Proto-Indo-Iranian language

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Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Indo-Iranic[1] is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian/Indo-Iranic branch of Indo-European. Its speakers, the hypothetical Proto-Indo-Iranians, are assumed to have lived in the late 3rd millennium BC, and are often connected with the Sintashta culture of the Eurasian Steppe and the early Andronovo archaeological horizon.

Proto-Indo-Iranian was a satem language, likely removed less than a millennium from the late Proto-Indo-European language, its ancestor, and in turn removed less than a millennium from the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda, its descendant. It is the ancestor of the Indo-Aryan languages, the Iranian languages, and the Nuristani languages.

Descriptive phonology[edit]

Proto-Indo-Iranian consonant segments
Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Laryngeal
dental/alveolar post-alveolar first second
Plosive voiceless *p *t *ĉ *č *k
voiced *b *d *ĵ *ǰ *g
aspirated * * *ĵʰ *ǰʰ *
Fricative

voiceless

*s *š *H
voiced (*z) (*ž)
Nasal *m *n
Liquid (*l) *r *
Semivowel *y *w
PII vowel segments
High *i *ī *u *ū
Low *a *ā

In addition to the vowels, *H, and * could function as the syllabic core.

Two palatal series[edit]

Proto-Indo-Iranian is hypothesized to contain two series of stops or affricates in the palatal to postalveolar region.[2] The phonetic nature of this contrast is not clear, and hence they are usually referred to as the primary or first series (*ĉ *ĵ *ĵʰ, continuing Proto-Indo-European palatovelar *ḱ *ǵ *ǵʰ) and the second or secondary series (*č *ǰ *ǰʰ, continuing Proto-Indo-European plain and labialized velars, *k, *g, *gʰ and *kʷ, *gʷ, *gʷʰ, in palatalizing contexts). The following table shows the most common reflexes of the two series (Proto-Iranian is the hypothetical ancestor to the Iranian languages, including Avestan and Old Persian):[3][4]

PII Sanskrit Proto-Iranian Avestan Old Persian Nuristani
*ĉ ś ([ɕ]) *ts s θ ċ ([ts]) / š
*ĵ j ([ɟ]) *dz z d j ([dz]) / z
*ĵʰ h ([ɦ])
*č c *č č č č
*ǰ j ([ɟ]) *ǰ ǰ ǰ ǰ / ž
*ǰʰ h ([ɦ])

Laryngeal[edit]

Proto-Indo-European is usually hypothesized to have had three to four laryngeal consonants, each of which could occur in either syllabic or non-syllabic positions. In Proto-Indo-Iranian, the laryngeals merged as one phoneme /*H/. Beekes suggests that some instances of this /*H/ survived into Avestan as unwritten glottal stops.[5]

Accent[edit]

Like Proto-Indo-European and Vedic Sanskrit (and also Avestan, though it was not written down[6]), Proto-Indo-Iranian had a pitch accent system similar to present-day Japanese, indicated by an acute accent over the accented vowel.

Historical phonology[edit]

The most distinctive phonological change separating Proto-Indo-Iranian from Proto-Indo-European is the collapse of the ablauting vowels *e, *o, *a into a single vowel, Proto-Indo-Iranian *a (but see Brugmann's law). Grassmann's law, Bartholomae's law, and the Ruki sound law were also complete in Proto-Indo-Iranian.

A fuller list of some of the hypothesized sound changes from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranian follows:

  • The Satem shift, consisting of two sets of related changes. The PIE palatals *ḱ *ǵ *ǵʰ are fronted or affricated, eventually resulting in PII *ĉ, *ĵ, *ĵʰ, while the PIE labiovelars *kʷ *gʷ *gʷʰ merge with the velars *k *g *gʰ.[7]
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*ḱm̥tóm *ĉatám śatám satəm centum 'hundred'
*ǵónu *ĵā́nu jā́nu zānu genū 'knee'
*ǵʰimós *ĵʰimás himá ziiā̊ hiems 'winter' / 'snow'
*kʷós *kás kás ka quis 'who?, what?'
*gʷṓws *gā́wš gaus gao bōs 'cow'
*gʷʰormós *gʰarmás gharmás garəma formus 'warmth, heat'
  • The PIE liquids *l *r *l̥ *r̥ merge as *r *r̥.[8]
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*ḱléwos *ĉráwas śrávas srauua clueō 'fame, honor, word'
*wĺ̥kʷos *wŕ̥kas vŕ̥kas vəhrka lupus 'wolf'
  • The PIE syllabic nasals *m̥ *n̥ merge with *a.[8]
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*déḱm̥ *dáĉa dáśa dasā decem 'ten'
*n̥bʰrós *abʰrás abhrá aβra imber 'rain, cloud'
  • Bartholomae's law: an aspirate immediately followed by a voiceless consonant becomes voiced stop + voiced aspirate. In addition, dʰ + t > dᶻdʰ.[9]
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
*ubʰtós *ubdʰás sámubdha ubdaēna 'woven' / 'made of woven material'
*wr̥dʰtós *wr̥dᶻdʰás vr̥ddʰá vərəzda 'grown, mature'
*dʰéwgʰti *dáwgdʰi dógdhi *daogdi 'to milk'
  • The Ruki rule: *s is retracted to *š when immediately following a liquid (*r *r̥ *l *l̥), a high vowel (*i *u), a PIE velar (*ḱ *ǵ *ǵʰ *k *g *gʰ *kʷ *gʷ *gʷʰ) or the syllabic laryngeal *H̥[10]. Its allophone *z likewise becomes *ž.[8]
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*wisós *wišás víṣas viša vīrus 'poison, venom'
*ḱeHs- *ĉH̥šam aśiṣam sīšā 'teach!'
*ǵéwseti *ĵáwšati jóṣati zaošō gustus 'to like, taste'
*kʷsép- *kšáp- kṣáp- xšap- 'darkness'
*plúsis *plúšiš plúṣi *fruši pūlex 'flea, noxious insect'
*nisdós *niždás nīḷá/nīḍá *nižda nīdus 'nest'
  • Before a dental occlusive, *ĉ becomes *š and *ĵ becomes *ž. *ĵʰ also becomes *ž, with aspiration of the occlusive.[11]
PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*oḱtṓw *oĉtṓ *aštā́ aṣṭá ašta octō 'eight'
*dr̥ḱtós *dr̥ĉtós *dr̥štás dr̥ṣṭá dərəšta 'seen, visible, apparent'
*mr̥ǵt- *mr̥ĵd- *mr̥žd- mr̥ḷ-/mr̥ḍ- mərəžd- 'to forgive, pardon'
*uǵʰtós *uĵʰtós *uždʰás ūḍhá *užda vector 'carried'
  • The sequence *ĉš was simplified to *šš.[12]
PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*h₂éḱs- *Háĉšos *Háššas ákṣa aša axis 'axle, shoulder'
  • The "second palatalization" or "law of palatals": *k *g *gʰ develop palatal allophones *č *ǰ *ǰʰ before the front vowels *i, *e.[9] through an intermediate *kʲ *gʲ *gʲʰ.
PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*-kʷe *-kʲe *-ča -ca -ča -que 'and'
*gʷih₃wós *gʲíHwós *ǰiHwás jīvás juuō vīvus 'alive, living'
*gʷʰénti *gʲʰénti *ǰʰánti hánti jaiṇti -fendit 'slays'
PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*deh₃tór-m *deHtṓrm *dātā́ram dātā́ram dātārəm datōrem 'giver' (accusative singular)
  • The vowels *e *o merge with *a. Similarly, *ē, *ō merge with *ā. This has the effect of giving full phonemic status to the second palatal series *č *ǰ *ǰʰ.
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*dédeh₃ti *dádaHti dádāti dadāiti dat 'to give'
*h₃dónts *Hdánts dát dantan dēns 'tooth'
*bʰréh₂tēr *bʰráHtā bhrā́tr̥ brātar frāter 'brother'
*wṓkʷs *wā́kš vā́k vāxš vōx 'voice'
  • In certain positions, laryngeals were vocalized to *i. This preceded the second palatalization.[14][15]
    • Following a consonant, and preceding a consonant cluster
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*ph₂tréy *pitráy pitré piθrē patrī 'father' (dative singular)
  • Following a consonant and word-final
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
*-medʰh₂ *-madʰi -mahi -maidī/-maiδi (1st person plural middle ending)
  • The Indo-European laryngeals all merged into one phoneme *H, which may have been a glottal stop. This was probably contemporary with the merging of *e and *o with *a.[16]
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*ph₂tḗr *pHtā́ pitā́ ptā pater 'father'
  • According to Lubotsky's Law, *H disappeared when followed by a voiced nonaspirated stop and another consonant:[17]
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
*bʰéh₂geti *bʰáǰati bhájati bažat̰ 'to divide, distribute'


Subsequent sound changes[edit]

Among the sound changes from Proto-Indo-Iranian to Indo-Aryan is the loss of the voiced sibilant *z, among those to Proto-Iranian is the de-aspiration of the PIE voiced aspirates.

Proto-Indo-European and Indo-Iranian Phonological Correspondences[18]
PIE OInd/VS Av PIE OInd/VS Av
*p > p p *ph̥₂tḗr "father" pitā́ "father" pitar- "father"
*b > b b *bél- "strong" bálam "strength"
*bʰ > bh b *réh₂tēr "brother" bhrā́tār- "brother" brātar- "brother
*t > t t *tuHóm "thou" tuvám "thou" tvəm "thou"
*d > d d *dóru "wood" dā́ru "wood" dāru- "wood"
*dʰ > dh d *oHnéh₂- "grain" dhānā́- "grain" dāna- "grain"
*ḱ > ś s * "ten" śa "ten" dasa "ten"
> j z *ǵónu "knee" jā́nu "knee" zānu- "knee"
*ǵʰ > h z *ǵʰimós "cold" himá- "cold, frost" zəmaka- "winterstorm"
*k > k ~ c x ~ č *kruh₂rós "bloody" krūrá- "bloody" xrūra- "bloody"
*ket "may he run" tačat̰ "may he run"
*g > g ~ j g ~ ǰ *h₂éuges- "strength" ójas- "strength" aoǰah "strength"
*h₂ugrós "strong" ugrá- "strong" ugra- "strong"
*gʰ > gh ~ h g ~ ǰ *dl̥Hós "long" dīrghá- "long" darəga- "long"
*dleHistos "longest" draǰišta- "longest"
*kʷ > k ~ c k ~ č *ós "who" káḥ "who" kō "who"
*e "and" ca "and" ́ča "and"
*gʷ > g ~ j g ~ ǰ *ou- "cow" gav- "cow" gau- "cow"
*ih₃wós "alive" jīvá- "alive" OPer: ǰīva- "living"
*gʷʰ > gh ~ h g ~ ǰ *gʷʰnénti "strike" (pl.) ghnánti "strike" (pl.)
*gʷʰénti "strikes" hánti "strikes" ǰainti "strikes"
*s > s s ~ h *septm̥ "seven" saptá "seven" hapta "seven"
*h₁ésti "is" ásti "is" asti "is"
*y > y y *yugóm "yoke" yugam "yoke" yuga- "yoke"
*w > v v *wéǵʰeti "drives, rides" váhati "drives" vazaiti "travels"
*m > m m *méh₂tēr "mother" mātár- "mother" mātar- "mother"
*n > n n *nós "us" nas "us" nō "us"
*l > l ~ r r *kʷeleti "moves" carati "moves" caraiti "moves"
*r > r r *réh₂tēr "brother" bhrā́tār- "brother" brātar- "brother
*n̥ > a a *- "un-" a- "un-" a- "un-"
*m̥ > a a *tóm "hundred" śatám "hundred" satəm "hundred"
*l̥ > ərər *wĺ̥kʷos "wolf" vŕ̥ka- "wolf" vəhrka- "wolf"
*r̥ > ərər *ŕ̥d- "heart" hŕ̥d- "heart" zərəd- "heart"
*i > i i *linékʷti "leaves" riṇákti "leaves" irinaxti "releases"
*e > a a *déḱm̥ "ten" dáśa "ten" dasa "ten"
> ā ā *h₂nr "man" nā "man" nā "man"
*a > a a *h₂éǵeti "drives" ájati "drives" azaiti "drives"
> ā ā *méh₂tēr "mother" mātā́ "mother" mātar- "mother"
*o > a ~ ā a ~ ā *ǵómbʰos "tooth, peg" jā́mbha- "tooth, tusk"
*ǵónu "knee" jānu "knee" zānu- "knee"
> ā ā *oHnéh₂- "grain" dhānā́- "grain" dāna- "grain"
*u > u u *yugóm "yoke" yugám "yoke" yuga- "yoke"
> ū ū *mū́s "mouse" mū́ṣ- "mouse" NPer mūs "mouse"
*h₁ > *h₁ésti "is" ásti "is" asti "is"
*h₂ > *h₂ŕ̥tḱos "bear" ŕ̥kṣa- "bear" arəša- "bear"
*h₃ > *h₃ókʷs(i) "eye" ákṣi "eye" aši "eye"
*h₄ > *h₄órǵʰis "testicle" ərəzi- "testicle"
Proto-Indo-Iranian Old Iranian (Av, OP) Vedic Sanskrit
*Háĉwas "horse" Av aspa, OP asa áśva
*bʰaHgás "portion, share" Av bāga bhāgá
*bʰráHtā "brother" Av, OP brātar bhrā́tr̥
*bʰúHmiš "earth, land" OP būmiš bhū́mi-
*mártyas "mortal, man" Av maṣ̌iia, OP martiya mártya
*mā́Has "moon" Av mā̊, OP māha mā́s
*wásr̥ "spring" Av vaŋhar vásara "morning"
*Hr̥tás "truth" Av aṣ̌a, OP arta r̥tá
*dʰráwgʰas "lie" Av draoγa, OP drauga drógha "using malicious words"
*sáwmas "pressed (juice)" Av haoma sóma-

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peter Bellwood; Immanuel Ness (10 November 2014). The Global Prehistory of Human Migration. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-97059-1.
  2. ^ Burrow, pp. 78-79
  3. ^ Ramat, Anna Giacalone (1998). The Indo-European Languages (illustrated ed.). London ; New York: Routledge,. p. 134. ISBN 0-415-06449-X.
  4. ^ Cardona, George; Dhanesh Jain (2003). The Indo-Aryan Languages. London ; New York: Routledge. p. 24. ISBN 0-7007-1130-9.
  5. ^ Beekes (1988), p. 50
  6. ^ Beekes, p. 55
  7. ^ Burrow, pp. 74-75
  8. ^ a b c Fortson, p. 182
  9. ^ a b Fortson, p. 181
  10. ^ F. B. J. Kuiper. 1976. "Old East Iranian dialects." Indo-Iranian Journal 18, p. 242.
  11. ^ Burrow, p. 91
  12. ^ Burrow, pp. 92-94
  13. ^ Fortson, p. 183
  14. ^ Beekes, pp, 85-86
  15. ^ Lubotsky, p. 53
  16. ^ get ref
  17. ^ Beekes, pp. 88-89
  18. ^ "Indo-Iranian Languages." Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Ed. J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997. pp. 305.

Bibliography[edit]