Proto-Indo-European homeland

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The Proto-Indo-European homeland according to the steppe hypothesis (dark green) and the present-day distribution of Indo-European languages in Eurasia (light green).

The Proto-Indo-European homeland (or Indo-European homeland) is the prehistoric urheimat of the Indo-European languages – the region where the reconstructed common ancestor of those languages, Proto-Indo-European (PIE), was originally spoken and from where subgroups of speakers split off and went on to form the proto-communities of the different branches of the language family.

There is no scientific consensus on when or where PIE was spoken.[1][2] Currently, the majority of Indo-European specialists support the steppe hypothesis, which puts the PIE homeland in the Pontic-Caspian steppe around 4,000 BCE.[1][3][4][5][6] The major alternative theory is the Anatolian hypothesis, which puts it in Anatolia around 8,000 BCE, but has lost support due to the explanatory limitations of this theory.[1][7][8][9] A notable, though unlikely, third possibility is the Armenian hypothesis which situates the homeland south of the Caucasus. Several other explanations have been proposed, including Baltic origins, the Paleolithic continuity theory, and the Indigenous Aryans/Out of India theory; none of these enjoy a wide acceptance, or are considered to be fringe theories.

The search for the homeland of the Indo-Europeans began in the late 18th century with the discovery of the Indo-European language family. [10] The methods used to establish the homeland have been drawn from the disciplines of historical linguistics, archaeology, physical anthropology and, more recently, human population genetics.

Hypotheses[edit]

The Steppe theory and the Anatolian hypothesis are "the two leading competitors" for the Indo-European homeland.[11][1][12][2] The steppe hypothesis, a revised version of the "Kurgan hypothesis", places the PIE homeland in the Pontic steppe around 4,000 BCE.[1][3][4][5][6] The majority of Indo-European specialists support the steppe hypothesis,[1][4][5] though critical issues remain to be clarified.[12]

The Anatolian hypothesis places the pre-PIE homeland in Anatolia around 8,000 BCE,[1][7][8][9] and the homeland of Proto-Indo-European proper in the Balkans around 5000 BCE. Although it has attracted substantive attention and discussions, the datings it proposes are at odds with the linguistic timeframe for Proto-Indo-European[13][14] and with genetic data which point don't find evidence for Anatolian origins in the Indian genepool.[15]

A notable, though unlikely,[13] third possibility is the "Near eastern model,"[16] also known as the Armenian hypothesis. It was proposed by Gamkrelidze and Ivanov, postulating connctions between Indo-European and Caucasian languages based on the disputed Glottalic theory, and connected to archaeological findings by Grogoriev.[16]

A number of other theories have been proposed, most of which have little or no academic currency today:

Theoretical considerations[edit]

Traditionally homelands of linguistic families are proposed based on evidence from comparative linguistics coupled with evidence of historical populations and migrations from archeology. Today, biological evidence from DNA samples is increasingly becoming used in the study of ancient population movements.

Linguistics[edit]

Reconstructed vocabulary[edit]

Through comparative linguistics it is possible to reconstruct the vocabulary found in the proto-language, and in this way achieve knowledge of the cultural, technological and ecological context that the speakers inhabited. Such a context can then be compared with archeological evidence. This vocabulary includes:

Wool vocabulary[edit]
Wheel vocabulary[edit]

Uralic, Caucasian and Semitic borrowings[edit]

Proto-Uralic and PIE share a core vocabulary, such as words for "name" and "water," and similar-looking pronouns.[23] This may be due to a common ancestor, or to intensive borrowing, but both options suggest that their homelands were located closely to each other.[24] PIE also borrowed words from Caucasian languages, especially Kartvelian, which suggests a location close to the Caucasus.[24]

Gramkelidze and Ivanov, using the now largely unsupported glottalic theory of Indo-European phonology, also proposed Semitic borrowings into Proto-Indo-European, suggesting a more southern homeland to explain these borrowings. According to Mallory and Adams, some of these borrowing may be too speculative or from a later date, but they consider the proposed semitic loans "bull" (taurus) and "wine" to be more likely.[1] Anthony notes that those semitic borrowings may also have occurred through the advancment of Anatolian farmer cultures via the Danube valley into the steppe zone.[13]

Genesis of Indo-European languages[edit]

Phases of Proto-Indo-European[edit]

According to Anthony, the following terminology may be used:[25]

  • Early PIE for "the last common ancestor of of the Anatolian and non-Anatolian IE branches";
  • Post-Anatolian PIE for "the last common ancestor of the non-Anatolian PIE languages, including Tocharian";
  • Late PIE for "the common ancestor of all other IE branches."

The Anatolian languages are the first Indo-European language family to have split off from the main group. Due to the archaic elements preserved in the Anatolian languages, they may be a "cousin" of Proto-Indo-European, instead of a "daughter," but Anatolian is generally regarded as an early off-shoot of the Indo-European language group.[13]

Dating the split-offs of the main branches[edit]

Using a mathematical analysis borrowed from evolutionary biology, Don Ringe and Tandy Warnow propose the following tree of Indo-European branches:[26]

  • Pre-Anatolian (before 3500 BCE)
  • Pre-Tocharian
  • Pre-Italic and Pre-Celtic (before 2500 BCE)
  • Pre-Armenian and Pre-Greek (after 2500 BCE)
  • Pre-Germanic and Pre-Balto-Slavic;[26] proto-Germanic c. 500 BCE[27]
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian (2000 BCE)

David Anthony, following the methodology of Ringe and Warnow[clarification needed], proposes the following sequence:[28]

  • Pre-Anatolian (4200 BCE)
  • Pre-Tocharian (3700 BCE)
  • Pre-Germanic (3300 BCE)
  • Pre-Italic and Pre-Celtic (3000 BCE)
  • Pre-Armenian (2800 BCE)
  • Pre-Balto-Slavic (2800 BCE)
  • Pre-Greek (2500 BCE)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian (2200 BCE); split between Iranian and Old Indic 1800 BCE
Pre-Proto-Indo-European[edit]

The Indo-Hittite hypothesis postulates a common predecessor for both the Anatolian languages and the other indo-European languages, called Indi-Hittite or Indo-Anatolian.[13] Although it's obvious that PIE had predecessors,[14] the Indo-Hittite hypothesis is not widely accepted, and there is little to suggest that it is possible to reconstruct a proto-Indo-Hittite stage that differes substantially from what is already reconstructed for PIE.

According to Kortlandt, Indo-Uralic is the pre-PIE, postulating that Indo-European and Uralic share a common ancestor.[29] According to Kortlandt, "Indo-European is a branch of Indo-Uralic which was radically transformed under the influence of a North Caucasian substratum when its speakers moved from the area north of the Caspian Sea to the area north of the Black Sea."[29][note 1][note 2][note 3][note 4] Anthony notes that the validity of such deep relationships cannot be reliably demonstrated due to the time-depth involved,[35] and also notes that the similarities may be explained by borrowings from PIE into proto-Uralic.[14] Yet, Anthony also notes that the North Caucasian communities "were southern participants in the steppe world."[36]

Anthony describes the spread of cattle-raising from early farmers in the Danube Valley into the Ukrainian steppes in the 6th-5th century BCE, forming a cultural border with the hunter-gatherers[37] whose languages may have included archaic PIE.[38][note 5] Subsequent cultures developed in this area which adopted cattle, most notably the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture.[13] Parpola regards the Tripolye culture as the birth place of wheeled vehicles, and therefore as the homeland for Late PIE, assuming that Early PIE was spoken by Skelya pastoralists (early Sredny Stog culture[40]) who took over the Tripolye culture at ca. 4300-4000 BCE.[41] On its eastern border lay the Sredny Stog culture (4400-3400 BCE),[13] whose origins are related to "people from the east, perhaps from the Volga steppes."[42] It plays a central role in Gimbutas Kurgan hypothesis,[43] and coincides with the spread of early PIE across the steppes[43] and into the Danube valley (ca. 4000 BCE),[44] leading to the collapse of Old Europe.[45] Here-after the Maykop culture suddenly arose, Tripolye towns grew strongly, and eastern steppe people migrated to the Altai mountains, founding the Afanasevo cuture.[46]

Archeology[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Genetical research has offered confirmations of the migrations as described by the steppe model[47] and settled disputes on the origins of the Indo-Europeans related to specific haplogroups,[48] but also offered new insights into these migrations.[15] Asya Pereltsvaig notes that

...ancient (and to some degree, modern) DNA, coupled with archeological record, can provide 'evidence about processes of migration' of preliterate populations [...] [A]ny theory of Indo-European language dispersal must be compatible with such migration history.[11]

R1a - Origins and spread of Indo-Europeans[edit]

Haplogroup R1a is associated with the origins and spread of the Indo-Europeans.[49][50][51] R1a1 shows a strong correlation with the distribution of the Indo-European languages in Europe and south Asia, being most prevalent in Poland, Russia, and Ukraine, but also observed in Pakistan, India and central Asia.[50][51] The connection between Y-DNA R-M17 and the spread of Indo-European languages was first noted by T. Zerjal and colleagues in 1999.[52] Its origins may give important clues to the origins of the Indo-Europeans, and have been part of heatedly discussions on nationl identities.

Ornella Semino and colleagues proposed a postglacial spread of the R1a1 gene during the Late Glacial Maximum, subsequently magnified by the expansion of the Kurgan culture into Europe and eastward.[53] Spencer Wells suggests that the distribution and age of R1a1 points to an ancient migration corresponding to the spread by the Kurgan people in their expansion from the Eurasian steppe.[54]

Due to its high variation in India, and it seemingly ancientness there, Indian origins have also repeatedly been proposed.

More recently, R1a turned out to be split in two specific subclades, namely R1-Z282 which dominates in Eastern-Europe, and R1-Z93 which is found in south-Siberia and northern India. The two subclades split in the area of Transcaucasia, between the steppe and northern Iran.[50][51] Underhill et al. (2014/2015) found that two subclades of R1a dominate in two different regions, namely R1-Z282 in Eastern Europe, and R1-Z93 in southern Siberia and northern India. According to Underhill et al. (2014), the initial diversification of R1a took place in the vicinity of Iran,[48] while Pamjav et al. (2012) think that R1a diversified within the Eurasian Steppes or the Middle East and Caucasus region.[55] According to Underhill et al. (2014/2015) the diversification of Z93 and the "early urbanization within the Indus Valley also occurred at [5,600 years ago] and the geographic distribution of R1a-M780 (Figure 3d) may reflect this."[48] Poznik et al. (2016) note that 'striking expansions' occurred within R1a-Z93 at ~4,500-4,000 years ago, which "predates by a few centuries the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation."[56]

Steppe hypothesis[edit]

Gimbutas' Kurgan hypothesis[edit]

Main article: Kurgan hypothesis

In the 1970s, a mainstream consensus had emerged among Indo-Europeanists in favour of the "Kurgan hypothesis"[citation needed] placing the Indo-European homeland in the Pontic steppe of the Chalcolithic period. This was not least due to the influence of the Journal of Indo-European Studies, edited by J. P. Mallory, that focused on the ideas of Marija Gimbutas, and offered some improvements.

Gimbutas had created a modern variation on the traditional invasion theory (the Kurgan hypothesis, after the kurgans, burial mounds, of the Eurasian steppes) in which the Indo-Europeans were a nomadic tribe in Eastern Ukraine and Southern Russia and expanded on horseback in several waves during the 3rd millennium BCE. Their expansion coincided with the taming of the horse. Leaving archaeological signs of their presence (see battle-axe people), they subjugated the peaceful European Neolithic farmers of Gimbutas's Old Europe. As Gimbutas's beliefs evolved, she put increasing emphasis on the patriarchal, patrilinear nature of the invading culture, sharply contrasting it with the supposedly egalitarian, if not matrilinear culture of the invaded, to the point of formulating essentially a feminist archaeology. Her interpretation of Indo-European culture found genetic support in remains from the Neolithic culture of Scandinavia, where DNA from bone remains in Neolithic graves indicated that the megalith culture was either matrilocal or matrilineal, as the people buried in the same grave were related through the women. Likewise, there is a tradition of remaining matrilineal traditions among the Picts.[citation needed]

Archeology[edit]

The Gimbutas-Mallory Kurgan hypothesis seeks to identifies the source of the Indo-European language expansion as a succession of migrations from the Pontic–Caspian steppe, originating in the area encompassed by the Sredny Stog culture (ca. 4500 BCE).[57] J. P. Mallory, dating the migrations later, to around 4000 BCE, and putting less insistence on their violent or quasi-military nature, essentially modified Gimbutas' theory making it compatible with a less gender-political narrative. David Anthony, focusing mostly on the evidence for the domestication of horses and the presence of wheeled vehicles, came to regard specifically the Yamna culture, which replaced the Sredny Stog culture around 3500 BC, as the most likely candidate for the Proto-Indo-European speech community.[13]

Vocabulary[edit]

The core element of the steppe hypothesis is the identification of the proto-Indo-European culture as a nomadic pastoralist society, that did not practice intensive agriculture. This identification rests on the fact that vocabulary related to cows, and to horses and horsemanship and wheeled vehicles can be reconstructed for all branches of the family, whereas agricultural vocabulary tends not to be reconstructable suggesting a gradual adoption of agriculture through contact with non-Indo-Europeans. When this evidence and reasoning is accepted, the search for the Indo-European proto-culture has to involve searching for the earliest introduction of domesticated horses and wagons into Europe.[58]

Responding to these arguments proponents of the Anatolian hypothesis Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson have argued that the different branches could have independently developed similar vocabulary based on the same roots creating the false appearance of shared inheritance - or alternatively that the words related to wheeled vehicle might have been borrowed across Europe at a later date. Proponents of the Steppe hypothesis have argued this to be highly unlikely and to break with the established principles for reasonable assumptions when explaining linguistic comparative data.[58]

Another source of evidence for the steppe hypothesis is the presence of what appears to be many shared loanwords between Uralic languages and proto-Indoeuropean, suggesting that these languages were spoken in adjacent areas. This would have had to take place a good deal further north than the Anatolian or Near Eastern scenarios would allow.[58]

Genetics[edit]

Root populations[edit]

The proto-Indo-Europeans, c.q. the Yamnaya people, seem to have been a mix from eastern European hunter-gatherers[59] and Caucasus hunter-gatherers[60] c.q. Iran Chalcolithic people with a Caucasian hunter-gatherer component.[61][61][note 6]

According to Jones et al. (2015), Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) "genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ~3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages."[60][note 7]

According to Haak et al. (2015), "the Yamnaya steppe herders of this time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but from a population of Near Eastern ancestry."[59] According to Lazaridis et al. (2016), "a population related to the people of the Iran Chalcolithic contributed ~43% of the abcestry of early Bronze Age populations of the steppe."[61] According to Lazaridis et al. (2016), these Iranian Chacolithic people were a mixture of "the Neolithic people of western Iran, the Levant, and Caucasus Hunter Gatherers."[61][note 8]

From Yamna to Corded Ware[edit]

In 2015 researchers reported on a DNA analysis of 94 ancient skeletons mostly 8,000–3,000 years old from Central Europe and Russia. They found that there was a major migration of Yamna culture people who entered Central Europe from the North Pontic-Caspian steppe about 4,500 years ago and whose DNA spread widely throughout Europe. They traced the majority of the genetic ancestry of skeletons from the northern European Corded ware culture to the Yamnaya populaiton. They concluded that this massive influx of Yamnaya herders provides support for the origin of at least some of the Indo-European languages in Europe.[63][64]

From Corded Ware to Andronovo[edit]

According to Keyser et al. (2009) out of ten human male remains assigned to the Andronovo horizon from the Krasnoyarsk region, nine possessed the R1-M17 (R1a1a) Y-chromosome haplogroup and one C haplogroup (xC3),[note 9] while 90% of the Bronze Age period mtDNA haplogroups were of west Eurasian origin. The study also determined that at least 60% of the individuals overall[note 10] had light hair and blue or green eyes. Keyser et al. (2009) also found R1a in a "Scytho-Siberian specimen from the Sebÿstei site in the Altaï Republic (Central Asia) dated from the middle of the Wfth century BC."[65]

Haak et al. (2015) found that the Andronovo-culture was genetically closely related to the Corded Ware culture, and concluded that the Andronovo culture developed from the eastern part of the Corded Ware culture.[47]

Anatolian hypothesis[edit]

Main article: Anatolian hypothesis
See also: Indo-Hittite
Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the seventh to fifth millennium BC.

Theory[edit]

The main competitor to the Kurgan hypothesis is the Anatolian hypothesis advanced by Colin Renfrew in 1987. It couples the spread of the Indo-European languages to the hard fact of the neolithic spread of farming from the Near East, stating that the Indo-European languages began to spread peacefully into Europe from Asia Minor from around 7000 BCE with the Neolithic advance of farming (wave of advance). The expansion of agriculture from the Middle East would have diffused three language families: Indo-European toward Europe, Dravidian toward Pakistan and India, and Afro-Asiatic toward Arabia and North Africa.

According to Renfrew (2004), the spread of Indo-European proceeded in the following steps:

  • Around 6500 BC: Pre-Proto-Indo-European, located in Anatolia, splits into Anatolian and Archaic Proto-Indo-European, the language of those Pre-Proto-Indo-European farmers who migrate to Europe in the initial farming dispersal. Archaic Proto-Indo-European languages occur in the Balkans (Starčevo-Körös-Cris culture), in the Danube valley (Linear Pottery culture), and possibly in the Bug-Dniestr area (Eastern Linear pottery culture).
  • Around 5000 BC: Archaic Proto-Indo-European splits into Northwestern Indo-European (the ancestor of Italic, Celtic, and Germanic), located in the Danube valley, Balkan Proto-Indo-European (corresponding to Gimbutas' Old European culture), and Early Steppe Proto-Indo-European (the ancestor of Tocharian).

Reacting to criticism, Renfrew revised his proposal to the effect of taking a pronounced Indo-Hittite position. Renfrew's revised views place only Pre-Proto-Indo-European in 7th millennium BC Anatolia, proposing as the homeland of Proto-Indo-European proper the Balkans around 5000 BC, explicitly identified as the "Old European culture" proposed by Marija Gimbutas. He thus still situates the original source of the Indo-European language family in Anatolia around 7000 BC. Reconstructions of a Bronze Age PIE society based on vocabulary items like "wheel" do not necessarily hold for the Anatolian branch, which appears to have separated from PIE at an early stage, prior to the invention of wheeled vehicles.[66]

Objections[edit]

Dating[edit]

The main objection to this theory is that it requires an unrealistically early date.[58] According to linguistic analysis, the Proto-Indo-European lexicon seems to include words for a range of inventions and practices related to the Secondary Products Revolution, which post-dates the early spread of farming. On lexico-cultural dating, Proto-Indo-European cannot be earlier than 4000 BC.[67]

Farming[edit]

The idea that farming was spread from Anatolia in a single wave has been revised. Instead it appears to have spread in several waves by several routes, primarily from the Levant.[68] The trail of plant domesticates indicates an initial foray from the Levant by sea.[69] The overland route via Anatolia seems to have been most significant in spreading farming into south-east Europe.[70]

Farming developed independently in the eastern fertile crescent.[15] Non-Indo-European languages appear to be associated with the spread of farming from the Near East into North Africa and the Caucasus.[citation needed] According to Lazaridis et al. (2016), farming developed independently both in the Levant and in the eastern Fertile Crescent.[15] After this initial development, the two regions and the Caucasus interacted, and the chalcolithic north-west Iranian population appears to be a mixture of Iranian neolithic, Levant, and Caucasus hunter-gatherers.[15] According to Lazaridis et al. (2016), "farmers related to those from Iran spread northward into the Eurasian steppe; and people related to both the early farmers of Iran and to the pastoralists of the Eurasian steppe spread eastward into South Asia."[71] They further note that ANI "can be modelled as a mix of ancestry related to both early farmers of western Iran and to people of the Bronze Age Eurasian steppe,"[71][note 11] which makes it unlikely that the Indo-European languages in India are derived from Anatolia.[72] Mascarenhas et al. (2015) note that the expansion of Z93 from Transcaucasia into South Asia is compatible with "the archeological records of eastward expansion of West Asian populations in the 4th millennium BCE culminating in the socalled Kura-Araxes migrations in the post-Uruk IV period."[73]

Alignment with Steppe-theory[edit]

According to Alberto Piazza "[i]t is clear that, genetically speaking, peoples of the Kurgan steppe descended at least in part from people of the Middle Eastern Neolithic who immigrated there from Turkey."[74] According to Piazza and Cavalli-Sforza, the Yamna-culture may have been derived from Middle Eastern Neolithic framers who migrated to the Pontic steppe and developed pastoral nomadism.:

...if the expansions began at 9,500 years ago from Anatolia and at 6,000 years ago from the Yamnaya culture region, then a 3,500-year period elapsed during their migration to the Volga-Don region from Anatolia, probably through the Balkans. There a completely new, mostly pastoral culture developed under the stimulus of an environment unfavorable to standard agriculture, but offering new attractive possibilities. Our hypothesis is, therefore, that Indo-European languages derived from a secondary expansion from the Yamnaya culture region after the Neolithic farmers, possibly coming from Anatolia and settled there, developing pastoral nomadism.[75]

Wells agrees with Cavalli-Sforza that there is "some genetic evidence for migration from the Middle East":

... while we see substantial genetic and archaeological evidence for an Indo-European migration originating in the southern Russian steppes, there is little evidence for a similarly massive Indo-European migration from the Middle East to Europe. One possibility is that, as a much earlier migration (8,000 years old, as opposed to 4,000), the genetic signals carried by Indo-European-speaking farmers may simply have dispersed over the years. There is clearly some genetic evidence for migration from the Middle East, as Cavalli-Sforza and his colleagues showed, but the signal is not strong enough for us to trace the distribution of Neolithic languages throughout the entirety of Indo-European-speaking Europe.[76]

Armenian hypothesis[edit]

Main article: Armenian hypothesis

Gamkrelidze and Ivanov held that the Urheimat was south of the Caucasus, specifically, "within eastern Anatolia, the southern Caucasus and northern Mesopotamia" in the fifth to fourth millennia BC.[77] Their proposal was based on a disputed theory of glottal consonants in PIE. According to Gamkrelidze and Ivanov, PIE words for material culture objects imply contact with more advanced peoples to the south, the existence of Semitic loan-words in PIE, Kartvelian (Georgian) borrowings from PIE, some contact with Sumerian, Elamite and others. However given that the glottalic theory never caught on, and there was little archeological support the Gamkredlize and Ivanov theory did not gain support, untill Renfrew's anatolian theory revived aspects of their proposal.[58]

Gamkredilze and Ivanov proposed that the Greeks moving west across Anatolia to their present location, a northward movement of some IE speakers that brought them into contact with the Finno-Ugric languages and suggest that the kurgan area, or better “Black Sea and Volga steppe” was a secondary homeland from which the western IE languages emerged.

A 2015 genetic study by Haak et al. (2015:137) argues that their findings of gene flow of a population that shares traits with modern day Armenians into the Yamnaya pastoralist culture lends support to the Armenian hypothesis, while Lazaridis et al. (2016) state that "farmers related to those from Iran spread northward into the Eurasian steppe."[15]

Other models[edit]

Baltic homeland[edit]

Lothar Kilian and Marek Zvelebil have proposed a 6th millennium BCE or later origin in Northern Europe.[78] The Steppe theory is compatible with the argument that the PIE homeland must have been larger,[79] because the "Neolithic creolisation hypothesis" allows the Pontic-Caspian region to have been part of PIE territory.

Palaeolithic Continuity Theory[edit]

The Palaelithic Continuity Theory was proposed, among others, by A. Hausler, a severe critic of Gumbias' Kurgan hypothesis.[13]

Out of India theory[edit]

The Indigenous Aryans theory, also known as the Out of India theory, proposes an Indian origin for the Indo-European languages. The languages of northern India and Pakistan, including Hindi and the historically and culturally significant liturgical language Sanskrit, belong to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.[80] The Steppe model, rhetorically presented as an "Aryan invasion," has been opposed by Hindu revivalists and Hindu nationalists,[81][82] who argue that the Aryans were indigenous to India, and some, such as Koenraad Elst[83][84] and Shrikant Talageri,[85] have proposed that Proto-Indo-European itself originated in northern India, either with or shortly before the Indus Valley Civilisation.[82][86] This "Out of India" theory is not regarded as plausible in mainstream scholarship.[87][88][86]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kortlandt (2010) refers to Kortlandt, Frederik. 2007b. C.C. Uhlenbeck on Indo-European, Uralic and Caucasian.
  2. ^ A similar model is proposed by Bomhard, who argues for "the imposition of a Eurasiatic language [...] on a population speaking one or more primordial Northwest Caucasian languages."[30]
  3. ^ The "Sogdiana hypothesis" of Johanna Nichols places the homeland in the 4th or 5th millennium BCE to the east of the Caspian Sea, in the area of ancient Bactria-Sogdiana.[31][32]
  4. ^ According to Bernard Sergent the lithic assemblage of the first Kurgan culture in Ukraine (Sredni Stog II), which originated from the Volga and South Urals, recalls that of the Mesolithic-Neolithic sites to the east of the Caspian sea, Dam Dam Chesme II and the cave of Djebel.[33] He places the roots of the Gimbutas' Kurgan cradle of Indo-Europeans in a more southern cradle, and adds that the Djebel material is related to a Paleolithic material of Northwestern Iran, the Zarzian culture, dated 10,000-8,500 BC, and in the more ancient Kebarian of the Near East. He concludes that more than 10,000 years ago the Indo-Europeans were a small people grammatically, phonetically and lexically close to Semitic-Hamitic populations of the Near East.[34]
  5. ^ Anthony notes that domesticated cattle and sheep probably didn't enter the steppes from the southern Caucasus, since the early farming communities there were not widespread, nd separated from the steppes by the glaciated Caucasus mountains.[39]
  6. ^ Lazaridis et al. (2016): "The spread of Near Eastern ancestry into the Eurasian steppe was previously inferred without access to ancient samples, by hypothesizing a population related to present-day Armenians as a source."[61] Lazaridis et al. (2016) refer to haak et al. (2015).

    Eurogenes Blog: "Lazaridis et al. show that Early to Middle Bronze Age steppe groups, including Yamnaya, tagged by them as Steppe EMBA, are best modeled with formal statistics as a mixture of Eastern European Hunter-Gatherers (EHG) and Chalcolithic farmers from western Iran. The mixture ratios are 56.8/43.2, respectively. However, they add that a model of Steppe EMBA as a three-way mixture between EHG, the Chalcolithic farmers and Caucasus Hunter-Gatherers (CHG) is also a good fit and plausible."[62]

    See also:
    * Stephanie Dutchen (2014), New Branch Added to European Family Tree. Genetic analysis reveals Europeans descended from at least three ancient groups
    * Richard Gray (2015), Modern Europeans descend from FOUR groups of hunter-gatherers: New strand of DNA discovered in the Caucasus is the 'missing piece in the ancestry puzzle'
    * Dieneke's Anthropology Blog, West_Asian in the flesh (hunter-gatherers from Georgia) (Jones et al. 2015)
    * For what they were... we are (2016), Caucasus and Swiss hunter-gatherer genomes
  7. ^ Jones et al. (2015) further note that "Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ~45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ~25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum."[60]
  8. ^ See also:
    * eurogenes.blogspot, The genetic structure of the world's first farmers (Lazaridis et al. preprint)
    * For what they were... we are (2016) Ancient genomes from Neolithic West Asia
  9. ^ Mitochrondrial DNA haplogroups of nine individuals assigned to the same Andronovo horizon and region were as follows: U4 (2 individuals), U2e, U5a1, Z, T1, T4, H, and K2b.
  10. ^ Out of the 26 samples of the study's Bronze and Iron Age human remains that could be tested
  11. ^ See also eurogenes.blogspot, The genetic structure of the world's first farmers (Lazaridis et al. preprint) .

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Mallory & Adams 2006.
  2. ^ a b Pereltsvaig & Lewis 2015, p. 157-158.
  3. ^ a b Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 1400831105. 
  4. ^ a b c Pereltsvaig, Asya; Lewis, Martin W. (2015). "Introduction: the Indo-European debate and why it matters". The Indo-European Controversy. Cambridge University Press. p. 1-16. ISBN 9781107054530. 
  5. ^ a b c Anthony, David W.; Ringe, Don (2015). "The Indo-European Homeland from Linguistic and Archaeological Perspectives". Annual Review of Linguistics 1 (1): 199–219. doi:10.1146/annurev-linguist-030514-124812. 
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