Protests in South Africa

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South Africa has been dubbed "the protest capital of the world",[1] with one of the highest rates of public protests in the world.[2]

It is often argued that the rate of protests has been escalating since 2004,[2] but Steven Friedman argues that the current wave of protests stretches back to the 1970s.[3] The rate of protests "rose dramatically in the first eight months of 2012",[4] and it was reported that there 540 protests in the province of Gauteng between 1 April and 10 May 2013.[5] In February 2014 it was reported that there had been "nearly 3,000 protest actions in the last 90 days – more than 30 a day– involving more than a million people".[6][7]

Since 2008, more than 2 million people have taken to the streets in protest every year.[8] Njabulo Ndebele argued, "Widespread 'service delivery protests' may soon take on an organisational character that will start off as discrete formations and then coalesce into a full-blown movement".[9] There has been considerable repression of popular protests.[10] The most common reasons for protests are grievances around urban land and housing.[11][12] It has been reported that "Nearly 75% of South Africans aged 20-29 did not vote in the 2011 [local government] elections" and that "South Africans in that age group were more likely to have taken part in violent street protests against the local ANC than to have voted for the ruling party".[13]

In September 2013 the police reported that they had "made more than 14,000 arrests at protests in the past four years".[14]

According to The Times "Informal settlements have been at the forefront of service delivery protests as residents demand houses and basic services".[15]

Escalation of Popular Protests[edit]

During the 2004/05 financial year about 6,000 protests were officially recorded, an unknown number of protests went unrecorded, and about 1,000 protests were illegally banned. This meant that at least 15 protests were taking place each day in South Africa at this time.[16][17] However the number of protests has escalated dramatically since then and Business Day reports that "2009 and 2010 together account for about two-thirds of all protests since 2004".[18] There was a dramatic surge in protests shortly after Jacob Zuma first took office and the number of protests was ten times higher in 2009 than in 2004 and even higher in 2010.[19] The number of protests reached an all-time high in 2010/2011[2] and then a further all time post-apartheid peak in July 2012[20] with more protests occurring in the Western Cape than in any other province[21] and just under half of all protests occurring in shack settlements.[22] In early 2013 it was reported that popular protest had reached its highest rate since the end of apartheid in 1994.[23] In early 2013 it was argued that there have been as many as 3,000 protests in the last four years.[24]

Between 1997 and 2013 most protests were related to labour issues or crime and were only very rarely disorderly. In 2013 the overall number of protests decreased but the rate of disorderly protests increase dramatically. Notable South African journalist Phillip de Wet estimated that nine out of eleven protests were peaceful.[25]

In the first five months of 2018 a total of 144 service delivery protests were recorded with the Eastern Cape, followed by Gauteng and the Western Cape provinces having the most protests.[26]

Rebellion of the Poor/Municipal Revolts/Ring of Fire[edit]

There has been a major wave of popular protests since 2004.[27][28] Just under 40% of all protests take place in shack settlements.[18] There has been a significant degree of repression of popular protests.[29][30][31]

These protests are usually referred to as service delivery protests in the media but although there is evidence of growing unhappiness with service delivery[32] most analysts argue that this description is overly narrow and misleading.[33][34][35][36] A number of poor people's movements have insisted that their protests should not be referred to as "service delivery protests".[37][38][39] But others have termed the rapidly increasing wave of protests since 2004 as a "rebellion of the poor"[27][28] or a series of "municipal revolts".[40] Zwelinzima Vavi, COSATU Secretary General, has described the increasing rate of popular protests as a "ring of fire" closing in on major cities that could result in a Tunisia-style revolution.[41][42]

Some of the most notable protests during this period occurred in Harrismith, Kennedy Road, Durban, Diepsloot, Balfour, Thokoza,[43][44] Khutsong,[36] Macassar Village, Lansdowne Road[45][46] and Mandela Park[47][48] in Khayelitsha, KwaZakhele, downtown Durban,[49] Masiphumelele, Ermelo,[50] Grahamstown[38] and Thembelihle (Lenasia).[51]

Protests continue and some analysts take the view that protests are becoming increasingly radical.[52] Some commentators have concluded that "a large majority of South Africans feel that conventional mechanisms of engaging the state are failing, and that alternatives may be more effective".[53]

According to Professor Peter Alexander: "As many commentators and activists now accept, service delivery protests are part of a broader Rebellion of the Poor. This rebellion is massive. I have not yet found any other country where there is a similar level of ongoing urban unrest. South Africa can reasonably be described as the ‘protest capital of the world’."[54]

A number of community organisations and movements have emerged from this wave of protests,[55][56] some of which organise outside party politics.[57] However, in most cases this wave of protest has not led to sustained organisation.[58]

Protest by trade unions[edit]

The national trade union federation, COSATU, has also organised a number of large protests, most notably against labour broking and highway tolls.[59][60]

Protest by workers organised outside trade unions[edit]

The 2012 Marikana miner strike, organised outside the ruling tripartite alliance, resulted in 34 strikers being killed by the police with 78 being wounded on 16 August 2012.[61]

Curtailment of the right to protest[edit]

It has been argued that the state is actively seeking to curtail the right to protest.[62]

Notable protests[edit]

Notable post-apartheid protest campaigns[edit]

Zuma Must Fall campaign[edit]

From April 7 until April 10, 2017, large crowds protested against President Jacob Zuma's recent cabinet shuffle and the subsequent ratings agencies downgrade to junk status.[110] The Zuma Must Fall campaign, whose organisers included members of the DA, EFF,[111] African People's Convention and United Democratic Movement planned further demonstrations in the days leading up to Zuma's birthday.[112] 50,000 South Africans, many of whom were black, expressed their anger at corruption within the ANC government, unfair trade deals by the government that favoured the powerful Gupta family, and economic problems that had resulted in the downgrading of South Africa's credit rating.[113][114][115] More demonstrations occurred from April 12 onwards,[116] with Julius Malema addressing the crowd in Pretoria before they marched on the Union buildings.[117]

Reasons for protests[edit]

Research has consistently shown urban land and housing to be the most common reasons for protest.[12] However, there are multiple reasons for protest including:

  • Unequal and segregated distribution of land in both rural and urban areas[11]
  • The demand for housing[11][32][118]
  • Poor service delivery[119] (especially with regard to water[120] and sanitation[121])
  • Government corruption (especially at the local level)[122][123][124][125]
  • Undemocratic structure of wards and development forums[126][127]
  • Top down selection for party positions within the ANC[126][128][129][130][131]
  • Top down and authoritarian approaches to governance (or a lack of consultation)[132][133][134][135][136]
  • Evictions and forced removals[137]
  • Rampant crime[32][38]
  • Unemployment[32]
  • Police brutality[138][139]
  • Municipal and Provincial border demarcation issues[36][140]
  • Increases in transport prices[83]
  • Electricity disconnections,[141][142] increases in electricity prices[143][144][145] and the failure to provide electricity to shack settlements[87]
  • Over crowding in schools[145]
  • Failure to install traffic calming measures on roads adjacent to shack settlements[146]
  • Low wages[94][108]


The toyi-toyi originally a Zimbabwean dance, has been used for decades in South Africa as a protest tool. Road blockades,[147] land occupations, the mass appropriation of food[49][71][148] and vote strikes[149][150][151][152][153] are also common tactics.

Popular protests and elections[edit]

In areas with high rates of popular protests residents tend to boycott elections, to support independent candidates or to support parties other than the ANC.[154]

Misuse of the criminal justice system to intimidate grassroots activists[edit]

It has been argued that the criminal justice system has been misused to intimidate grassroots activists.[155]


Violence from the state[edit]

A number of people have been killed by the police in these protests over the years[50][65][156][157][158][159][160] including Andries Tatane.[80][161][162][163][164][165][166][167] The number of deaths of protestors after apartheid is currently standing at fifty four. Four people were killed by the police during protests between 2000 and 2004, two in 2006, one in 2008, two in 2009, three in 2010 and eleven in 2011.[168]

There have also been constant allegations of non-fatal police brutality against protestors.[159][169][170][171][172] It has been argued that people organizing independently of the ruling African National Congress are more likely to face state repression.[10][173]

The worst incidence of police violence in post-apartheid South Africa was the Marikana Massacre in August 2012 in which 34 striking miners were killed and 78 were injured. One pistol was recovered from the strikers after the massacre.[174]

Violence from protesters[edit]

Violence on the part of protesters, including attacks on ward councilors and their homes, has been escalating.[175][176] In two years nine houses belonging to ward councillors in Gauteng were burnt down.[177]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Other Resources[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ ‘Black boers’ and other revolutionary songs, Chris Rodrigues, 2010
  2. ^ a b c Protests and Police Statistics: Some Commentary, Peter Alexander, Amandla Magazine, April 2012
  3. ^ Calm down, the poor are not about to revolt, Steven Friedman, Business Day, 16 May 2013
  4. ^ 'The year that anger boils over', Nirhsa Davids, The Sowetan, 11 October 2012
  5. ^ Public protests: Gauteng’s rising pressure cooker, Khadija Patel, The Daily Maverick, 16 May 2013
  6. ^ Our protest culture is far from dead, Max Du Preez, 'Pretoria News, 11 February 2014
  7. ^ Our protest culture is far from dead, by Max Du Preez, Pretoria News, 11 February 2014
  8. ^ Behind the Marikana massacre, by Martin Plaut, The New Statesmen, 20 August 2012
  9. ^ Liberation betrayed by bloodshed Archived 26 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine, by Njabulo S. Ndebele, City Press, 26 August 2012
  10. ^ a b Media underplaying police, state brutality, Jane Duncan, Sunday Independent, 26 August 2012
  11. ^ a b c Service-delivery protests getting uglier - report, Nashira Davids, The Times, 11 October 2012
  12. ^ a b SAHRC: People need access to land and housing, Koketso Moetsi, The Daily Maverick, 24 November 2015
  13. ^ Deep Read: 'Born free' voters may not choose ANC, JON HERSKOVITZ, Mail & Guardian, 29 January 2013
  14. ^ Crime stats: Worst violent crime figures in 10 years, Sarah Evans, Mail & Guardian, 17 September 2013
  15. ^ Gauteng under shack attack, Penwell Dlamini, The Times, 02 April, 2014
  16. ^ "Amandla! Protest in the New South Africa". FXI. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2009.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  17. ^ Sekwanele! - Social Movement Struggles for Land and Housing in Post-Apartheid South Africa, by Toussaint Losier, Left Turn Magazine, 2010
  18. ^ a b Are fiery street protests replacing the vote?, Karen Heese and Kevin Allan, Business Day
  19. ^ Municipal Hotspots Monitor research as reported in the City Press newspaper, 20 February 2011
  20. ^ South African Television's Accumulation by Dispossession, Jane Duncan, SACSIS, 7 August 2012
  21. ^ Western Cape is protest capital of SA Archived 23 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Oryx Media, 2012
  22. ^ Marrian, Natasha (7 August 2012). "Mangaung ANC 'link' to new wave of protests". Business Day.
  23. ^ ‘Steep increase’ in service protests, by SETUMO STONE, Business Day, 17 JANUARY 2013
  24. ^, Athandiwe Saba and Jeanne van der Merwe, News 24
  25. ^ Wet, Phillip de (8 June 2016). "New stats show that nine out of 11 protests a day are peaceful". The M&G Online. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  26. ^ Makhafola, Getrude (11 July 2018). "144 service delivery protests recorded in 2018 so far | IOL News". Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  27. ^ a b c Rebellion of the poor: South Africa’s service delivery protests – a preliminary analysis, Peter Alexander, Amandla Magazine, 2010
  28. ^ a b Rebellions of the poor, by the poor, for the poor Archived 9 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Khadija Patel, The Daily Maverick, May 2011
  29. ^ Dissent Under Jacob Zuma[permanent dead link], Jane Duncan, May 2011
  30. ^ Dissent Under Thabo Mbeki[permanent dead link], Jane Duncan, May 2011
  31. ^ Political tolerance on the wane in South Africa, Imraan Buccus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, SA Reconciliation Barometer, 2011
  32. ^ a b c d Dismay over service delivery growing, survey shows, CHANTELLE BENJAMIN, Business Day, 2011/05/13
  33. ^ Burning message to the state in the fire of poor’s rebellion, Richard Pithouse, Business Day, 2009/07/23
  34. ^ People are demanding public service, not service delivery, Steven Friedman, Business Day, 2009
  35. ^ The Service Delivery Myth, Richard Pithouse, The Daily Dispatch, 2011
  36. ^ a b c d "We are Gauteng People" Challenging the politics of xenophobia in Khutsong, South Africa Archived 2 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Seminar Presentation, Joshua Kirshner, 23 February 2011, Rhodes University
  37. ^ "Living Learning". Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  38. ^ a b c d South African rebellion comes to Grahamstown, Unemployed People's Movement, 2011
  39. ^ The Uprising Archived 14 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Dylan Valley interviewed by Sean Jacobs
  40. ^ Making sense of municipal revolts, by Mandisi Majavu, Foundation for Contemporary Research, 2011
  41. ^ Jobless youth a ‘ticking time bomb’ for SA, Vavi warns, SAM MKOKELI, Business Day, 2011/06/07
  42. ^ Unemployment in South Africa: Feel It, the Ticking Time Bomb Is Here, Ebrahim-Khalil Hassen, 23 June 2011
  43. ^ "Police get blame for making protests worse". Business Day.
  44. ^ "Protest violence: cops blamed". News24. Archived from the original on 6 September 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  45. ^ "An Urgent Update on AbM-WC Protest". Khayelitsha Struggles. Archived from the original on 10 September 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  46. ^ "Cop fires on Cape Argus team". Cape Argus. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  47. ^ "Mandela Park Backyarders to march peacefully on Housing MEC at 9am this morning". Mandela Park Backyarders. Archived from the original on 26 June 2010.
  48. ^ "Hundreds protested yesterday in Mandela Park after assault by Chippa security guards. Demonstrations to continue…". Mandela Park Backyarders.
  49. ^ a b "94 arrested for protest thefts at supermarkets". Daily News.
  50. ^ a b c Ermelo Residents See No Reason to Vote, Diane Hawker, Independent Online, 2010
  51. ^ Five lessons from Themb'elihle, Phillip de Wet, The Daily Maverick
  52. ^ The 'Gatvol' Factor Archived 19 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Jane Duncan, 2011
  53. ^ Delivery protests National problem requires local, tailor-made solutions, Udesh Pillay, Business Day, 1 April 2011
  54. ^ A Massive Rebellion of the Poor, Peter Alexander, Mail & Guardian, April 2012
  55. ^ The elite and community protests in South Africa, Shawn Hattingh, LibCom, 2009
  56. ^ The 'new' ANC and the Alliance, Shawn Hattingh, Z Mag,2009
  57. ^ "Popular Anger and Protest in Cape Town is Under the Control of Ordinary People and No Political Party Likes That" Archived 10 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, People of Color Organize!, 2010
  58. ^ [* Whose Liberation? A Partly-Forgotten Left Critique of ANC Strategy and Its Contemporary Implications, by Steven Friedman, Journal of Asian & African Studies, February 2012 doi:10.1177/0021909611429436]
  59. ^ a b Cosatu finds a way through the tricky political minefield, Carol Paton, Business Day, 16 May 2012
  60. ^ South Africans march in mass protest at toll roads, BBC News, 7 March 2012
  61. ^ Marikana: What really happened? We may never know., by Mande de Waal, The Daily Maverick, 23 August 2012
  62. ^ Death by a thousand pinpricks - South Africa’s ever-vanishing right to protest, Jane Duncan and Andrea Royeppen, The Daily Maverick, 8 March 2013
  63. ^ Harrismith police killing follow-up, Freedom of Expression Institute, 2004
  64. ^ A collection of newspaper articles on the Harrismith protest
  65. ^ a b Tatane’s death opens old wounds for family Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Lucas Ledwaba, City Press, 24 April 2011
  66. ^ Struggle Is a School: The Rise of a Shack Dwellers’ Movement in Durban, South Africa, Richard Pithouse, Monthly Review, 2006
  67. ^ Housing and Evictions at the N2 Gateway Project in Delft, by Kerry Chance, Abahlali baseMjondolo, 2008
  68. ^ The Cape Town model, state violence and military urbanism, Christopher McMichael, Open Democracy, 5 January 2012
  69. ^ South Africa’s Poor Renew a Tradition of Protest, Barry Bearak, New York Times, September 2009
  70. ^ Martin Legassick on the Macassar Village Land Occupation in Cape Town, Martin Legassick, 2009
  71. ^ a b South Africa's Outraged Poor Threaten President, Megan Lindow, Time Magazine, 24 July 2009
  72. ^ "Shack dwellers up in arms". Sowetan. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  73. ^ "Sutcliffe Continues His War on the Poor". Abahlali.
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  75. ^ The Flames of Phaphamani, by Pedro Alexis Tabensky, LibCom
  76. ^ Bullets fly as township erupts Archived 29 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Thabo Jijana, Grocott's Mail, 10 February 2011
  77. ^ "Protests in Zandspruit". Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  78. ^ Police fire rubber bullets in Zandspruit Archived 12 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Jacob Moshokoa, Eye Witness News, April 2011
  79. ^ South Africa rocked by footage of protester's death, Monsters & Critics, 14 April 2011
  80. ^ a b SAPS, SABC under fire after Ficksburg killing Archived 17 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine, The Times, 14 April 2011
  81. ^ Ficksburg protesters torch buildings, by Miranda Andrew, Mail & Guardian, 14 April 2011
  82. ^ Hall torched in housing protest Archived 10 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Mandla Mnayakama, The New Age, 29 April 2011
  83. ^ a b Fatal turn in taxi fare protest, By Lungi Langa and Nompumelelo Magwaza, IOL, 8 June 2011
  84. ^ Army dispatched to ‘hot spot’, 13 May 2011, Cape Argus, BRONWYNNE JOOSTE and ESTHER LEWIS
  85. ^ ‘Police fired rubber bullets without provocation’, by Adam Sege, 10 June, The Star
  86. ^ Themb'elihle: Arresting a protest, Phillip de Wet, The Daily Maverick
  87. ^ a b Western Cape hit hardest by service-delivery protests, Setumo Stone, Business Day, 6 June 2012
  88. ^ Service failure: next step, silence the dissent, Many de Waal, Daily Maverick, 25 June 2012
  89. ^ KZN to build homes after fatal protest, by NONDUMISO MBUYAZI, Independent on Saturday, 2012
  90. ^ Residents protest over lack of housing, Kamcilla Pillay, Daily News, 24 July 2012
  91. ^ Protesters held in Northern Cape, SAPA, IOL Online
  92. ^ Archived 29 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine Premier Noxolo Kiviet slams protest violence, Zandile Mbabela and Luyolo Mkentane,The Herald, 6 July 2012
  93. ^ The Marikana Massacre: A Turning Point for South Africa?, By Nigel Gibson, Truthout, 1 September 2012
  94. ^ a b Western Cape's grapes of wrath, Mandy de Waal, The Daily Maverick, 8 November 2012
  95. ^ Neither ANC nor DA seems popular with farm workers, who just want a better deal, Carol Paton, Business Day, 15 November 2012
  96. ^ Farmworkers' strike may be over - but everyone's a loser, Rebecca Davis, 23 January 2012
  97. ^ Blood, smoke and tears: Zamdela's burning, G MARINOVICH & T LEKGOWA, The Daily Maverick, 23 January 2013
  98. ^ Fighting for scraps in the Republic of Sasol(burg), Stephen Sparks, Mail & Guardian, 25 January 2013
  99. ^ Protea South protests, from the inside, BHEKI C. SIMELANE, The Daily Maverick, 12 August 2013
  100. ^ Shack dwellers take the fight to eThekwini – and the ANC takes note, Khadija Patel, Daily Maverick, 16 September 2013
  101. ^ Bonfires of discontent, in horrifying numbers, ALEX ELISEEV, The Daily Maverick, 2014
  102. ^ Langa residents take to streets, 20 people arrested in protests over basic needs, PAUL VECCHIATTO, Business Day, 10 July 2014
  103. ^ Klipspruit, Soweto: Blackout meets violence, Bheki Simelane, The Daily Maverick, 4 July 2014
  104. ^ "Book provides in depth analysis of #FeesMustFall movement". 702. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  105. ^ Whittles, Govan. "Protests flare up in Zandspruit". Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  106. ^ "#WestburyProtest: Bus station torched overnight as anger continues to boil | IOL News". Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  107. ^ "SAHA - South African History Archive - Electricity & energy". Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  108. ^ a b Lydia Polgreen (16 August 2012). "Mine Strike Mayhem Stuns South Africa as Police Open Fire". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  109. ^ The Farm Workers' Strike: It's Far From Over, Anna Majavu, SACSIS, 15 November 2012
  110. ^ "#ZumaMustFall campaign to hold National Day of Action".
  111. ^ Cowan, Kyle (12 April 2017). "High spirits in Pretoria as protesters prepare for anti-Zuma march". Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  112. ^ "Protest action planned on Zuma's 75th birthday". Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  113. ^ "What Does South Africa's Jacob Zuma Really Want for His Birthday?". Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  114. ^ media, standard (9 April 2017). "Anti-Zuma protests in South Africa as economic woes mount - KDRTV". Archived from the original on 10 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  115. ^ "Thousands protest in South Africa against President Zouma". Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  116. ^ Xposé, Weekly (12 April 2017). "Opposition parties take their call to Union Buildings". Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  117. ^ Xposé, Weekly (12 April 2017). "Malema warned his marchers to behave". Archived from the original on 13 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  118. ^ The broken vows and blocked roads of Kya Sands, by Greg Nicholson, The Daily Maverick, 22 March 2011
  119. ^ Expect more flash-points - half of SA’s metro residents are still not satisfied with service delivery a year later, TNS Research, 4 March 2011
  120. ^ Flood of water protests, The Times, SCHALK MOUTON, 17 September, 2013
  121. ^ How poo became a political issue, Steven Robbins, Daily News, 3 July 2013
  122. ^ Ayikho impunga yehlathi (There is no place to hide in the world), Abahlali baseMjondolo, 9 March 2011
  123. ^ Corruption and Dependence: South Africa’s road to ruin or salvation?, Moeletsi Mbeki, Open Democracy, 31 March 2011
  124. ^ Mucking out the Durban City Hall, Richard Pithouse,SACSIS, 22 March 2011
  125. ^ Uganda Transit Camp, Durban: A report from the frontlines of the struggle for democracy, Jared Sacks, Daily Maverick, 13 February 2013
  126. ^ a b ANC’s tinkering won’t make democracy work, Steven Friedman, Business Day, 4 May 2011
  127. ^ The poor should also have a voice on corruption, Steven Friedman, Business Day, 26 March 2014
  128. ^ ANC faces fury over candidate selection Archived 23 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Sabelo Ndlangisa, Sizwe sama Sende and Cedric Mboyisa, City Press, 2011
  129. ^ Turmoil in party shows limitations of ‘democratic centralism’, John Kane-Berman, Business Day, March 2011
  130. ^ ANC List Sparks Fury, Sibongile Mashaba, Sowetan, March 2011
  131. ^ ANC lacks internal democracy, William Gumede, Pambazuka, 20/22/2001
  132. ^ What the State's Response to the Anger of Protesting Communities Is Not Telling Us, by Ibrahim Steyn, 2009
  133. ^ Zamdela: A failure of the public consultation process, Khadija Patel, Daily Maverick, 31 January 2013
  134. ^ Free State of municipal chaos and lip service delivery, by Paul Berkowitz, The Daily Maverick, 7 February 2013
  135. ^ Cities Need to Plan with the Poor, Not for the Poor, by Felicity Kitchin, SACSIS, 6 February 2013
  136. ^ 'Blacklisted' farmworker urges politicians to listen, Ben Fogel, Mail & Guardian, 15 February 2013
  137. ^ "A self-written history of Mandela Park: Kwanele! Enough Is Genoeg!". Mandela Park Backyarders. Archived from the original on 16 August 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  138. ^ March on the Sydenham Police Station: Press Release & Memorandum, Abahlali baseMjondolo, 2007
  139. ^ Ficksburg killing sparks riot, Deon de Lange, Pretoria News, 15 April 2011
  140. ^ 87 Arrested during protests in Sasolburg, Money Web, 21 January 2012
  141. ^ Protest Sparked By Attempt to Cut Illegal Electricity Connections, Nombulelo Damba, All Africa, 2011
  142. ^ ‘We are being deprived’, NIYANTA SINGH, Sunday Tribune, 2011
  143. ^ Tembisa protests and the shadow of things to come, by Phillip de Wet, The Daily Maverick, 21 September 2011
  144. ^ Why SA is burning: Power to the people still a pipe dream, Phillip de Wet, Mail & Guardian, 23 March 2012
  145. ^ a b Ratanda residents rekindle Heidelberg protests, Phillip de Wet, Mail & Guardian, 20 March 2012
  146. ^ Dead kid sparks riot, AMUKELANI CHAUKE, The Times,1 August 2012
  147. ^ The Enduring Rationality of Revolt, Richard Pithouse
  148. ^ The Witness]=25560 No mercy, no grants, says Mkhize, Nalini Naidoo, Sharlene Packree and Sapa, The Witness, 2009
  149. ^ "The Thoroughly Democratic Logic of Refusing to Vote". SACSIS. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2009., Richard Pithouse
  150. ^ The revolt of South Africa’s untouchables, Pedro Alexis Tabensky, Pambazuka, March 2011
  151. ^ Give ANC a sign - but without boycott Archived 14 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Fred Khumalo, Sunday Times, March 2011
  152. ^ The self-limiting politics of the SA people, Mandy de Waal, The Daily Maverick, 17 October 2012
  153. ^ Enkanini: there’ll be no voting here, By Daneel Knoetze, Cape Argus, 17 February 2014
  154. ^ Hotspot voters dump ANC Archived 27 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine, by Sizwe sama Yende, Lucas Ledwaba, Dumisane Lubisi and Cedric Mboyisa, City Press, 24 April 2011
  155. ^ An Anatomy of Dissent and Repression: The Criminal Justice System and the 2011 Thembelihle Protest", Socio-Economic Rights Institute, 2014
  156. ^ Charge three senior cops with murder -- ICD Archived 10 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Bate Felix, City Press, 5 June 2009
  157. ^ Dissent Can Still Get You Killed, Richard Pithouse, The Witness, 16 June 2006
  158. ^ Two student protesters killed by police in Durban, South Africa, Trevor Johnson, World Socialist Website, 2001
  159. ^ a b Independent Report into Political Violence Against Landless People's Movement, Jared Sacks, International Alliance of Inhabitants, 2010
  160. ^ Most feel let down by their municipality Archived 9 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Brendan Boyle, The Times, 5 March 2011
  161. ^ Tatane's Death Underlines Need for Government to Deliver by Andile Mngxitama, Sowetan, 19 April 2011
  162. ^ Only police chiefs can end it, David Bruce, Sunday Times,24 April 2011
  163. ^ Police violence in Ficksburg is not anything new, Steven Friedman, Business Day, 20 April 2011
  164. ^ Murdered by the Ruling Classes, by Shawn Hattingh, Anarkismo, 21 April 2011
  165. ^ Police brutality and service delivery protests, by Mphutlane wa Bofelo, Pambazuka News, 21 April 2011
  166. ^ We condemn the murder of Andries Tatane and the securitisation of South African politics Archived 14 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Democratic Left Front, 21 April 2011
  167. ^ Protester's death not an isolated case, ILHAM RAWOOT AND GLYNNIS UNDERHILL, Mail & Guardian, 15 April
  168. ^ The Road to Marikana: Abuses of Force During Public Order Policing Operations, David Bruce, SACSIS, 12 October 2012
  169. ^ "A collection of articles and statements on police brutality". Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2011.
  170. ^ The Flames of Phaphamani, by Pedro Alexis Tabensky, LibCom
  171. ^ Profile of a town on fire, Kwanele Sosibo, Mail & Guardian, March 2011
  172. ^ Worries emerge over freedom of expression in South Africa Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Jane Duncan, 2010
  173. ^ Activists decry talk of 'third force' at Marikana, by Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 2012
  174. ^ The murder fields of Marikana. The cold murder fields of Marikana Archived 30 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Greg Marinovich, The Daily Maverick
  175. ^ Engage citizens to stem rise in violent protests, Karene Heese & Kevin Allen, Business Day, 22 June 2012
  176. ^ A revolution’s dreams betrayed, Malaika wa Azania, Sunday Independent, 30 March 2014
  177. ^ Our councillors are vulnerable - ANC, Dominic Mahlangu, The Times, 25 June 2012

External links[edit]