Proto-Afroasiatic language

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One proposal of possible expansion routes of Afroasiatic languages.

Proto–Afroasiatic is the reconstructed proto-language from which all modern Afroasiatic languages are descended. It is believed by scholars to have been spoken as a single language around 12,000 to 18,000 years ago, although there is no consensus as to where the Afroasiatic Urheimat, the homeland of Proto-Afroasiatic speakers, was located. Although Afroasiatic is the earliest attested language family in the world, the reconstruction of Proto-Afroasiatic is problematic and largely lacking, a fact sometimes attributed to the sheer age of the language. Reconstructed words for fauna and flora, and evidence of linguistic contact with language families known to have been spoken in Eurasia, suggest that its home was in the Middle East, probably the Levant. Evidence of Cushitic formerly spoken in the south of Arabia also speaks for a Middle Eastern origin, though some proposals also claim North Africa and the Horn of Africa.[1][2]

Consonant correspondences[edit]

The following table shows consonant correspondences in Afroasiatic languages, as given in Dolgopolsky (1999), along with some reconstructed consonants for Proto-Afroasiatic.

Correspondences in Afro-Asian languages[3][4]
Proto-Afroasiatic Proto-Semitic Egyptian Berber East Cushitic West Chadic
*b *b b *β, ? *b, *-∅- *b *b, *ḅ1
*p *p p *f, ? *b *p *p, *f, *ḅ1
*f f f
*d *d d *d *d *d, *ḍ1
*t *t t *t *t *t
*ṭ *ṭ d(~t) *ḍ [dˁ] / *ṭ (→ *ṭṭ [tˁː]) *ṭ (→ *ḍ) *ḍ
*ǯ [dʒ] [5] ?? d *z *z *dʒ
*č [tʃ] [6] s, ?? š *s *s1(=*s)
*č̣ [tʃ'] [7] *θ̣ ḏ- *ẓ [zˁ] South Cushitic
*ʒ [dz] [8] *z z *z *z *dz
*c [ts] [9] *s s *s- ? s2- *ts
*c̣ [ts’] [10] *ṣ [(t)sʼ] *ẓ [zˤ] *ṭṣ *ṭṣ
*s [11] (*s2) s *s *s2(=) s,
Central Chadic:
*ŝ [ɬ], *ĉ [tɬ] [12] (*s3) [ɬ] š, ? s *s, *z- *l,
*ĉ̣ [tɬʼ] [13] *ṣ́ (*ṣ3) [(t)ɬʼ] , ? d- *s1 ?,
*g [14] *g g, *g *g *g
*k [15] *k k, *k, ? *k *k
*ḳ [16] *ḳ q, , ? *ḳ (→ *ḳḳ [kˤː])
[17] χ-, ʕ- ? *h2
[18] χ, , ħ *H- *h-, *-Ø- *-H-?
[19] ʕ *H- -, *-Ø-ʔ
[20] ħ *H- -, *-Øː-
*h [21] *h ı͗- *h1, *h2 -
[22] ı͗, ? ꜣ , -Ø-
*r *r r, l, 3 *r -*r- *r
*l *l n-, [l-], r, *l -*l- *l
*n *n n, l [23] *n -*n- *n
*m *m *m *m -*m- *m
*w *w w-, ı͗, y *w, *Ø *w, *Ø *w-?
*y *y ı͗-, y-, -Ø- *y, *i, *Ø *y, *i, *Ø *y, *Ø
Proto-Afroasiatic Proto-Semitic Egyptian Berber East Cushitic West Chadic
  1. under special conditions


  1. š = /ʃ/
  2. Symbols with dots underneath are emphatic consonants (variously glottalized, ejective or pharyngealized).
  3. Transcription of Ancient Egyptian follows Allen (2000); see Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian. The following are possible values for the non-IPA symbols used for Ancient Egyptian: = [ç]; = [tʲ] or [t͡ʃ]; = [dʲ] or [d͡ʒ], or ejective [tʲʼ] or [t͡ʃʼ].


Ehret (1995) reconstructs the following pronouns, most of which are supported by at least five of the six branches:

Proto-Afroasiatic Pronouns[24]
Singular, bound Singular, independent Plural
1 *i, *yi *(ʔ)ân-/(ʔ)în- *(ʔ)ǎnn-/(ʔ)ǐnn-
2 m. *ku, *ka *(ʔ)ânt/(ʔ)înt- *kuuna
2 f. *ki
3 *si, *isi *su, *usu


Ehret (1995) reconstructs the following cardinal numbers (Ehret does not include Berber in his reconstruction):

Cardinal Numbers in Afroasiatic[24]
Number Proto-Afroasiatic Proto-Semitic Egyptian Proto-Cushitic Proto-Chadic Proto-Omotic
two *tsan, *can *θny snwj
*tsîr(n), *cîr(n) *θər *sər
*ɬâm- *ɬmʔl "left hand" *ɬâ(a)m- *lam-
three *xaymz- ḫmt.w *knɗ- *x2ayz-
four *fâzw- fdw *fʷaɗə

The first root for "two" has been compared to Berber (Tamazight) sin.[25] There are other proposed cognate sets:

  • "six": Egyptian srs, Proto-Semitic *šidṯ-, Berber (Tamazight) sdˁis.[25]
  • "seven": Egyptian sfḫ, Proto-Semitic *šabʕ-, Berber (Tamazight) sa.[25]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Blench, Roger. (2006). Archaeology, Language, and the African Past. Rowman: Altamira,. ISBN 9780759104662. 
  2. ^ Blažek, Václav. "Afro-Asiatic linguistic migrations: linguistic evidence." (PDF). 
  3. ^ Dolgopolsky (1999), pp. 38-39.
  4. ^ Prasse (2000), p. 346.
  5. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  6. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  7. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  8. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  9. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  10. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  11. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  12. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  13. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  14. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  15. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  16. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  17. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  18. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  19. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  20. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  21. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  22. ^ Takács (1999), pp. 263-270
  23. ^ Takács (1999), p. 263
  24. ^ a b Ehret (1995)
  25. ^ a b c Takács, Gábor (1999-). Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. Brill.  Check date values in: |date= (help)


  • Dolgopolsky, Aron (1999). From Proto-Semitic to Hebrew. Milan: Centro Studi Camito-Semitici di Milano. 
  • Ehret, Christopher (1995). Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): vowels, tone, consonants, and vocabulary. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-09799-8. 
  • Prasse, Karl G. (2000). Études berbères et chamito-sémitiques: mélanges offerts à Karl-G. Prasse. 
  • Diakonoff, Igor M. (1988). Afrasian Languages. Moscow: Nauka. 
  • Orel, Vladimir & Olga Stolbova (1995). Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill. ISBN 90-04-10051-2. 
  • Dolgopolsky, Aharon (1998). The Nostratic Macrofamily and Linguistic Paleontology. Cambridge: McDonald Instutite for Archaeological Research. ISBN 0-9519420-7-7. 
  • Bomhard, Allan R. (2008). "A Sketch of Proto-Afrasian Phonology", Ed. G. Takács, Semito-Hamitic Festschrift for A. B. Dolgopolsky and H. Jungraithmayr, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, pp. 79-92.

External links[edit]