Proto-Kam–Sui language

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The Proto-Kam–Sui language is the reconstructed ancestor of the Kam–Sui languages.

Reconstructions[edit]

A preliminary of reconstruction of Proto-Kam–Sui had been undertaken by Graham Thurgood (1988).[1]

Another reconstruction of Proto-Kam-Sui, mostly based on Thurgood's reconstruction, was accomplished by Ilia Peiros as part of his reconstruction of Tai-Kadai, which was done without taking the Kra languages into account.[2]

A new reconstruction of Proto-Kam-Sui is currently being undertaken by Peter Norquest.[3]

History[edit]

Liang & Zhang (1996)[4] consider western Guangdong to be the original homeland of Proto-Kam-Sui. According to Liang & Zhang (1996:25-29), based on evidence from Chinese written historical records, Kam-Sui languages were originally spoken in western Guangdong, but Kam-Sui peoples later started to migrate out of Guangdong during the Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty (from the years 600-800). Sui and Maonan migrations were completed by the Song Dynasty, around the years 1000-1100, while the Lakkia migrated to their current location in Guangxi from Huaiji County and Fengkai County, Guangdong during the beginning of the Ming Dynasty (years 1300-1400).[4]

Lexicon[edit]

Thurgood's (1988: 209-218) reconstructed Proto-Kam-Sui forms are listed below.

  • *hwaːt7 ‘angry’
  • *hnaːn5 ‘angry’
  • *taːp7 ‘to answer’
  • *mwit8 ‘ant’
  • *laːk8 ‘arm’
  • *k-xiːn1 ‘arm’
  • *khjaːk7 ‘armpit’
  • *taŋ1 ‘arrive, reach’
  • *cha5 ‘ascend’
  • *phwuːk7 ‘ashes’
  • *phlaːu5 ‘ashes’
  • *pa3 ‘aunt’
  • *hlaːi1 ‘back(bone)’
  • *lun2 ‘back, behind’
  • *hwaːi6 ‘bad, cruel’
  • *thruk7 ‘bamboo strip’
  • *xwan1 ‘bamboo’
  • *pwaŋ5 ‘bank, shore’
  • *khrau5 ‘to bark’
  • *ɗuŋ3 ‘basket, winnowing’
  • *ʔaːp7 ‘bathe’
  • *ʔmuːi1 ‘bear’
  • *m-luːt8 ‘beard’
  • *hȵiŋ1 ‘bedbug’
  • *mit8 ‘bee’
  • *daːŋ2 ‘bee’
  • *ʔdlu1 ‘bee, wasp’
  • *te3 ‘below’
  • *mluk8 ‘bird’
  • *krip7 ‘bite; chew’
  • *kam1 ‘bitter’
  • *ʔnam1 ‘black’
  • *ɓuːt7 ‘blind’
  • *phlaːt7 ‘blood’
  • *hwaːt7 ‘blow (wind)’
  • *dzup8 ‘to blow’
  • *thrun1 ‘body’
  • *tlaːk7 ‘bone’
  • *cam3 ‘bow, bend’
  • *duːi4 ‘bowl, cup’
  • *ʔŋa5 ‘branch’
  • *ciŋ5 ‘branch’
  • *praːk7 ‘break, tear’
  • **kraːŋ1 ‘bright’
  • *ɣwaːi4 ‘brother, older’
  • *dzuːk8 ‘to bundle’
  • *hmuk7 ‘bury’
  • *trai3 ‘to buy’
  • *kaːt7 ‘cabbage’
  • *laːp8 ‘candle’
  • *ʔma5 ‘carry on back’
  • *kjap7 ‘catch, grasp’
  • *kaːm1 ‘cave’
  • *khryap7 ‘centipede’
  • *tak7 ‘chest (body)’
  • *hmaːk7 ‘to chew’
  • *hnaːi5 ‘to chew’
  • *kaːi5 ‘chicken’
  • *hŋlaːŋ5 ‘young chicken’
  • *hmaːk7 ‘to chop’
  • *pram3 ‘to chop’
  • *khlap7 ‘close (eyes)’
  • *m-xwa3 ‘cloud’
  • *hnu1 ‘cold’
  • *paŋ1 ‘collapse’
  • *hma1 ‘come; return’
  • *kjaːp7' ‘to connect’
  • *duŋ2 ‘copper’
  • *ȵai6' ‘count’
  • *hraːŋ5 ‘a cover’
  • *khruːi1 ‘cowry (money), shell(fish)’
  • *hlaːi5 ‘to crawl’
  • *da6 ‘cross, pass’
  • *ka1 ‘a crow’
  • *kat7 ‘to cut’
  • *kaːt7 ‘to cut’
  • *hŋwan1 ‘day’
  • *ɗak7 ‘deaf’
  • *ʔyam1 ‘deep’
  • *hluːi5 ‘descend’
  • *laːi4 ‘devil, ghost’
  • *pjai1 ‘to die’
  • *di6 ‘dirt, earth’
  • *ɓja5 ‘disgusted’
  • *k-hma1 ‘dog’
  • *tu1 ‘door’
  • *gwau2 ‘dove’
  • *tak7 ‘draw water’
  • *te3 ‘draw water’
  • *pwjan1 ‘dream’
  • *trwap7 ‘to drink’
  • *tuk7 ‘drop, fall’
  • *tuk7 ‘drop, fall’
  • *dip8 ‘dull’
  • *mpraːŋ1 ‘ear of grain’
  • *khra1 ‘ear’
  • *khjam1 ‘early’
  • *caːn1 ‘eat’
  • *krai5 ‘egg’
  • *pjaːt7 ‘eight’
  • *phe1 ‘end, tip’
  • *ʔȵam5 ‘evening’
  • *hlik7 ‘exchange’
  • *ke4 ‘excrement’
  • *mpiŋ1 ‘expensive’
  • *ɗap7 ‘extinguish’
  • *thla1 ‘eye’
  • *ʔna3 ‘face, in front’
  • *lai4 ‘to fall’
  • *klaːi1 ‘far’
  • *tut7 ‘fart’
  • *gjaːŋ4 ‘feed, raise’
  • *traːi5 ‘dry field’
  • *ʔra5 ‘paddy field’
  • *ʔdlyap7? ‘fingernail’
  • *pwai1 ‘fire’
  • *kuːn5 ‘first’
  • *mlit8 ‘fish (loach)’
  • *mprai3 ‘fish’
  • *pa1 ‘fish’
  • *mum6 ‘fish’
  • *ŋu4 ‘five’
  • *k-hmat7 ‘flea’
  • *naːn4 ‘flesh, meat’
  • *nuk7'' ‘flower’
  • *muk8 ‘fog’
  • *praːk7 ‘forehead’
  • *ɗuŋ1 ‘forest’
  • *laːm2 ‘to forget’
  • *kup7 ‘field frog’
  • *k-wai3 ‘small frog’
  • *tiːk7 ‘full’
  • *ɗai3 ‘to get, gain’
  • *ʔȵaːk7 ‘gills’
  • *khjaːi1 ‘to give’
  • *ʔuːk7 ‘to go out, out’
  • *paːi1 ‘to go, walk’
  • *mwaːŋ1 ‘god, ghost’
  • *ɗaːi1 ‘good’
  • *gju4 ‘granary’
  • *khlaːn1 ‘grandchild’
  • *thrak7 ‘grasshopper’
  • *pram1 ‘hair, head’
  • *k-mja1 ‘hand’
  • **kra3 ‘hard’
  • *pram1 ‘to hatch’
  • *ʔnaŋ1 ‘to have’
  • *me2 ‘to have’
  • *kru3 ‘head’
  • *dai2 ‘to hit’
  • *ʔŋam1 ‘to hold in mouth’
  • *ʔuːm3 ‘hold (child)’
  • *ȵam1 ‘to hold’
  • *hŋuːm3 ‘to hold’
  • *m-kwaːu1 ‘horn’
  • *ma4 ‘horse’
  • *hraːn1 ‘house’
  • *ɓjaːk7 ‘hungry’
  • *ʔre1 ‘husband’
  • *mpaːk7 ‘insane’
  • *ȵak8 ‘to insert’
  • *tshaːp7 ‘to insert’
  • *khjaːi3 ‘intestine’
  • *khlit7 ‘iron’
  • *daːp8 ‘to kick’
  • *gruk8 ‘to kneel’
  • *miːt8 ‘knife’
  • *mbra4 ‘knife, sword’
  • *khwe1 ‘late’
  • *kru1 ‘to laugh’
  • *khlut7 ‘lazy’
  • *laːn4 ‘lazy’
  • *pwa5 ‘leaf’
  • *ʔniŋ3 ‘to lean’
  • *mpliŋ1 ‘leech’
  • *kla1 ‘left over’
  • *kwa1 ‘leg’
  • *tiːn1 ‘leg, foot’
  • *lja2? ‘lick’
  • *ljaːm5? ‘lick’
  • *ɓau1 ‘light, to float’
  • *ʔdlaːp7 ‘lightning’
  • *maŋ4 ‘to like’
  • *tap7 ‘liver’
  • *ʔraːi3 ‘long’
  • *kraːk7 ‘loom’
  • *tuk7 ‘to lose, misplace’
  • *nan1'' ‘louse’
  • *mprai1 ‘louse, chicken’
  • *mprum1 ‘to love (child)’
  • *thram5 ‘low’
  • **ʔnuːn1 ‘maggot’
  • *mpaːn1 ‘male (person)’
  • *ʔme1 ‘mark’
  • *hle1 ‘mark’
  • *mpraːŋ1 ‘mat (straw)’
  • *ŋe2 ‘meal, early’
  • *mbrau2 ‘meal, late’
  • *gja2 ‘medicine, to cure’
  • *ta5 ‘middle’
  • *muːn6 ‘monkey’
  • *nüaːn1'' ‘moon, month’
  • *hjit7 ‘morning’
  • *paːk7 ‘mouth’
  • *muːk8 ‘mucus’
  • *khlum5 ‘mud, dirt’
  • *naːm5 ‘mud, dirt’
  • *hŋla1 ‘mushroom’
  • *taːk7 ‘to nail’
  • *ɓlwa1 ‘navel’
  • *phlai5 ‘near’
  • *ke1 ‘net (to cast)’
  • *hmai5 ‘new’
  • *ʔnaŋ1 ‘nose, face’
  • *man2 ‘oil’
  • *kaːu5 ‘old (things)’
  • *ke5 ‘old (vegetables)’
  • *ɓjaːn3 ‘otter, beaver’
  • *chaːt7 ‘otter, beaver’
  • *ʔŋluːk7 ‘outside’
  • *phwa3 ‘palm (hand)’
  • *lin6 ‘pangolin’
  • *laːk8 ‘person, child’
  • *kjaːk7 ‘pestle’
  • *cup7 ‘to pick up’
  • *ɓit7 ‘to pick (flowers)’
  • *laːi6 ‘to pick, select’
  • *k-hmu5 ‘pig’
  • *ʔdlaːi5 ‘wild pig’
  • *dap8 ‘to pile’
  • *ʔlaːu1 ‘pillar’
  • *liːn2 ‘pipe, water’
  • *ljum2 ‘to plant’
  • *mpra1 ‘to plant’
  • *ʔdram1 ‘to transplant’
  • *pwak7 ‘pod, sheath’
  • *hŋlaːn1 ‘shoulder pole’
  • *ʔmiːn3 ‘porcupine, wild pig’
  • *ʔdlaːk7 ‘to pull’
  • *zuk8 ‘pus’
  • *kat7 ‘to put’
  • *naːŋ1 ‘raft, bamboo’
  • *xwin1 ‘to rain’
  • *hnu3 ‘rat, mouse’
  • *ɗip7 ‘raw, live’
  • *duk8 ‘to read’
  • *hwa1 ‘right side’
  • *zuk8 ‘ripe, cooked’
  • *hma3 ‘to rise (river)’
  • *ʔnja1 ‘river’
  • *pra1 ‘rock, cliff’
  • *kjaːŋ1 ‘root’
  • *ʔlaːk7 ‘rope’
  • *laːn6 ‘to rot’
  • *naːu6 ‘rotten’
  • **krin5 ‘scales’
  • *khjaːn5 ‘to scare’
  • *tak7 ‘to scoop’
  • *ʔlun1 ‘to see’
  • *ɗai3 ‘to see’
  • *pwan1 ‘seed’
  • *kla3 ‘rice seedling’
  • *kwe1 ‘to sell’
  • *ʔŋra1 ‘sesame’
  • *tau1 ‘shadow’
  • *ŋaːu2 ‘to shake’
  • *m-hliːn5? ‘shallow’
  • *hraːi5 ‘be sharp’
  • *gwan2 ‘to sharpen’
  • *khjam1 ‘sharpened, pointed’
  • *ɗau5 ‘spiral shell’
  • *thrin3 ‘short’
  • *pjau5 ‘shuttle’
  • *nu4 ‘younger sibling’
  • *ʔram1 ‘to sink’
  • *dzuːi6 ‘to sit’
  • *ljuk8 ‘six’
  • *hŋra1 ‘skin’
  • *ʔrwum1? ‘skinny, lean’
  • *ɓun1 ‘sky’
  • *nuːn2 ‘to sleep’
  • *nun4 ‘to smell’
  • *dzuːi2 ‘snake’
  • *ʔnuːi1 ‘snow’
  • *hma5 ‘soak, pickle’
  • *maːt8 ‘socks’
  • *ʔma3 ‘soft’
  • *khjum3 ‘sour’
  • *tljaːi3? ‘sparrow’
  • *m-hljaːn5 ‘spicy (hot)’
  • *pha5 ‘to split’
  • *hmaːk7 ‘to split’
  • *ŋa2 ‘sprout, a’
  • *khlak7 ‘stake, post’
  • *ʔdraːu1 ‘star’
  • *hmlut7 ‘star’
  • *ŋjaːu6 ‘to stay, live’
  • *hljak7 ‘to steal’
  • *luŋ2 ‘stomach’
  • *mpwaːŋ1 ‘straw’
  • *kruːi3 ‘stream’
  • *kjak7 ‘to stuff’
  • *hwit7' ‘to stuff’
  • *ʔuːi3 ‘sugar cane’
  • *ʔiːn5 ‘a swallow’
  • *phjit7? ‘to sweep’
  • *khwaːn1 ‘sweet’
  • *khjut7 ‘tail’
  • *ʔaːu1 ‘to take’
  • *ɓraːk7 ‘taro’
  • *ʔna1 ‘thick’
  • *ʔnak7 ‘thick, viscous’
  • *ɓwaːŋ1 ‘thin’
  • *naːi6 ‘this’
  • *tiːn3 ‘thunder’
  • *lai6 ‘thunder’
  • *pra3 ‘thunder, lightning’
  • *mum4 ‘tiger’
  • *khwe3 ‘tired’
  • *ʔni5 ‘tired’
  • *ma2 ‘tongue’
  • *pjwan1 ‘tooth’
  • *hȵa5 ‘trace, dregs’
  • *mai4 ‘tree, wood’
  • *kjaːt7 ‘to twist’
  • *hra1 ‘two’
  • *ta1 ‘uncle’
  • *kam3 ‘upside down’
  • *juŋ6 ‘to use’
  • *ʔma1 ‘vegetable’
  • *hruːi1 ‘vestige’
  • *ɓaːn3 ‘village’
  • *trwak7 ‘to vomit’
  • *kra3 ‘to wait’
  • *chaːm3 ‘to walk, crawl’
  • *aːu1 ‘to want’
  • *ʔlak7 ‘to wash clothes’
  • *zuːk ‘to wash hands’
  • *ȵam3 ‘water’
  • *traːu1 ‘we (incl.)’
  • *tan3 ‘to wear’
  • *tam3 ‘to weave’
  • *kjaːn1 ‘to weave, plait’
  • *ne1'' ‘to weed’
  • *ʔȵe3 ‘to weep, cry’
  • *ɓun5 ‘well, spring’
  • *ɓu5 ‘well, spring’
  • *thlam1 ‘well, pond, pool’
  • *ʔrak7 ‘wet’
  • *hlwum1 ‘wind’
  • *khlaːu3 ‘rice wine’
  • *pwa5 ‘wing’
  • *ɓjaːk7 ‘woman, girl’
  • *trit7 ‘(fire)wood’
  • *dzan4 ‘worm’
  • *tuːk7 ‘to wrap, bundle’
  • *ɓjuːt7? ‘to wring towel’
  • *kjaːt7 ‘to write’
  • *man2 ‘yam’
  • *mpe1 ‘year’
  • *ɓjaːk7 ‘woman, girl’
  • *trit7 ‘(fire)wood’
  • *dzan4 ‘worm’
  • *tuːk7 ‘to wrap, bundle’
  • *ɓjuːt7? ‘to wring towel’
  • *kjaːt7 ‘to write’
  • *man2 ‘yam’
  • *mpe1 ‘year’

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thurgood, Graham. 1988. "Notes on the reconstruction of Proto-Kam–Sui." In Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit (eds.), Comparative Kadai: Linguistic studies beyond Tai, 179-218. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 86. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.
  2. ^ Peiros, Ilia, 1998. "Comparative Linguistics in Southeast Asia", Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
  3. ^ Reconstructing Language Change and Variation
  4. ^ a b Liang Min 梁敏 & Zhang Junru 张均如. 1996. Dongtai yuzu gailun 侗台语族概论 / An introduction to the Kam–Tai languages. Beijing: China Social Sciences Academy Press 中国社会科学出版社. ISBN 9787500416814