Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty
The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, or the Madrid Protocol, is part of the Antarctic Treaty System. It provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems.
Key provisions of the Treaty
- Article 3 states that protection of the Antarctic environment as a wilderness with aesthetic and scientific value shall be a "fundamental consideration" of activities in the area.
- Article 7 states that "Any activity relating to mineral resources, other than scientific research, shall be prohibited." This provision contrasts with the rejected Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities, which would have allowed mining under the control and taxation of an international managing body similar to the International Seabed Authority.
- Article 8 requires environmental assessment for all activities, including tourism.
- Article 11 creates a Committee for Environmental Protection for the continent.
- Article 15 calls for member states to be prepared for emergency response actions in the area.
- Articles 18-20 arrange for arbitration of international disputes regarding Antarctica.
- Article 25(5) states that the Article 7 ban on mining may not be repealed unless a future treaty establishes a binding regulatory framework for such activity.
As of May 2013, the protocol has been ratified by 34 parties — Argentina, Australia, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, the People's Republic of China, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, and Uruguay.
- "Adopted by SATCM XI-4 (Madrid, 1991)". Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2020-05-12.
- Donald, Rothwell. "The Antarctic Treaty System: Resource Development, Environmental Protection or Disintegration?" (PDF). 1990. The Arctic Journal. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- Fogg, Gordon (24 September 1992). A history of Antarctic science. Studies in Polar Research 1992. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521361132. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "1991 - International Treaty saves the Antarctic from deadly threat". 2011. Greenpeace International. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- Madrid Dome. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica
- Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty
- Text of the protocol, PDF format.