Proto-fascism

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Photograph of Gabriele d'Annunzio in 1921, d'Annunzio was an Italian nationalist and poet who is considered a proto-fascist.

Proto-fascism refers to the direct predecessor ideologies that influenced and formed the basis of fascism.[1][2] A prominent proto-fascist figure is Gabriele d'Annunzio, the Italian nationalist whose politics influenced Benito Mussolini and Italian Fascism.[3] Proto-fascist political movements include the Italian Nationalist Association (ANI), the German National Association of Commercial Employees (DHV) and the German National People's Party (DNVP).[4]

Precedence to modern fascism can be seen in the culture and government of older nations based heavily in high culture and law and order, such as the Roman Empire and the ancien regimes of Europe.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Barbara Spackman. Fascist virilities: rhetoric, ideology, and social fantasy in Italy. Pp. 78.
  2. ^ Peter Davies, Derek Lynch. The Routledge companion to fascism and the far right. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge. Pp. 94.
  3. ^ Barbara Spackman. Fascist virilities: rhetoric, ideology, and social fantasy in Italy. Pp. 78.
  4. ^ Peter Davies, Derek Lynch. The Routledge companion to fascism and the far right. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge. Pp. 94.