Proto-Trans–New Guinea language

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Proto-Trans–New Guinea
PTNG
Reconstruction ofTrans–New Guinea languages
RegionNew Guinea Highlands
Lower-order reconstructions

Proto-Trans–New Guinea is the reconstructed proto-language ancestral to the Trans–New Guinea languages. Reconstructions have been proposed by Malcolm Ross and Andrew Pawley.

Phonology[edit]

Proto-Trans–New Guinea is reconstructed with a typical simple Papuan inventory: five vowels, /i e a o u/, three phonations of stops at three places, /p t k, b d ɡ, m n ŋ/ (Andrew Pawley reconstructs the voiced series as prenasalized /mb nd ŋɡ/), plus a palatal affricate /dʒ ~ ndʒ/, the fricative /s/, and the approximants /l j w/. Syllables are typically (C)V, with CVC possible at the ends of words. Many of the languages have restricted tone systems.

Consonants[1]: 136 
Bilabial Apical Palatal Velar
Plosive p t k
Prenasalised plosives ᵐb ⁿd ᶮʤ ᵑg
Nasals m n ɲ ŋ
Fricatives s
Laterals l
Semivowels w j

The Proto-Trans–New Guinea vowels are reconstructed as having a cross-linguistically frequent five-vowel system:

Vowels[1]
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

Pronouns[edit]

Ross reconstructs the following pronominal paradigm for Trans–New Guinea, with *a~*i ablaut for singular~non-singular:

I *na we *ni
thou *ga you *gi
s/he *(y)a, *ua they *i

There is a related but less commonly attested form for 'we', *nu, as well as a *ja for 'you', which Ross speculates may have been a polite form. In addition, there were dual suffixes *-li and *-t, and a plural suffix *-nV, (i.e. n plus a vowel) as well as collective number suffixes *-pi- (dual) and *-m- (plural) that functioned as inclusive we when used in the first person. (Reflexes of the collective suffixes, however, are limited geographically to the central and eastern highlands, and so might not be as old as proto-Trans–New Guinea.)

Morphology[edit]

Studies group Madang, Finisterre-Huon, and Kainantu-Goroka together as part of a larger Northeast New Guinea (NENG) group on the basis of morphological evidence, such as mutually reconstructable verbal suffixes that mark subject:[2][1]: 147–148 

Proto-Northeast New Guinea subject-marking verbal suffixes
singular dual plural
1st person *-Vn *-u(l,t) *-un, *-i
2nd person *-an *-i(l,t) *-ai, *-i, *-a
3rd person *-a, *-i *-ai
Comparison of reconstructions of subject-marking verbal suffixes
proto-Northeast New Guinea proto-Madang proto-Finisterre-Huon proto-Kainantu-Goroka Proto-Trans–New Guinea (tentative)
1sg *-Vn *-in ? *-u *-Vn
2sg *-an *-an,*-i *-an *-an *-Vn
3sg *-a,*-i *-a,*-an *-a,*-i *-ai,*-i *-a,*-i
1du *-u(l,t) -*-u(l,t) *-u(l,t) *-ur *-u(l,t)
2/3du *-i(l,t) *-i(l,t) *-i(l,t) ? *-i(l,t)
1pl *-un,*-i *-un *-un *-un
2/3pl *-ai,*-i,*-a *-ai,*-i *-e,*-i *-a

Lexicon[edit]

Lexical words, such as *niman 'louse', may also be reconstructed:

Reflexes of *niman 'louse', which attest to an intermediate *iman in the east:
Chimbu–Wahgi: Mid/Nuclear Wahgi numan
Engan: Enga & Kewa lema
Finisterre–Huon: Kâte imeŋ, Selepet imen
Gogodala mi
Kainantu–Goroka: Awa nu, Tairora nume, Fore numaa, Gende (tu)nima
Southern Kiwai nimo
Koiarian: Managalasi uma
Kolopom: Kimaghama nome, Riantana nome
Kwale nomone
Madang: Kalam yman, Watiwa (Rai Coast) im, Sirva (Adelbert) iima
Mek: Kosarek ami
Marori nemeŋk
Paniai Lakes: Ekari yame (metathesis?)
Timor–Alor–Pantar: Western Pantar (h)amiŋ, Oirata amin (metathesis?)
Wiru nomo
Questionable branches:
Pauwasi: Yafi yemar
Central Sentani mi

The Proto-Trans–New Guinea negative is reconstructed as *ma-.[1] Negatives in Trans–New Guinea languages usually have either an mV- or nV- form.[1]

Reconstructions[edit]

Proto-Trans-New Guinea reconstructions[1]: 141–146 
body parts
arm, forearm *mbena
belly, internal organs *mundun
blood *ke(nj,s)a
bone *kondaC
brain *muk[V]
breast *amu
buttocks *simbi + modifier
cheek *mVkVm
claw, hand *sikal or *sakil
ear *kand(i,e)k[V]
excrement 1 [same as 'guts']
excrement 2 *ata
eye 1 (cf. egg 2) *(ŋg,k)iti-maŋgV
eye 2 *ŋg(a,u)mu
eye 3 *nVpV
fingernail *(mb,p)(i,u)t(iu)C
foot, lower leg *k(a,o)nd(a,o)[C]
forehead, head *mVtVna
guts, intestines, bowels *sim(i,u), *simbi
hair 1 *(nd,s)umu(n,t)[V]
hair 2, leaf *iti
head 1 *kV(mb,p)utu
head 2 *mVtVna
heart 1 (cf. belly, egg 2) *mundu-maŋgV
heart 2 *simu
heart 3 *kamu
knee *(ŋg,k)atuk
leg 1 *k(a,o)nd(a,o)[C]
leg 2, calf *kitu
liver *[ma]pVn
milk, sap *muk
mouth, teeth *maŋgat[a]
navel *simu + modifier
neck 1 *k(a,e)(nd,t)ak
neck 2, nape, side of *kuma(n,ŋ)[V]
nose *mundu
penis *mo
saliva *si(mb,p)at[V]
shoulder *kinV
skin *(ŋg,k)a(nd,t)apu
testicles *walaka
tongue 1 *mbilaŋ
tongue 2 *me(l,n)e
tooth 1 (see mouth)
tooth 2 *titi
urine *[si]si, *siti, *pisi
kin terms
brother, older *[mb]amba
father *apa, *mbapa
grandparent *apus[i]
husband, man *ambi
mother, free form *am(a,i,u)
mother, bound form *na-
sibling, older *nan(a,i)
sibling, older same sex *[mb]amba
sister *aya
age-gender and other social categories
baby *ŋaŋa
boy *nV
man, husband *ambi
orphan, widow & child *mbeŋga-masi
woman, female *panV
birds, bird parts
bird 1 *n[e]i
bird 2 *yaka[i]
cassowary *ku[y]a
egg 1 *mun(a,e,i)ka
egg 2, fruit, seed *maŋgV
tail *a(mb,m)u
wing *mbutu
insects
butterfly *apa[pa]ta
fly *ŋgambu
louse *niman, *iman
mosquito *kasin
plants, plant parts
bark *ka(nd,t)ap[u]
casuarina *kal(a,i)pV
fruit, seed (cf. egg 2) *maŋgV
leaf 1, hair *iti
leaf 2 *sasak
root *kindil
sap, milk *muk
taro *mV
tree, wood *inda
inanimate world
ashes 1 *sumbu
ashes 2 *kambu-sumbu
ashes 3 *la(ŋg,k)a
cloud 1, sky *samb[V]
cloud 2 *ka(mb,p)utu
fire 1 *k(a,o)nd(a,u)p
fire 2 *inda
fire 3 *kambu
flame *mbalaŋ
ground 1 *man[a]
ground 2 *maka[n]
lightning, light *(mb,m)elak
moon 1 *takVn[V]
moon 2 *kal(a,i)m
morning *k(i,u)tuma + X
night *k(i,u)tuma
sand *sa(ŋg,k)asiŋ
sky 1, cloud *samb[V]
thunder, sky 2 *kumut, *tumuk
smoke 1 *kambu(s,t)(a,u)
smoke 2 *kambu-la(ŋg,k)a
stone 1 *kamb(a,u)na
stone 2 *[na]muna
sun 1 *kamali
sun 2 *ketane
water 1 *ok[V]
water 2 *nok
wind 1 *kumbutu
wind 2, breeze *pinVm
artefacts
axe *tu
fence *wati
netbag 1 *kun
netbag 2 *at(i,u)
string, rope *asi
intangible cultural concepts
instructions, language, word, speech *mana
mind, thought *n(o,u)man
name 1 *imbi
name 2, who *wani
shadow, spirit *k(aw,o)nan
song, type of *saŋ
witchcraft *kum
independent pronouns (for subject, object, possessor)
1 singular *na
2 singular *ŋga
3 singular *ya
3 singular *wa
1 plural *ni, *nu
1 plural *ni
2 plural *ŋgi, *ki
1 dual *niLi, *nuLi
2 dual *ŋgiLi, *kiLi
3 dual *iLi
verbal suffixes marking person-number of subject
1 singular *-Vn
2 singular *-an
1 dual *-uL
2/3 dual *-iL
1 plural *-un
1 singular different subject *-pa
verbs
be (live, stay, sit) *mVna-
bite *s(i,u)-
blow *pu + verb
break *pa(ŋg,k)-
burn *nd(a,e,i)-
burn, light a fire *ki-
carry (on back, shoulder) *kak(i,u)-
come *me-
cook *andu-
cut, chop *tVk-
die *kumV-
do, make *ti-
dream *kina(mb,p)-
eat, drink *na-
fly, flutter *putu(putu)-
give *mV-
go 1 *pu-
go 2 *yata-
hit *tu-
know, hear, see *nVŋg-
laugh *ŋgiti (+ verb)
live, be, sit see 'be'
put *(m,p)a(l,t)V-
say, speak *nde-
see, know, perceive *nVŋg-
shoot *tVmV-
sleep 1, lie down *kin(i,u)[m]
sleep 2 *p(e,i)t(e,i)o-
speak, talk *nde-
spit *kasipa-
stand *t(a,e,i)k[V]-
swell *su + verb
take *(nd,t)a-
tie *ndiŋga-, *ndaŋgi
turn (oneself) *mbuli[ki] + verb
urinate *X + *si- (urine + verb)
vomit *mVŋ[g]V ti-
adjectives
blue *muk[V]
cold *kukam(o,u)
dry *ŋgatata
full *t(o,u)k(i,u) ti-
heavy *kenda
long *k(o,u)t(u,i)p
new *kVtak
short *tumba
straight *tutu[tu]ku
conjunctions
and *ito
negatives
not *ma- (+ verb)
numerals
two *ta(l,t)(a,e)

Lexical comparison[edit]

Lexical comparison between Trans-New Guinean languages[3][4]
Body parts
family language head hair ear eye nose tooth tongue leg blood bone skin breast
Trans-New Guinea Proto-Trans-New Guinea *kobutu; *kV(mb,p)utu; *mUtUna; *mVtVna *iti; *(nd,s)umu(n,t)[V]; *zumun *ka(nd,t)(i,e)C; *kat(i,e)C; *tVmV(d) *g(a,u)mu; *ŋg(a,u)mu; *(ŋg,k)iti [maŋgV]; *nVpV *mundu; *mutu *magata; *maŋgat[a]; *titi *balaŋ; *mbilaŋ; *me(l,n)e; *me(n,l)e *kani(n); *k(a,o)ond(a,o)C; *kitu *ke(ñj,s)a; *kesa *kondaC; *kwata(l,n) *gatapu; *(ŋg,k)a(nd,t)apu *amu
West Bomberai Proto-Mbahaam-Iha[4] *kaˈnda *kʷⁱɛr *wⁱɛk *ˈtɔkar *pak *sɔn
Asmat-Kamoro Proto-Asmat-Kamrau[4] *uɸu *ɸini *jiɸ[a/o]ne *manaN *miC *siC *komane *mawu *ese *eake *awo
Ok-Oksapmin Proto-Ok-Oksapmin *kiin *(mu)duum *fV(lV)ŋ *xeim
Greater Awyu Proto-Awyu-Dumut *kɑibɑn; *xaiban *möxö; *muk; *ron *turun *kerop *togut *fɔgat; *fɔgɛt; *pogɑt *gom *kɑt; *xa(t) *ɑm; *om
Kayagaric Proto-Gondu River[4] *toxom *upm *itipaːm *sakam *jup *o[x/ɣ]om *maetap *apit *jes *nomop *pip *etum
Kolopom Proto-Kolopom[4] *tipV; *mVrV[w] *muen[a] ? *mVrVk; *[ndz][o/u]an *VnV *ŋgon *t[e]r[a]k *mepreŋg *iendz *mam
Anim Proto-Fly River[4] *kindV[C] *kam *sas *mbai[a]ŋg; *ɸia[u]
Anim Proto-Inland Gulf[4] *gia *tu; *jeja *kuɸino *dasi *ta; *bese *koda; *sasa *idini *ɸia *nikopi; *ko[j]ipo *jono
Anim Proto-Lower Fly River[4] *duɾumə; *duɾum *towap *baɾid *miw *suwə; *kam; *su *jimə; *jim *nauɾə *naɾak(ə); *baig *bub
Anim Proto-Marind[4] *pa *kembet, *kambet *kind *aŋgi₂p *maŋgat *inum *tegu *do *haiau, *hiau *ugu *bub
Marori Morori merao pu ayix terox tegu ŋgorom ŋgwar par
Gogodala-Suki Gogodala ganabi tita igibi tao mina poso mɛlɛpila gosa kaka omo
Kiwaian Proto-Kiwai[4] *kepuɾu *mus[ua] *gaɾe *idomaɾi *wodi *ibo(-nVɾV) *uototoɾo[p/b]e *sakiɾo *kaɾima; *sa[w]i *soɾo *tama *amo
Paniai Lakes Ekari (Paniai Lake dialect) migo iyo peka juma egó etá emo mitoo kadó ama
Dani Dani, Lower Grand Valley (Tangma dialect) mʋkkʋl-oak nesi nesakko neil-ekken namisaŋ naik namili mep noak nakap neilak
Somahai Momuna toko toko-ate otu ija i jo-ku janɨ toko ke
Mek Proto-Mek[4] *p[ɔ]t[ɔ]ŋ *aᵓ *atiŋ *jo̝ *se̝l[ija]mu *jan *e̝ne̝ŋ *jɔk *mɔᵘm
Awin-Pa Proto-Kamula-Elevala[4] *ke̝ba *m[ɔ/o̝]d[ɔ/o̝] *kinɔ *kine̝ *bate̝ *taⁱ *tama *ke̝dɔ
East Strickland Gobasi ulʌkib o dɔsɔ dulo hiɔ̃ mina mɔi ili hɔma sõho kib kɔlɔf tɔnu
Duna-Bogaya Duna kuni hini kɔhane; konane le kuma ne; nee ogone; ɔgɔne tia kuyila kuni pulu abu; adu; amu
Duna-Bogaya Bogaya yeľʌ; yela heepi; yeľʌ eľika hona; hɔnʌn kina; ki:nʌn kuuma; pfouľu yagai; yʌkʌi iki; ɩkin yehei; yehʌi sokoya; yesʌ hakale; hʌv̧ʌľe hugwa; hukuʌn alu; ʌľu
Bosavi Kaluli mise; misẽ misẽ fɔ̃; mise foon kenẽ; malo si migi beso; bis eʌn; sano gidaafoo; gip hɔbɔ; hooboo ki dɔgɔf; toogoof} bo; bu
Kutubu Proto-Lake Kutubu[4] *uni *iti *hʲĩ *sabe *mete *atu *kotage *kigi *ga[o/u] *hʲokõ
Enga-Kewa-Huli Enga (Sari dialect) aiyomba iri kale lenge lya neŋge moko taiyoko kuli yoŋge andu
Wiru Wiru tobou pine; píne kabidi lene timini kime keke; keké kawa kamate tono kepene adu
Chimbu-Wahgi Kuman bit-na; bɩtiɩno iŋguno; yungo kina-na; kunano gumutino; ongomit-na guma-ne; gumano siŋguno dirambino kati; kat-na borɔmai; bořumai; maiam yambiřo; yombura gaŋgino amu-na; amuno
Madang Proto-Madang *gat(a,i)(m) *imunu *kaun(i) *amu *mutu(gu) *make *mele *kani(n) *ka(d,r)a; *kara *kwaten *ga(n,r)a *amu(na)
Finisterre Mungkip kʰige sɨsa; sɪsa maget; magitnɛ dae; da·ge miminɛ; mimiŋge ma mabɛm; mabim kada we·q kwadi; kwadzi girim nom
Huon Selepet kun; kun- somot; somot- âdâp-; ɔndɔp sen; sen- hâme-; hɔme sât-; sot nibilam-; nimbilam hep- haǥit; hahit- hâk-; hɔk nam; nam-
Kainantu-Goroka Proto-Eastern Kainantu-Goroka *-'no-N; *pia- *ä-Q-ra-N *-hi-Q *-mäpi-V *nade-V *nä-N
Kainantu-Goroka Proto-Eastern Kainantu *piᵄtɐ *jɐᵘsi *ɑːtoː *wu *ipi *wɐⁱ *m₂ɑːpiɾi *ipu *wi[ʔt]ipɐ *muʔjɑːni *nɑːNmɐ
Kainantu-Goroka Proto-Northern Kainantu *noːN *jɐᵘ *ɑːʔ *u *siʔ *wɐj *[m/n][ɐⁱ]piɾ *tɐɾ *nɑːɾeː *(ɐ-)jɐNpɐ *nɑːN
Angan Simbari minta mindata kaantɨka sɨmta sɨmputa maanka kwaavlɨlɨ sɨwla mɨnjaaka yankinta kɨlaaka aamɨnta
Turama-Kikori Proto-Rumu-Omati[4] *mab *b[au]t *go̝ *isĩ *ju *magu *tãᵋ *tab *sõ̝
Goilalan Fuyug hul ha; ondobe are; hul haluma gadolo hul li; im hul hunga; unge hul usi hul asese soga tana hude hul hoda; ode hul duda
Goilalan Tauade kɔrɔtɔ awutu kepapaí tavai ki:tʰ nɔtɔvai aivi lɔ'vai il'iví keniví kɔtipai data
Greater Binanderean Proto-Binandere *ciro; *giti *tu *dibe; *diti *di *VwVwV *ju; *or{a,o}rә *bobo; *wetu *tamә *ami
Koiarian Proto-Koiarian *fómo *ni *uri *taɣo *vata *amu
Kwalean Proto-Kwalean (Ross) *iku(va) *(u)bu(i)vi(ma) *ʒaʒore *vono(ne); *wano(ne) *ruu *esi(ne) *ahiri *n(a)u(ne)
Kwalean Proto-Humene-Uare (Usher)[4] *igu *ubuma *jajɔɾɛ *ɣɔnɔnɛ *majanɛ *ɔda *ɾɔo̝ *e̝tinɛ *ahe̝ɾe̝ *nuunɛ
Manubaran Proto-Manubaran (Ross) *ada *weʔia *ane-ma *ne(u) *uru-ma *gade *afie *[n,y]u-ka *nena *roʔ(o,a)
Manubaran Proto-Mount Brown (Usher)[4] *ada *u[w]e[t/k]a *anema *ne *uɾuma *gade *api[j]e *daweʔa *nena *ɾoʔo *sisu
Yareban Proto-Musa River[4] *bo-tai *idi *ome *nai-tai *iboʔo *ni[ʔ]o *meana *buɾi *iwa *tai *ope *ama
Mailuan Mailu (Ilai dialect) ilolo liʔimu ʔope ini durumu maʔa goba ʔau lala kisa ʔopi ama
Dagan Daga iwa igumewa darinewa yamewa ginewa nodonewa mɛriwa dɛnip kaemewa ɛpiwa amewa
Nature
family language louse dog pig bird egg tree sun moon water fire stone path
Trans-New Guinea Proto-Trans-New Guinea *niman *n(e,i); *n(e)i; *n[e]i; *yak; *yaka[i]; *yanem *maŋgV; *munaka; *mun(a,u)ka *ida; *inda ~ *iñja *kamali; *kamuli; *ketana *kal(a,i)m; *kamali; *takVn; *takVn[V] *nok; *(n)ok; *ok(u); *ok[V] *inda; *k(a,e)dap; *k(a,e)(n,d)ap; *kambu; *k(a,o)nd(a,u)p *kamb(a,u)na; *(na)muna; *[na]muna
West Bomberai Proto-Mbahaam-Iha *mɛⁱn *jaˈmbar *[ku]ˈndur *wun *wiˈra *kaˈminV *kaˈpas *kiˈra *war
Asmat-Kamoro Proto-Asmat-Kamrau *amo *juwuɾi *oɸo *[a]sa *ose *jawu *buɾa *m[oi/ui] *usa *jeta
Ok-Oksapmin Proto-Ok-Oksapmin *mVjaan *kVŋ; *saamVVn *aleem; *ilnem *ataan *kajoop
Greater Awyu Proto-Awyu-Dumut *gut *angay; *ɑgɑi; *set *wi *yet *wɑidin *yin *seyɑt *wɑkot *ox *yin *irop
Kayagaric Proto-Gondu River *num *epe *wakum *suopam *map-jaxam *wom *taːm *xa[x/ɣ]atam *o[x/ɣ]om *atu *maitn *kamein
Kolopom Proto-Kolopom *nemeŋg *n[ia] *k[o/u][a] *uak *nd[ua]t *kumbanV *ndzu *mete
Anim Proto-Fly River *n[u]m[u]ŋg *mbasik *kanV *nde *tae
Anim Proto-Inland Gulf *uani *gaso *maɸa *ewesa *ɸutu; *usu *de *nowumu; *siwio *bubei *ogo *maɸi; *ta[j]e *jigei
Anim Proto-Lower Fly River *oɾ[eae]n *s[eae]; *diɾean *m[i/e]nawə *dawod *sVɣaɾə *naukə *manom *manom *mau[g/k]ə *j[i]au *didigə *ewean
Anim Proto-Marind *nahun; *mba[m/mb] *ŋgat *basik *ujub *magaw *de *katane *mandou *adeka *tekaw *ketaɾ; *seŋga *isas
Marori Morori nemeŋk koro bosik ujif vi kwi kum deke sir mere
Gogodala-Suki Gogodala ami soke uai kadɛpa wi ila nabidi
Kiwaian Proto-Kiwai *nimo *[k]umu *wowogo *kikopu *nuk₂a; *kota *saɾik₂i; *si[w]io *sagomi; *owe *kobo *keɾa *(nok₂oɾa-)kopi *gabo
Paniai Lakes Ekari (Paniai Lake dialect) uka dodi ekina bedo nipo pija meuka; tani agoo uwo bodija mogo itá
Dani Dani, Lower Grand Valley (Tangma dialect) napɩ jekke wam sʋe sʋe-kken e mo tuki i ettu helep kwe
Somahai Momuna amega kwoka uwo magisaga kwo ɨkɨ iŋga kukwa
Mek Proto-Mek *ami *gam *be̝sam *mak, *mag *do̝[k] *gal *k[ɛ]t[e̝]ŋ *wal *m[ɛ/a]g *o̝ᵘg *gɛⁱl; *gidig *bi[t/s]ig
Awin-Pa Proto-Kamula-Elevala *awV *ti *m₂aⁱnæ *te̝ja *m[ɔ/o̝]k[ɔ/o̝] *je̝ *gani *ike̝
East Strickland Gobasi om sɔf bɔi sigɔ wigɔ hɔlɔ hɔmɔ̃n õs ogɔ dɔbu yo
Duna-Bogaya Duna tete yawi isa heka hapa lowa; lɔwa hewa eke yu lɔwa kiliana; lowa puru kana; kuna
Duna-Bogaya Bogaya fando; fiľʌ ɔv̧ɔpi; yau ʌpʌn aka; pitʌkʌ oondi; pitʌkʌ ɔ̃udi dowa; tɔuʌ owa; ɔwa kaiyuu; kʌiu paiyuku; pʌiuku dowada; tɔun haana; hʌnʌ
Bosavi Kaluli fe; fẽ gasa; kasʌ kabɔ ɔ̃bẽ; oloone; oobaa ɔ̃bẽ uš; us i of; ɔf ili hɔ̃n; hoon de; di u
Kutubu Proto-Lake Kutubu *g[e/ẽ/a]s[a/ã] *mena *hʲaka *kapa *ita *he̝ge̝ *hẽ *ita *kana *ig[i]a
Enga-Kewa-Huli Enga (Sari dialect) tilya yana mena yaka yaka tuku ita niki; nira kana indaki ira kan kait
Wiru Wiru nomo; nomò tue kaì ini; inì mu̧ yomo; yomò lou; loú tokene ue; toe kue; kué
Chimbu-Wahgi Kuman numan aʝg; agi; akɬ̥ bogla; bugɬa kua mugɬo; muɬo endi ande; andesuŋgua ba nigl; nikɬ̥ baugl; doŋga kombuglo; kombugɬo konbo; konumbo
Madang Proto-Madang *[n]iman *kVbara *munaka *tari *kamali *kalam; *takun *yag(V) *k(a,e)dap *namanu
Finisterre Mungkip mi; mīŋ sap kare jāŋ qiliq bɛm maim; male jaʁip ime; imɛ kuduk; kugup qawade tɛlɛ; tɛrɛpmēŋ
Huon Selepet imen soso nâi; nɔi nak dewutâ; dewutɔ emesenŋe to kɔlɔp kât; kɔt giop
Kainantu-Goroka Proto-Eastern Kainantu-Goroka *nu-N *iya-N *poe-V *yë-V *no-N *ida-V *ä-N
Kainantu-Goroka Proto-Eastern Kainantu *numɐ *w₂ɐⁱni *p₂uᵄɾɐ *inɑːmɐ; *uwini *uɾu *jɐtɐɾi *j₂uᵄni *[u]toːnɐ *noːni *iʔjɐ *oːni *ɑːni
Kainantu-Goroka Proto-Northern Kainantu *nuN *ijɐN *poːɾ *nuN *uɾ *jɑːj *ɑːʔ *wi[ɾ]oːN *noːN *itɐ *oː[ɾ/j] *ɑːj
Angan Simbari ila njɨlɨka ntaqatɨ pantapta ika kwɨnja; nilya lampaaka aalya; wanya ntɨka sɨla
Turama-Kikori Proto-Rumu-Omati *gutɔm *gas *gɔ[u]n *gaᵋ *d[ɔ]um *i *ɛsɔa *wẽ̝ *i *dɛⁱ
Goilalan Fuyug hi ho; oi ovo Nemba; nembe hulombo i'i evuli hama ʒu oki zo enamba; inambe
Goilalan Tauade dautʰ kɔveřa pɔřu kide mutuwu eata vatava ɔne ipi e'na·m evi'ti bɔřiƀařa
Greater Binanderean Proto-Binandere *sinә *pu *munju *i *iji; *waeko *inua *awo *g{o,e}mb{a,i}(ro) *begata; *esa; *ndai
Koiarian Proto-Koiarian *ʔumu *ugu[fa] *uni *idí *vené *muni
Kwalean Proto-Kwalean (Ross) *(n)omo(ne) *ɣuni *aba *teboare *ma(va) *mada *bato *vou; *wara *ire *hadi
Kwalean Proto-Humene-Uare (Usher) *nɔmɔnɛ *ɣo̝ni *aba *ne̝ni; *t[e̝]b[o̝]ɾ[e̝] *maɣa *maˈda *batɔ *wɔu *iɾɛ *hadi *e̝bi
Manubaran Proto-Manubaran (Ross) *gue *auna *Dona *erena *une-ma *yabo *maida(ka) *e(y)oʔa; *mohe- (?) *koru *ita
Manubaran Proto-Mount Brown (Usher) *gu[w]e *auna *dona *eɾena *unema *jabo *me[i]daʔa *ejoʔa *koɾu *ita *waʔiga *ida
Yareban Proto-Musa River *uʔa *kua *boɾo *gasiɾa; *ada *baka; *uɾimi *ana *eweaka *maɾabe; *sakaɾa *adua *inaʔa *oma; *gebiɾo *daʔaba
Mailuan Mailu (Ilai dialect) tuma dari talae manu muruʔu ana nina dovele ʔaʔama eu gomana laea
Dagan Daga kuisin eao tuan nɛnip bagua oma oam siragam kaum om
Miscellaneous
family language man woman name eat one two
Trans-New Guinea Proto-Trans-New Guinea *abV; *ambi *panV; *pan(V) *ibi; *imbi; *wani *na; *na- *ta(l,t)(a,e)
West Bomberai Proto-Mbahaam-Iha *nami-sar *t[ɔ/u]mb[ɔ/u]r *nⁱɛ *nawa *ɔkʷɔ[nɔ]
Asmat-Kamoro Proto-Asmat-Kamrau *ɟawoɟa *uwase *n[a]- *ɟawa[kV] *kaboma
Ok-Oksapmin Proto-Ok-Oksapmin *win
Greater Awyu Proto-Awyu-Dumut *ran; *rɑn *füp; *pip *ɑde; *en; *ɛn- *rumo; *rumon
Kayagaric Proto-Gondu River *jo[k] *enop *na[k] *xapti *pa[x/ɣ]amo[x/k] *tousiki
Kolopom Proto-Kolopom *ndz[ia]p *jowa[k] *n[e/a][k/ŋg] *[j]enapa; *sVp
Anim Proto-Fly River *anem *anum *ija (?) *meas[i]
Anim Proto-Inland Gulf *aneme *anumu *jiga *jaigio *measi
Anim Proto-Lower Fly River *anem(ə) *anum(ə) *gag *tamu *ɣoɾ[e]a[u][k] *mis
Anim Proto-Marind *anem *anum *igij *ɣawi[ɣ] *ijako[d]; *ijakod *inah
Marori Morori yexri nex kef sekodu yenadu
Gogodala-Suki Gogodala dala; dalagi ato; susɛgi gagi na
Kiwaian Proto-Kiwai *dubu *oɾobo; *upi *paini, *paina *oɾuso (sg.), *iɾiso (pl.) *nak[o/u] *netoa
Paniai Lakes Ekari (Paniai Lake dialect) jame eka nai ena; kate wijá
Dani Dani, Lower Grand Valley (Tangma dialect) ap he; hʋmɩ ettake oppakke-at p:ie
Somahai Momuna mogo-mearu nowa-
Mek Proto-Mek *ge̝l *si *de̝-(b) *[na]tɔn *b[e̝/ɛ]te̝ne̝
Awin-Pa Proto-Kamula-Elevala *k[ɔ/o̝]b[a/ɔ] *pi *de̝- *tV[n/d]o̝
East Strickland Gobasi os uliʌ hũni nɔwalaga hele bihinɔ̃n
Duna-Bogaya Duna anoa; anɔa ima yaka nai-; neyana du yapa
Duna-Bogaya Bogaya ami; ʌmĩ ĩmiʌ; imya ʌmĩn; yaga ; nosii mɔsʌ kɔmʌ; moso efʌn; yeefa
Bosavi Kaluli kalu ga; kesali; kesari wi maya ãgel; angel a̧dep; ãdip
Kutubu Proto-Lake Kutubu *ne- *hʲaga
Enga-Kewa-Huli Enga (Sari dialect) akali eŋda keŋge neŋge mendai lapoma
Wiru Wiru ali atoa; atòa ibini; ibíni nakò; one ne nako odene takuta; ta kutà
Chimbu-Wahgi Kuman yagl; yakɬ̥ ambu kaŋgin; kangi-ne neuŋgua suařa suo
Madang Proto-Madang *na-gali(k) *ibi; *wañim *(n,ñ)a *kati(ŋ,g)a *arigita
Finisterre Mungkip tam buŋām; wow nʌna kubugaŋ lifɛt
Huon Selepet lok apet; ibi kut; kut- ne; ni- konok yâhâp
Kainantu-Goroka Proto-Eastern Kainantu-Goroka *kwe-(t)-V *-wi-Q *boda
Kainantu-Goroka Proto-Eastern Kainantu *wɐⁱ-iNti *ɐnɑːjeː *utu *nɐ- *moːʔjɑː *tɑːɾɐ
Kainantu-Goroka Proto-Northern Kainantu *wɑːⁱNsɐ *ɐnɑːsi *wiʔ *mɐnɑː *tɑːN
Angan Simbari kwala aampala yavata an̲aantapyɨ pɨrɨ'mɨna pɨvɨraalna
Turama-Kikori Proto-Rumu-Omati *e̝ne̝ne̝n *t[aⁱ/aᵋ]
Goilalan Fuyug A'a; an Amu; amuri ifa huni nene fida ʒuvalo
Goilalan Tauade baře iva ape'te ɔmei nai kɔne kupal'iai
Greater Binanderean Proto-Binandere *embә *bam{u,o}nә *jajo; *jawә *ind-; *mind- *daba
Koiarian Proto-Koiarian *maɣina *ifí *i- *(i,o)gau
Kwalean Proto-Kwalean (Ross) *vaʒe *no'ɣone *ni *anE- *teba *aheu
Kwalean Proto-Humene-Uare (Usher) *wajɛ *nɔgɔnɛ *ni *an- *te̝bɔ *ahɛu
Manubaran Proto-Manubaran (Ross) *amie *roka *iri- *yokohi *(ye)(ka)ma[nu]
Manubaran Proto-Mount Brown (Usher) *ami[j]e *ɾema *ɾoka *iɾi- *jokohi *[ɾ/j]ema
Yareban Proto-Musa River *e[ʔe]me *aweta *ibi *it- *demu
Mailuan Mailu (Ilai dialect) egi avesa omu isiisi ʔomu ʔava
Dagan Daga apan oaen yaoa naiwan daiton dɛrɛ

For other lexical comparison tables of Papuan languages, see also:

See also[edit]

Synchronic reflexes

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. doi:10.1515/9783110295252-002. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  2. ^ Suter, Edgar (1997). Ford, Kevin (ed.). "A Comparative Look at the Dual and Plural Forms of verb Inflections and Pronouns in Northeast New Guinea Papuan Languages" (PDF). Language and Linguistics in Melanesia. Ukarumpa, Papua New Guinea: Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea; Society on Pidgins and Creoles in Melanesia. 28: 17-68. ISSN 0023-1959.
  3. ^ Greenhill, Simon J. (2021). "Database of the languages of New Guinea". TransNewGuinea. Australian National University.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Usher, Timothy; Suter, Edgar (2020). "Newguineaworld". Archived from the original on 16 December 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2020.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]