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Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. There are about 445 living Indo-European (IE) languages. The following IE languages are listed in descending order by native speakers, with all having at least 80 million: Spanish, English, Portuguese, Bengali, Hindi, Russian, Punjabi, German, and French.
Since there is no written record of this language, it has been reconstructed using historical linguistics. It is thought that PIE may have been spoken as a single language (before divergence began) around 3500 BC, though estimates vary by more than a thousand years. The original speakers may have originated in the Pontic–Caspian steppe of Eastern Europe, north of the Black Sea. As Proto-Indo-European speakers became isolated from each other through migration, the language spoken by those groups diverged.
PIE is thought to have had a complex system of morphology that included inflectional suffixes as well as ablaut (vowel alterations, for example sing, sang, sung). Nouns and verbs had complex systems of declension and conjugation respectively.
- 1 Development of the theory
- 2 Historical and geographical setting
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Morphology
- 5 Syntax
- 6 Usage in modern times
- 7 Relationships to other language families
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Development of the theory
There is no direct evidence of PIE. It has been reconstructed from its present-day descendants using the comparative method. The comparative method itself was developed in the 1800s while investigating the relationship between what came to be known as the Indo-European languages. The comparative method uses the principle of regular sound change which were defined in terms of the Indo-European sound laws.
By the time of Socrates (469-399 b.c.), the ancient Greeks were aware that their language had changed since the time of Homer. Joseph Scaliger (1540–1609) identified Greek, Germanic, Romance and Slavic languages groups by comparing the word for "God".
Around the 12th century, similarities between European languages became recognised. In Iceland, scholars noted the resemblances between Icelandic and English. Gerald of Wales claimed that Welsh, Cornish, and Breton were descendants of a common source.
Grammars of European languages other than Latin and Classical Greek began to be published at the end of the 1400s, leading to comparison between the various languages.
In the 1600s Silesian physician Johann Elichmann used the expression ex eadem origine (from a common source) in a 1640 study relating European languages to Indo-Iranian languages (which include Sanskrit) and Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn proposed the existence of a primitive common language he called Scythian. He included in its descendants Dutch, German, Latin, Greek, Persian, Slavic, Celtic and Baltic. He observed that loanwords should be eliminated in comparative studies, and also correctly put great emphasis on common morphological systems and irregularity as indicators of relationship.
In 1710, Leibniz applied ideas of gradualism and uniformitarianism to linguistics in a short essay. He considered language groups to have a common source and proposed the Japhetic language group.
In 1767 Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux sent a Mémoire to the French Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres in which he demonstrated the similarity between the Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, German and Russian languages.
Despite the above, the discovery of the relationship of the whole family of Indo-European languages is often attributed to Sir William Jones, a British judge in India who in a 1786 postulated a proto-language uniting six branches: Sanskrit (i.e. Indo-Aryan), Persian (i.e. Iranian), Greek, Latin, Germanic and Celtic. In many ways his work was less accurate than his predecessors', as he erroneously included Egyptian, Japanese and Chinese in the Indo-European languages, while omitting Hindi.
The correspondence between Latin p (as in pater) and Germanic f (as in father) was noted by Friedrich von Schlegel in 1806. In 1818, Rasmus Christian Rask elaborated the set of correspondences to include other Indo-European languages, such as Sanskrit and Greek, and the full range of consonants involved.
In 1816 Franz Bopp published On the System of Conjugation in Sanskrit in which he investigated a common origin of Sanskrit, Persian, Greek, Latin, and German. In 1833 he began publishing the Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Old Slavic, Gothic, and German.
In 1822, Jacob Grimm formulated Grimm's Law as a general rule in his Deutsche Grammatik. Grimm showed correlations between the Germanic and other Indo-European languages, and showed that sound change affects an entire language systematically, and not just some words.
Around 1875, the Neogrammarians proposed that sound laws have no exceptions, as shown in Verner's Law, published in 1876, which resolved apparent exceptions to Grimm’s law by exploring the role that accent (stress) played in language change.
August Schleicher's A Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European, Sanskrit, Greek and Latin Languages (1874–77) was an early attempt to reconstruct the proto-Indo-European language.
By the early 1900s, well-defined descriptions of PIE had been developed that are still accepted today. The largest developments since then were the discovery of the Anatolian and Tocharian languages and the acceptance of the laryngeal theory. This theory aims to produce greater regularity in the linguistic reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European phonology than in the reconstruction produced by the comparative method.
Julius Pokorny's Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch ("Indo-European Etymological Dictionary", 1959) gave a detailed, though conservative, overview of the lexical knowledge accumulated up until that time. Kuryłowicz's 1956 Apophonie, gave a better understanding of the Indo-European ablaut. From the 1960s, knowledge of Anatolian became certain enough to establish its relationship to PIE.
Historical and geographical setting
There are several competing hypotheses about when, where, and by whom PIE was spoken. In the most popular model, first put forward by Marija Gimbutas, the Kurgan hypothesis, Kurgans from the Pontic–Caspian steppe north of the Black Sea were the original speakers of PIE.
According to the theory PIE became widespread because its speakers, the Kurgans, were able to migrate into a large area of Europe and Asia because of technologies including the domestication of the horse, herding, and the use of wheeled vehicles.
Mainstream linguistic estimates of the time between PIE and the earliest attested texts (c. nineteenth century BC; see Kültepe texts) range around 1,500 to 2,500 years.
Proto-Indo-European phonology has been reconstructed. The Proto-Indo-European accent is reconstructed today as having had variable lexical stress, which could appear on any syllable and whose position often varied among different members of a paradigm (e.g. between singular and plural of a verbal paradigm). Stressed syllables received a higher pitch, therefore it is often said that PIE had pitch accent. The location of the stress is associated with ablaut variations, especially between normal-grade vowels (/e/ and /o/) and zero-grade (i.e. lack of a vowel), but not entirely predictable from it.
The accent is best preserved in Vedic Sanskrit and (in the case of nouns) Ancient Greek, and indirectly attested in a number of phenomena in other IE languages. To account for mismatches between the accent of Vedic Sanskrit and Ancient Greek, as well as a few other phenomena, a few historical linguists prefer to reconstruct PIE as a tone language where each morpheme had an inherent tone; the sequence of tones in a word then evolved, according to that hypothesis, into the placement of lexical stress in different ways in different IE branches.
Proto-Indo-European roots are basic morphemes carrying a lexical meaning. PIE was a fusional language, in which the grammatical relationships between words were signaled through inflectional morphemes (usually endings). By addition of suffixes they form word stems, and by addition of desinences (usually endings), these form inflected nouns or verbs.
The Indo-European ablaut is the variation in vowels which occurred both within inflectional morphology (different grammatical forms of a noun or verb) and derivational morphology between, for example, a verb and an associated verbal noun. Originally, all categories were distinguished both by ablaut and different endings, but the loss of endings in some later Indo-European languages has led them to use ablaut alone to distinguish grammatical categories, as in the Modern English words sing, sang, sung.
- nominative: marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. Generally, the noun that is doing something is in the nominative, and the nominative is the dictionary form of the noun.
- accusative: for the direct object of a transitive verb.
- genitive: marks a noun as modifying another noun.
- dative: used to indicate the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria gave Jacob a drink". Here, Jacob is an indirect dative.
- instrumental: used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. The noun may be either a physical object or an abstract concept.
- ablative: used to express motion away from something.
- locative: corresponds vaguely to the English prepositions "in", "on", "at", and "by".
- vocative: used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object, etc.) being addressed or, occasionally, the determiners of that noun. A vocative expression is an expression of direct address where the identity of the party spoken to is set forth expressly within a sentence. For example, in the sentence, "I don't know, John", John is a vocative expression that indicates the party being addressed.
- allative: a type of the locative case.
There were three grammatical genders:
Proto-Indo-European pronouns are difficult to reconstruct owing to their variety in later languages. PIE had personal pronouns in the first and second grammatical person, but not the third person, where demonstrative pronouns were used instead. The personal pronouns had their own unique forms and endings, and some had two distinct stems; this is most obvious in the first person singular, where the two stems are still preserved in English I and me. There were also two varieties for the accusative, genitive and dative cases, a stressed and an enclitic form.
|First person||Second person|
|Accusative||*h₁mé, *h₁me||*nsmé, *nōs||*twé||*usmé, *wōs|
|Genitive||*h₁méne, *h₁moi||*ns(er)o-, *nos||*tewe, *toi||*yus(er)o-, *wos|
|Dative||*h₁méǵʰio, *h₁moi||*nsmei, *ns||*tébʰio, *toi||*usmei|
- stative: verbs that depict a state of being
- imperfective: verbs depicting ongoing, habitual or repeated action
- perfective: verbs depicting a completed action or actions viewed as an entire process).
Verbs have at least four grammatical moods:
- indicative: indicates that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
- imperative: forms commands or requests, including the giving of prohibition or permission, or any other kind of advice or exhortation.
- subjunctive: used to express various states of unreality such as wish, emotion, possibility, judgment, opinion, obligation, or action that has not yet occurred
- optative: indicates a wish or hope. It is similar to the cohortative mood, and is closely related to the subjunctive mood.
Verbs had two grammatical voices:
- active: used in a clause whose subject expresses the main verb's agent.
- mediopassive: for the middle voice and the passive voice.
Verbs had three grammatical persons: (first, second and third)
Verbs had three grammatical numbers
- dual: referring to precisely two of the entities (objects or persons) identified by the noun or pronoun.
- plural: a number other than singular or dual.
The following table shows two possible reconstructions of the PIE verb endings. Sihler's reconstruction largely represents the current consensus among Indo-Europeanists, while Beekes' is a radical rethinking of thematic verbs; although not widely accepted, it is included to show an example of more far-reaching recent research.
|Sihler (1995)||Beekes (1995)|
Proto-Indo-European numerals are generally reconstructed as follows:
|three||*trei- (full grade) / *tri- (zero grade)||*treies|
|four||*kʷetwor- (o-grade) / *kʷetur- (zero grade)
(see also the kʷetwóres rule)
|six||*s(w)eḱs; originally perhaps *weḱs||*(s)uéks|
|eight||*oḱtō, *oḱtou or *h₃eḱtō, *h₃eḱtou||*h₃eḱteh₃|
Rather than specifically 100, *ḱm̥tóm may originally have meant "a large number".
Proto-Indo-European particles could be used both as adverbs and postpositions, like *upo "under, below". The postpositions became prepositions in most daughter languages. Other reconstructible particles include negators (*ne, *mē), conjunctions (*kʷe "and", *wē "or" and others) and an interjection (*wai!, an expression of woe or agony).
The syntax of the older Indo-European languages has been studied in earnest since at least the late nineteenth century, by such scholars as Hermann Hirt and Berthold Delbrück. In the second half of the twentieth century, interest in the topic increased and led to reconstructions of Proto-Indo-European syntax.
Since all the early attested IE languages were inflectional, PIE is thought to have relied largely on morphological markers, rather than word order, to signal syntactic relationships within sentences. Still, a default (unmarked) word order is thought to have existed in PIE. This was reconstructed by Jacob Wackernagel as being subject–verb–object (SVO), based on evidence in Vedic Sanskrit, and the SVO hypothesis still has some adherents, but as of 2015[update] the "broad consensus" among PIE scholars is that PIE would have been a subject–object–verb (SOV) language.
The SOV default word order with other orders used to express emphasis (e.g., verb–subject–object to emphasize the verb) is attested in Old Indic, Old Iranian, Old Latin and Hittite, while traces of it can be found in the enclitic personal pronouns of the Tocharian languages. A shift from OV to VO order is posited to have occurred in late PIE, since many of the descendant languages have this order: modern Greek, Romance and Albanian prefer SVO, Insular Celtic has VSO as the default order, and even the Anatolian languages show some signs of this word order shift. The inconsistent order preference in Baltic, Slavic and Germanic can be attributed to contact with outside OV languages.
Usage in modern times
No genuine sample texts are available, but attempts have been made to compose example texts. These texts are educated guesses at best; Calvert Watkins observed in 1969 that in spite of its 150 years' history, comparative linguistics is not in the position to reconstruct a single well-formed sentence in PIE. The king and the god is a short dialogue loosely based on the "king Harishcandra" episode of Aitareya Brahmana. PIE plays a small but signifiant role in the film Prometheus in which a character recites part of Schleicher's fable.
Relationships to other language families
Many hypothesized higher-level relationships between Proto-Indo-European and other language families have been proposed, but these are highly controversial. Among them:
- An Indo-Uralic family, encompassing PIE and Uralic languages.
- Eurasiatic languages, which proposes a link of Indo-European and Uralic with Altaic languages and the other language families of northern Eurasia.
- A Proto-Human language family linking Indo-European, Uralic, and Altaic to Afroasiatic languages and Dravidian languages (the traditional form of the Nostratic languages).
- The Pontic languages which proposes and association of Indo-European with the Northwest Caucasian languages.
- Proto-Tocharian: an extinct branch known from manuscripts dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD, which were found in northwest China.
- Proto-Celtic: the ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages. These languages were once spoken across Europe, but modern Celtic languages are mostly confined to the north-western edge of Europe, and include the Irish language, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh and the Breton language.
- Proto-Italic: the ancestor of the Italic languages. This included many languages, but only descendants of Latin survive, and they include Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian, and Romanian.
- Proto-Germanic: the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic languages. It developed into three branches:
- Proto-Balto-Slavic which had two branches
- Proto-Indo-Iranian which had three branches
- Proto-Armenian: forerunner of modern Armenian.
- Proto-Greek: forerunner of Modern Greek.
- Proto-Albanian: the unattested language from which the Albanian language later developed.
Other theories postulate the existence of
Marginally attested languages
The Paleo-Balkan languages listed below do not appear to be members of any of the subfamilies of PIE but are so poorly attested that proper classification of them is not possible. All of these occur in or near the Balkan peninsula. This is a purely geographic grouping and makes no claims about the relatedness of the languages to each other as compared with other Indo-European languages.
- List of Indo-European languages
- Proto-Indo-European society
- Indo-European vocabulary
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|Look up Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Proto-Indo-European test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
- At the University of Texas Linguistic Research Center: List of online books, Indo-European Lexicon
- Proto-Indo-European Lexicon at the University of Helsinki, Department of Modern Languages, Department of World Cultures, Indo-European Studies
- Indo-European Grammar, Syntax & Etymology Dictionary
- The Dnghu ('Language') Association: an international, non-profit organization whose main mission is to promote the Indo-European language and culture.