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A map of the Middle East showing areas controlled by ISIL as of May 2015: a number of major cities in northern Syria and Iraq, and corridors connecting them.
Maximum extent of the territory of the Islamic State (frequently described as a proto-state) in Iraq and Syria, on 21 May 2015.[1]

A quasi-state or state-like entity,[2] including what is termed a proto-state,[3][2] is a political entity that does not represent a fully institutionalized or autonomous sovereign state.[4]

The precise definition of quasi-state in political literature fluctuates depending on the context in which it is used. It has been used by some modern scholars to describe the self-governing British colonies and dependencies that exercised a form of home rule but remained crucial parts of the British Empire and subject firstly to the metropole's administration.[5] Similarly, the Republics of the Soviet Union, which represented administrative units with their own respective national distinctions, have also been described as quasi-states.[4]

In more recent usage, the term quasi-state has most often been evoked in reference to militant secessionist groups who claim, and exercise some form of territorial control over, a specific region, but which lack institutional cohesion.[5][failed verificationsee discussion] Such quasi-states include the Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia during the Bosnian War[5] and Azawad during the 2012 Tuareg rebellion.[6] The Islamic State is also widely held to be an example of a modern quasi-state or proto-state.[7][3][8][9]


Tuareg rebels in the short-lived proto-state of Azawad.

The term "proto-state" has been used in reference to contexts as far back as Ancient Greece, to refer to the phenomenon that the formation of a large and cohesive nation would often be preceded by very small and loose forms of statehood.[10] For instance, historical sociologist Gary Runciman describes the evolution of social organization in the Greek Dark Ages from statelessness, to what he calls semistates based on patriarchal domination but lacking inherent potential to achieve the requirements for statehood, sometimes transitioning into protostates with governmental roles able to maintain themselves generationally, which could evolve into larger and more centralised entities fulfilling the requirements of statehood by 700 BC in the archaic period.[10][11]

Most ancient proto-states were the product of tribal societies, consisting of relatively short-lived confederations of communities that united under a single warlord or chieftain endowed with symbolic authority and military rank.[10] These were not considered sovereign states since they rarely achieved any degree of institutional permanence and authority was often exercised over a mobile people rather than measurable territory.[10] Loose confederacies of this nature were the primary means of embracing a common statehood by people in many regions, such as the Central Asian steppes, throughout ancient history.[12]

Proto-states proliferated in Western Europe during the Middle Ages, likely as a result of a trend towards political decentralisation following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the adoption of feudalism.[13] While theoretically owing allegiance to a single monarch under the feudal system, many lesser nobles administered their own fiefs as miniature "states within states" that were independent of each other.[14] This practice was especially notable with regards to large, decentralised political entities such as the Holy Roman Empire, that incorporated many autonomous and semi-autonomous proto-states.[15]

Following the Age of Discovery, the emergence of European colonialism resulted in the formation of colonial proto-states in Asia, Africa, and the Americas.[16] A few colonies were given the unique status of protectorates, which were effectively controlled by the metropole but retained limited ability to administer themselves, self-governing colonies, dominions, and dependencies.[5] These were distinct administrative units that each fulfilled many of the functions of a state without actually exercising full sovereignty or independence.[16] Colonies without a sub-national home rule status, on the other hand, were considered administrative extensions of the colonising power rather than true proto-states.[17] Colonial proto-states later served as the basis for a number of modern nation states, particularly on the Asian and African continents.[16]

During the twentieth century, some proto-states existed as not only distinct administrative units, but their own theoretically self-governing republics joined to each other in a political union such as the socialist federal systems observed in Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union.[5][4][18]

Territory controlled by the Anti-Fascist Council of Yugoslavia, which established its own proto-state in 1942

Another form of proto-state that has become especially common since the end of World War II[citation needed] is established through the unconstitutional seizure of territory by an insurgent or militant group that proceeds to assume the role of a de facto government.[7] Although denied recognition and bereft of civil institutions, insurgent proto-states may engage in external trade, provide social services, and even undertake limited diplomatic activity.[19] These proto-states are usually formed by movements drawn from geographically concentrated ethnic or religious minorities, and are thus a common feature of inter-ethnic civil conflicts.[20] This is often due to the inclinations of an internal cultural identity group seeking to reject the legitimacy of a sovereign state's political order, and create its own enclave where it is free to live under its own sphere of laws, social mores, and ordering.[20] Since the 1980s a special kind of insurgent statehood has emerged in form of the "Jihadi proto-state", as the Islamist concept of statehood is extremely flexible. For instance, a Jihadi emirate can be simply understood as a territory or group ruled by an emir; accordingly, it might rule a significant area or just a neighborhood. Regardless of its extent, the assumption of statehood provides Jihadi militants with important internal legitimacy and cementes their self-identification as frontline society opposed to certain enemies.[7]

The accumulation of territory by an insurgent force to form a sub-national geopolitical system and eventually, a proto-state, was a calculated process in China during the Chinese Civil War that set a precedent for many similar attempts throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.[21] Proto-states established as a result of civil conflict typically exist in a perpetual state of warfare and their wealth and populations may be limited accordingly.[22] One of the most prominent examples of a wartime proto-state in the twenty-first century is the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant,[23][24][25] that maintained its own administrative bureaucracy and imposed taxes.[26]

Theoretical basis[edit]

The definition of a proto-state is not concise, and has been confused by the interchangeable use of the terms state, country, and nation to describe a given territory.[27] The term proto-state is preferred to "proto-nation" in an academic context, however, since some authorities also use nation to denote a social, ethnic, or cultural group capable of forming its own state.[27]

A proto-state does not meet the four essential criteria for statehood as elaborated upon in the declarative theory of statehood of the 1933 Montevideo Convention: a permanent population, a defined territory, a government with its own institutions, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.[27] A proto-state is not necessarily synonymous with a state with limited recognition that otherwise has all the hallmarks of a fully functioning sovereign state, such as Rhodesia or the Republic of China, also known as Taiwan.[27] However, proto-states frequently go unrecognised since a state actor that recognises a proto-state does so in violation of another state actor's external sovereignty.[28] If full diplomatic recognition is extended to a proto-state and embassies exchanged, it is defined as a sovereign state in its own right and may no longer be classified as a proto-state.[28]

Territory of Croatia controlled by the Republic of Serbian Krajina proto-state 1991–1995.

Throughout modern history, partially autonomous regions of larger recognised states, especially those based on a historical precedent or ethnic and cultural distinctiveness that places them apart from those who dominate the state as a whole, have been considered proto-states.[5] Home rule generates a sub-national institutional structure that may justifiably be defined as a proto-state.[29] When a rebellion or insurrection seizes control and begins to establish some semblance of administration in regions within national territories under its effective rule, it has also metamorphosed into a proto-state.[30] These wartime proto-states, sometimes known as insurgent states, may eventually transform the structure of a state altogether, or demarcate their own autonomous political spaces.[30] While not a new phenomenon, the modern formation of a proto-states in territory held by a militant non-state entity was popularised by Mao Zedong during the Chinese Civil War, and the national liberation movements worldwide that adopted his military philosophies.[21] The rise of an insurgent proto-state was sometimes also an indirect consequence of a movement adopting Che Guevara's foco theory of guerrilla warfare.[21]

Secessionist proto-states are likeliest to form in preexisting states that lack secure boundaries, a concise and well-defined body of citizens, or a single sovereign power with a monopoly on the legitimate use of military force.[31] They may be created as a result of putsches, insurrections, separatist political campaigns, foreign intervention, sectarian violence, civil war, and even the bloodless dissolution or division of the state.[31]

Proto-states can be important regional players, as their existence impacts the options available to state actors, either as potential allies or as impediments to their political or economic policy articulations.[30]

List of modern proto-states[edit]

Constituent proto-states[edit]


Proto-state Parent state Achieved statehood Since Source
 Adygea  Russia Russian republic 1991 [5]
 Åland[citation needed]  Finland No 1921[citation needed] [5][32]
 Altai Republic  Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
Ashanti[citation needed]  Ghana No 1957[citation needed] [33]
 Azad Kashmir[citation needed]  Pakistan No 1975[citation needed] [5]
 Azores[citation needed]  Portugal No 1816[citation needed] [5]
 Bashkortostan  Russia de jure 1990 [5]
 British Virgin Islands  United Kingdom No 1960 [5]
 Bougainville  Papua New Guinea Transition in progress 2001 [5]
 Buryatia  Russia Russian republic 1990 [5]
 Canary Islands[citation needed]  Spain No 1816[citation needed] [5]
 Catalonia  Spain No 1978 [5]
 Cayman Islands  United Kingdom No 1962 [5]
 Chechnya  Russia de facto 1996 [5]
 Chin State[citation needed]  Myanmar No 1949[citation needed] [5]
 Christmas Island[citation needed]  Australia No 1958[citation needed] [5]
 Chuvashia  Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
 Cook Islands  New Zealand de jure 1965 [5]
 Corsica[citation needed]  France No 1978[citation needed] [5]
 Curaçao[citation needed]  Netherlands No 1816[citation needed] [5]
 Dagestan  Russia Russian republic 1991 [5]
 Easter Island[citation needed]  Chile No 1944[citation needed] [5]
 Euskadi  Spain No 1978 [5]
 Falkland Islands[citation needed]  United Kingdom No 1833[citation needed] [5]
 Faroe Islands  Denmark No 1948 [5]
 Flanders[citation needed]  Belgium No 1970[citation needed] [5]
 French Polynesia[citation needed]  France No 1847[citation needed] [5]
 Galicia  Spain No 1978 [5]
 Greenland  Denmark No 1816 [5]
 Guam  United States No 1816 [5]
 Guernsey[citation needed]  United Kingdom No 1204[citation needed] [5]
Indian reservations  United States de jure 1658 [5]
Indigenous territory (Brazil)  Brazil No 1850[34]
 Ingushetia  Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
 Iraqi Kurdistan  Iraq No 1991 [35]
 Isle of Man  United Kingdom No 1828 [5]
 Jersey  United Kingdom de jure 1204 [5]
Jewish Autonomous Oblast  Russia de jure 1934
 Jubaland  Somalia No 2001 [note 1]
 Kabardino-Balkaria  Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
 Kachin State  Myanmar No 1949 [5]
 Kalmykia  Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
 Karachay-Cherkessia  Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
 Karelia  Russia Russian republic 1991 [5]
 Kayah State  Myanmar No 1949 [5]
 Kayin State  Myanmar No 1949 [5]
 Khakassia  Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
 Komi Republic  Russia Russian republic 1996 [5]
 Madeira[citation needed]  Portugal No 1816[citation needed] [5]
 Mari El  Russia Russian republic 1990 [5]
 Marquesas Islands[citation needed]  France No 1844[citation needed] [5]
 Montserrat[citation needed]  United Kingdom No 1632[citation needed] [5]
 Mon State  Myanmar No 1949 [5]
 Mordovia  Russia Russian republic 1994 [5]
 New Caledonia[citation needed]  France No 1853[citation needed] [5]
Noakhali[citation needed]  Bangladesh No 2005[citation needed]
 Northern Ireland[citation needed]  United Kingdom de jure 1922 [5]
 Northern Marianas[citation needed]  United States No 1899 [5]
 North Ossetia-Alania  Russia No 1995 [5]
 Nunavut[citation needed]  Canada No 1999 [5]
 Puerto Rico[citation needed]  United States No 1816 [5]
 Puntland  Somalia No 1998 [38]
 Quebec[citation needed]  Canada No 1816 [5]
 Saint Helena[citation needed]  United Kingdom No 1834 [5]
 Sakha Republic  Russia Russian republic 1991 [5]
 Scotland[citation needed]  United Kingdom de jure 1816 [5]
 Shan State  Myanmar No 1949 [5]
 Sint Maarten[citation needed]  Netherlands No 1848 [5]
 South Tyrol[citation needed]  Italy No 1926 [5]
 Svalbard[citation needed]  Norway No 1992[citation needed] [5]
 Tatarstan  Russia Russian republic 1990 [5]
 Temotu[citation needed]  Solomon Islands No 1981[citation needed] [5]
 Turks and Caicos[citation needed]  United Kingdom No 1973 [5]
 Tuva  Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
 Udmurtia  Russia Russian republic 1990 [5]
 United States Virgin Islands[citation needed]  United States No 1816 [5]
 Wales[citation needed]  United Kingdom de jure 1816 [5]
 Wallonia  Belgium No 1970 [5]
 Wa State  Myanmar No 1989 [39][40]
 Zanzibar  Tanzania No 1964 [5]


Proto-state Parent state Achieved statehood Dates Source
 Adjara  Georgia No 1921–2004 [5]
 Aruba  Netherlands No 1986–1995 [5]
 Bophuthatswana  South Africa De jure 1977–1994 [41]
Bosnia-Herzegovina  Yugoslavia Yes 1943–1992 [18]
 Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic  Russian SFSR,  Soviet Union Yes 1920–1991
 Ciskei  South Africa De jure 1981–1994 [41]
Republic of Crimea  Ukraine No March 11–18, 2014 [42][43]
Croatia  Yugoslavia Yes 1943–1991 [18]
Carpatho-Ukraine Carpathian Ruthenia  Czechoslovakia De facto 1919–1939
 Czech Socialist Republic  Czechoslovakia Yes 1969–1993 [31]
 East Caprivi  South Africa No 1972–1989 [41]
Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic  Finland No 1918
Ukraine Galician Ruthenians  Austria-Hungary De facto 1848–1918
 Gagauzia  Moldova No 1991–1994 [5]
 Gazankulu  South Africa No 1971–1994 [41]
India Jammu and Kashmir  India No 1921–2019 [5]
 Hereroland  South Africa No 1970–1989 [41]
 KaNgwane  South Africa No 1972–1994 [41]
Republic of Karelia Karelian ASSR  Russian SFSR,  Soviet Union union republic 1923–1940
 Kavangoland  South Africa No 1973–1989 [41]
 KwaNdebele  South Africa No 1981–1994 [41]
 KwaZulu  South Africa No 1981–1994 [41]
 Lebowa  South Africa No 1972–1994 [41]
Macedonia  Yugoslavia Yes 1945–1991 [18]
Montenegro  Yugoslavia,  Serbia and Montenegro Yes 1945–2006 [18]
Moldova Moldavian ASSR  Ukrainian SSR,  Soviet Union union republic 1924–1940
 Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic  Soviet Union Yes 1940–1991
 Ovamboland  South Africa No 1973–1989 [41]
 QwaQwa  South Africa No 1974–1994 [41]
 Russian SFSR  Soviet Union Yes 1917–1991 [4]
Serbia  Yugoslavia,  Serbia and Montenegro Yes 1945–2006 [18]
Singapore Singapore  Malaysia Yes 1963–1965 [5]
 Slovak Socialist Republic  Czechoslovakia Yes 1969–1993 [31]
Slovenia  Yugoslavia Yes 1945–1991 [18]
South Africa South West Africa (Namibia)  South Africa Yes 1915–1991 [44]
South Sudan Southern Sudan  Sudan Yes 2005–2011 [45]
 Transkei  South Africa De jure 1976–1994 [41]
 Trucial States  United Kingdom Yes 1820–1971 [46]
Turkestan ASSR  Russian SFSR No 1918–1924 [47]
 Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets  Russian SFSR No 1917–1918
 Ukrainian Soviet Republic  Russian SFSR No 1918
 Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic  Russian SFSR,  Soviet Union Yes 1919–1991 [48]
 Venda  South Africa De jure 1979–1994 [41]

Secessionist, insurgent, and self-proclaimed autonomous proto-states[edit]


Proto-state Parent state Achieved statehood Since Source
Abkhazia  Georgia De facto 1992
Somaliland  Somalia De facto 1991
 Northern Cyprus  Cyprus De facto 1974
Al-Qaeda  Mali
De facto 2006
Al-Shabaab  Somalia No 2009 [49]
Allied Democratic Forces  Democratic Republic of the Congo
No 1996 [50]
Ambazonia  Cameroon No 2017
Cabinda  Angola No 1975
Central African Republic Coalition of Patriots for Change  Central African Republic No 2020
Kachin  Myanmar No 1961
Kosovo Kosovo  Serbia Yes 2008
Ansar al-Sharia (Yemen)  Yemen No 2011 [49]
Dar El Kuti  Central African Republic De facto 2015 [51]
 Donetsk People's Republic and

 Luhansk People's Republic

 Ukraine De facto 2014 [52]
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State (ISIL)  Iraq
De facto 2013 [27][53][54]
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan  Pakistan No c. 2006 [49]
Republic of Artsakh  Azerbaijan/ Armenia De facto 1991
Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria  Syria Partial 2012 [55]
 Sahrawi Republic  Morocco Yes 1976


South Ossetia  Georgia De facto 1991
Taiwan Taiwan  China Yes 1949
Tigray People's Liberation Front  Ethiopia Partial 2020
Transnistria  Moldova De facto 1990
Southern Transitional Council  Yemen De facto 2017
State of Palestine State of Palestine  Israel Yes 1988
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan  Pakistan No 2002 [49]
West Papua  Indonesia No 1971
Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities  Mexico De facto 1994
 Azawad  Mali De facto 2012
Oromo Liberation Front  Ethiopia No 1973
Sudan Revolutionary Front  Sudan No 2011
Flag of Jihad.svg Ansar al-Sunna  Mozambique No 2020
Flag of the NDAA.png National Democratic Alliance Army  Myanmar No 1989
United Wa State Army flag.png United Wa State Army  Myanmar No 1989
Ansar Allah Houthi movement  Yemen No 2004
Syrian opposition Revolutionary Commando Army  Syria No 2016
Hayat Tahrir al-Sham  Syria No 2017
Syrian opposition Syrian National Army  Syria No 2017
Nduma Defense of Congo-Renovated  Democratic Republic of the Congo No 2015
Mai-Mai  Democratic Republic of the Congo No 2015
National Resistance Front of Afghanistan  Afghanistan No 2021


Proto-state Parent state Achieved statehood Dates Source
Al-Nusra Front  Syria No 2012–2017 [53]
Ansar al-Islam  Iraq No 2001–2003 [49]
Angola  Portugal Yes 1961–1975
Ansar al-Sharia (Libya)  Libya No 2014–2017 [53]
Ansar Dine  Mali No 2012–2013 [53]
Russia Armed Forces of South Russia  Russia No 1919–1920 [57]
 Azawad  Mali De facto 2012–2013 [6]
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Boko Haram  Nigeria
No 2013–2015 [53]
 Carpatho-Ukraine  Czechoslovakia,  Hungary De facto 1938–1939
Chechen Ichkeria  Russia No 1991–2000 [28]
 Chinese Soviet Republic Taiwan China No 1931–1937 [21]
Communist China Taiwan China Yes 1927–1949 [21]
Dubrovnik Republic Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia No 1991–1992 [5]
Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia No 1995–1998 [5]
FARC  Colombia No 1964–2017 [58]
Fatah al-Islam  Lebanon No 2007 [49]
Groupe islamique armé  Algeria No 1993–1995 [49]
Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia Herzeg-Bosnia  Bosnia-Herzegovina No 1991–1996 [5]
 Hyderabad State  India De facto 1947–1948 [5]
Idel-Ural State Russia Russia No 1917–1918 [59]
Republic of Ireland Irish Republic  United Kingdom Yes 1919–1922 [60]
Islamic Emirate of Kunar Afghanistan No 1989–1991 [49]
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan  Islamic State of Afghanistan De facto 1996–2001
Islamic Republic of Imbaba  Egypt No 1989–1992 [49]
Jamiat-e Islami Afghanistan No 1982–1989 [61]
Republic of Kosova  FR Yugoslavia No 1992–1999 [62]
 Jubaland  Somalia No 1998–2001 [36]
Junbish-e Milli  Afghanistan No 1992-1997 [63]
Liberated Yugoslavia  Independent State of Croatia
Occupied Serbia
Yes 1942–1945 [64]
 Mozambique  Portugal Yes 1964–1974 [note 2]
Revolutionary Vietnam  South Vietnam No 1969–1976


Republika Srpska  Bosnia-Herzegovina No 1991–1995 [5]
Red Spears' rebel area in Dengzhou China No 1929 [65]
Serbian Krajina  Croatia No 1991–1995 [66]
Sudetenland  Czechoslovakia No 1918–1938 [67]
Liberia "Taylorland" or Greater Liberia  Liberia No 1990–1995/97 [note 3]
Tamil Eelam  Sri Lanka No 1983–2008 [58]
 Ukrainian National Government  Soviet Union,  Nazi Germany No 1941
 Ukrainian People's Republic  Russian Republic,  Russian SFSR Yes 1917–1921
UNITA  Angola No 1975–2002 [70]
 United States  Great Britain Yes 1776-1783
 West Ukrainian People's Republic  Austria-Hungary,  Poland No 1918–1919
Western Bosnia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia No 1993–1995 [5]
 Zaporozhian Sich Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Yes 16th century–1649 [71]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]


  1. ^ Jubaland declared itself independent of Somalia in 1998.[36] It technically rejoined Somalia in 2001 when its ruling Juba Valley Alliance became part of the country's Transitional Federal Government. However, Jubaland has continued to persist as a more or less autonomous state.[37]
  2. ^ The erosion of Portuguese military control over northern Mozambique during the Mozambican War of Independence allowed local guerrillas to establish a proto-state there, which survived until the war ended in 1974. Home to about a million people, the miniature insurgent proto-state was managed by FRELIMO's civilian wing and was able to provide administrative services, open trade relations with Tanzania, and even supervise the construction of its own schools and hospitals with foreign aid.[19]
  3. ^ In course of the First Liberian Civil War, the Liberian central government effectively collapsed, allowing warlords to establish their own fiefs. One of the most powerful rebel leaders in Liberia, Charles Taylor, set up his own domain in a way resembling an actual state: He reorganized his militia into a military-like organization (split into Army, Marines, Navy, and Executive Mansion Guard), established his de facto capital at Gbarnga, and created a civilian government and justice system under his control that were supposed to enforce law and order. The area under his control was commonly called "Taylorland" or "Greater Liberia" and even became somewhat stable and peaceful until it largely disintegrated in 1994/5 as result of attacks by rival militias. In the end, however, Taylor won the civil war and was elected President of Liberia, with his regime becoming the new central government.[68][69]


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