday protests on 10 October, though opposition parties vowed to defy this ban. Alpha Alassane, an imam affiliated with the opposition movement, was arrested in Sokodé on 16 October 2017, fueling tensions between the Togolese government and the opposition. A two-day protests started on 18 October throughout Togo. On the first day, four people—one in Lomé and three in Sokodé—were reportedly killed during clashes between protesters and security forces. Togo's security minister denied the reported deaths, saying that nobody was killed in Sokodé on this day. Some protesters in Lomé formed barricades, and police fired tear gas to disperse them.
The Togolese government lifted its ban on weekday protests on 4 November 2017. On 7 November the Togolese government released 42 of the protesters who were arrested in September and dropped arson charges against opposition leader Jean-Pierre Fabre. Thousands of protesters participated in three protests during this week, with the last one on 10 November.
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) held its 2017 summit on 16 December in Abuja, Nigeria instead of in Togo, likely because of political tension between the government and opposition. Around the time of this summit, thousands of protesters held anti-government marches. Tens of thousands of opposition supporters protested peacefully in Lomé on 31 December. Thousands of people in Togo participated in anti-government protests and counter-protests on 13 January 2018, the 55th anniversary of the Sylvanus Olympio's assassination. On 20 January 2018, the opposition held an anti-government demonstration in Lomé which coincided with the 2018 Women's March, where thousands of Togolese women mostly dressed in black marched through Lomé.
Ghanaian President Nana Akufo-Addo and Guinean President Alpha Condé started mediating talks between the Togolese government and opposition on 19 February 2018 in Lomé. The next day, Ghanaian mediators announced that the Togolese government would released 45 of the 92 people imprisoned for participating in the protests. On 6 March, Togo's opposition coalition announced it would resume protests, despite the previous agreement to suspend protests while government talks were underway. A couple days later these protests stopped upon Akufo-Addo's request. On 11, 12, and 14 April 2018, the opposition held street protests and Togolese security forces tried to repress them; leading to about 25 injuries and one death. The opposition coalition parties called off planned street protests on 8 May 2018, citing a lack of security for the demonstrators and progress toward their goals..
- Nabourema, Farida (25 August 2017). "50 years of hurt: Togo protesters vow to continue". African Arguments. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- "Togo (10/31/11)". U.S. Department of State. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- Komali, Kossi; Abdulrauf. "Introduction to the Constitution of Togo" (PDF). Institute for International and Comparative Law in Africa.
- "Togo : il y a vingt ans, la tuerie de la lagune de Bè". RFI Africa (in French). Radio France Internationale. 16 April 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- Tchakoura, David (31 October 2017). "Togo's uncertain path to democracy". Democracy in Africa. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "Togo succession 'coup' denounced". BBC. 6 February 2005. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- Polgreen, Lydia (19 February 2005). "Togo President, Installed by Army, Agrees to an Election". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- Mealer, Brian (13 February 2005). "Mass Protests Against Togo's President Turn Violent". The Washington Post. AP. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "Massive opposition protest in Lome, Togo". GhanaWeb. 19 February 2005. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "Mounting pressure prompts Togo president to resign". NBC News. 25 February 2005. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "Togo police clash with protesters". BBC. 27 February 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "Violence erupts in Togo after elections". NBC News. AP. 26 April 2005. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "Togo's poll loser 'is president'". BBC. 27 April 2005. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- Kamber, Michael (29 April 2005). "Togo Troops Kill 9 After Attack on Police Station". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "Togo: The authorities' treatment of members and supporters of political opposition parties, particularly the Union of Forces for Change (Union des forces de changement, UFC), since the death of President Eyadéma and the accession to power of his son Faure Gnassingbé (2005)". Refworld.org. Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. 27 October 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "500 killed in Togo electoral violence – UN". Independent Online. AFP. 26 September 2005. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- "Togo abductions cause new refugee stream". afrol.com. afrol News. 27 May 2005. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "Togo: face-à-face entre police et opposition à Lomé". Libération (in French). AFP. 9 March 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- "Violences après l'interdiction de la marche d'opposition à Lomé". Les Observateurs (in French). France 24. 9 March 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- "Marche de protestation du FRAC de samedi : Les manifestants demandent la démission de Faure Gnassingbé". Togo Actualité (in French). 15 February 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- Kaglan, Erick (17 March 2011). "Togolese security forces clash with opposition militants". CNN. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- "Togo security forces clash with opposition over electoral law". CNN. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Togo rocked by reform protests". BBC. 14 June 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Police fire tear gas at 'Save Togo' protest". Al Jazeera. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Thousands march against Togolese government". Modern Ghana. AFP. 25 August 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Togo police disperse fair vote rally". Al Jazeera. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Togo women call sex strike against President Gnassingbe". BBC. 27 August 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- Kaglan, Erick (26 August 2012). "Togo opposition vows sex strike amid anti-government protests". CNN. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "Togo authorities fire tear gas at latest protest". Modern Ghana. AFP. 28 August 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- Zodzi, John (7 September 2017). "Togo forces fire tear gas to disperse Gnassingbe opponents". Reuters. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- "Togo opposition rejects government's electoral reform plans". Modern Ghana. AFP. 14 September 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Western nations, UN concerned after mob prevents Togo demo". Expatica. AFP. 19 September 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Several thousand women protest in Togo's capital". Daily Nation. AFP. 21 September 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "La colère rouge des femmes togolaises". Slate Afrique (in French). 2 May 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Togo security forces fire teargas on opposition protesters". Daily Nation. AFP. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- "In Togo protests, journalists report being targeted by police". CPJ.org. Committee to Protect Journalists. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- "Togo charges opposition figures over market fire". Modern Ghana. AFP. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- Ekoue, Blame (13 March 2013). "Police fire tear gas at protesters in Togo". Taiwan News. AP. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Au Togo, un sit-in de protestation de journalistes violemment réprimé" (in French). Radio France Internationale. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- "Togo police battle protesting journalists". Africa Review. AFP. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "In Togo, police attack journalists protesting media law". CPJ.org. Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- "In Togo, court rejects repressive press law amendments". CPJ.org. Committee to Protect Journalists. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- Kouton, Emile (15 April 2013). "Togo police kill 12-year-old boy during crackdown". Modern Ghana. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "[Press Release] Excessive use of force and intimidation in Togo". FIACAT. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "Togo teachers boycott classes after deadly protests". Capital News. AFP. 23 April 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "Sauvons le Togo: polémique sur la mort d'un militant" (in French). Radio France Internationale. 12 May 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "Togo: Excessive use of force and death in custody" (PDF). Amnesty International. 15 May 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- Kibangula, Trésor (20 May 2013). "Togo : des femmes s'inspirent des Femen pour dénoncer le décès d'un opposant". Jeune Afrique (in French). Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "Q&A: Togo's parliamentary election". BBC. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- Stein, Chris (2 August 2013). "Family dynasty in Togo tightens its grip with another election win". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- "Togo police fire teargas at opposition protesters". Daily Mail. AFP. 21 November 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- Zodzi, John (21 November 2014). "Togo opposition marchers clash with security forces". Reuters. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- "Street protesters in Togo demand term limits". Al Jazeera. 28 November 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- "1000s protest Togo presidential election results". News24. AFP. 16 May 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- Woussou, Kossi (22 May 2016). "Togo opposition parties demonstrate for reforms, as Gnassingbe promises first local elections in 30 years". Mail & Guardian Africa. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- "Togo protests: Why have they erupted?". The Daily Vox. 21 August 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- Kanyi, A.B. Kafui; Abodoli, Dominic. "Political protest in Togo claims nine lives". Ghana News Agency. GNA. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- "15 anti-government protesters jailed". Pulse. 31 August 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- "Togo's capital tense after opposition call to stay home". Daily Mail. AFP. 25 August 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- Mtshali, Khanya (7 September 2017). "Togo has shut down the internet to counter anti-government protests". Quartz Africa. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
- Koutonin, Mawuna (21 September 2017). "No business, no boozing, no casual sex: when Togo turned off the internet". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- Akwei, Ismali (9 September 2017). "At least 80 arrested after Togo's latest anti-government protests". Africanews. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "Internet Restored After Togo Protests". United News International. 12 September 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- Zodzi, John (7 September 2017). "Togo forces fire tear gas to disperse Gnassingbe opponents". Reuters. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- "Second day of mass protests in Togo". Africa Review. AFP. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "Togo's opposition boycotts constitutional reform vote". News24. 19 September 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- Akwei, Ismail (9 September 2017). "Internet slowdown in Togo ahead of another presidential limits protest". Africanews. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
- Zodzi, John; Wilkins, Henry (20 September 2017). "Togo security forces clash with protesters in north, boy killed". Reuters. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- Akwei, Ismail (21 September 2017). "10-year-old boy killed in renewed Togo protest, govt blames opposition". Africanews. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
- "Thousands join fresh protests in Togo amid 'crackdown'". The Independent. AFP. 23 September 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- "Thousands march on second day of Togo protests". News24. AFP. 5 October 2017. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
- "Why are people protesting in Togo?". Al Jazeera. 5 October 2017. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
- Shaban, Abdur Rahman Alfa (11 October 2017). "Togo bans weekday protests as opposition vows anti-ECOWAS march". Africanews. AFP. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
- "Violent clashes in northern Togo after imam arrested". Arab News. AFP. 17 October 2017. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
- "Deadly protests in Togo against President Faure Gnassingbe's continued rule". Deutsche Welle. 18 October 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
- "Togo: Four Killed During Protests Against Gnassingbé". AllAfrica. RFI. 19 October 2017. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
- "Togo officials deny reports of deaths in new anti-regime protests". France 24. AFP. 20 October 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
- Woussou, Kossi (18 October 2017). "Togo Police Fire Teargas as Opposition Vows to Press Protests". Bloomberg. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- "Protest ban scrapped in Togo". TRT World. 4 November 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
- Akwei, Ismail (7 November 2017). "Togo releases 42 detained protesters, drops 2013 case against opposition leader". Africanews. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- "Opposition march again in Togo over political reform". eNCA. AFP. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
- "Togo anti-government protesters vow to continue push for term limits". France 24. AFP. 10 November 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
- "Togo gives up hosting the ECOWAS summit set to announce Morocco's accession". Yabiladi. 24 November 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- "More protests in Togo as president chairs ECOWAS summit". Vanguard. 16 December 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- "Thousands gather in Togo to protest president". The Peninsula. 31 December 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- "Anti government protest hits Togo". ENCA. AFP. 14 January 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
- Wong, Dwayne (13 January 2018). "The Togolese People Protest on the Anniversary of Sylvanus Olympio's Assassination". HuffPost. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
- Akwei, Ismail (January 21, 2018). "Women's March was also held in Togo – but against a different dictator". Face2Face Africa. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
- "Thousands of women in anti-president protest in Togo". News24. AFP. 21 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- "Talks open in Togo between government and opposition". The New Indian Express. AFP. 19 February 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- "Demonstrations suspended, 45 detainees released". République Togolaise. 20 February 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- "Togo opposition announces resumption of protest demos". news24. AFP. 6 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- "Togo opposition suspends protests at Ghana request". The Independent Uganda. AFP. 10 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- "One Person Killed as Togolese Opposition Resume Protests Amidst Another Crackdown". Media Foundation for West Africa. 19 April 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- Muisyo, Victor (9 May 2018). "Togo: opposition coalition calls off planned protest". Africanews. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Demonstrations and protests in Togo.|
- "Togo: Will history repeat itself?". Amnesty International. 19 July 2005.
- "Togolese protesters march, hold sex strikes for democracy 2012-2013". Global Nonviolent Action Database. 23 March 2014.
- Bearak, Max (10 September 2017). "One family has ruled Togo for 50 years. Huge protests are shaking its grip on power". The Washington Post.