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A surviving protoplanet, Vesta

A protoplanet is a large planetary embryo that originated within a protoplanetary disk and has undergone internal melting to produce a differentiated interior. Protoplanets are thought to form out of kilometer-sized planetesimals that gravitationally perturb each other's orbits and collide, gradually coalescing into the dominant planets.

The planetesimal hypothesis[edit]

A planetesimal is an object formed from dust, rock, and other materials, measuring from meters to hundreds of kilometers in size. According to the Chamberlin–Moulton planetesimal hypothesis and the theories of Viktor Safronov, a protoplanetary disk of materials such as gas and dust would orbit a star early in the formation of a planetary system. The action of gravity on such materials form larger and larger chunks until some reach the size of planetesimals.[1][2]

It is thought that the collisions of planetesimals created a few hundred larger planetary embryos. Over the course of hundreds of millions of years, they collided with one another. The exact sequence whereby planetary embryos collided to assemble the planets is not known, but it is thought that initial collisions would have replaced the first "generation" of embryos with a second generation consisting of fewer but larger embryos. These in their turn would have collided to create a third generation of fewer but even larger embryos. Eventually, only a handful of embryos were left, which collided to complete the assembly of the planets proper.[3]

Early protoplanets had more radioactive elements,[4] the quantity of which has been reduced over time due to radioactive decay. Heating due to radioactivity, impact, and gravitational pressure melted parts of protoplanets as they grew toward being planets. In melted zones their heavier elements sank to the center, whereas lighter elements rose to the surface. Such a process is known as planetary differentiation. The composition of some meteorites show that differentiation took place in some asteroids.

Evidence in the Solar System[edit]

In the case of the Solar System, it is thought that the collisions of planetesimals created a few hundred planetary embryos. Such embryos were similar to Ceres and Pluto with masses of about 1022 to 1023 kg and were a few thousand kilometers in diameter.[citation needed]

According to the giant impact hypothesis the Moon formed from a colossal impact of a hypothetical protoplanet called Theia with Earth, early in the Solar System's history.[citation needed]

In the inner Solar System, the three protoplanets to survive more-or-less intact are the asteroids Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta. Psyche is likely the survivor of a violent hit-and-run with another object that stripped off the outer, rocky layers of a protoplanet.[5] The asteroid Metis may also have a similar origin history to that of Psyche.[6] The asteroid Lutetia also has characteristics that resemble a protoplanet.[7][8] Kuiper-belt dwarf planets have also been referred to as protoplanets.[9] Because iron meteorites have been found on Earth, it is deemed likely that there once were other metal-cored protoplanets in the asteroid belt that since have been disrupted and that are the source of these meteorites.[citation needed]

Observed protoplanets[edit]

In February 2013 astronomers made the first direct observation of a candidate protoplanet forming in a disk of gas and dust around a distant star, HD 100546.[10][11] Subsequent observations suggest that several protoplanets may be present in the gas disk.[12]

Another protoplanet, AB Aur b, may be in the earliest observed stage of formation for a gas giant. It is located in the gas disk of the star AB Aurigae. AB Aur b is among the largest exoplanets identified, and has a distant orbit, three times as far as Neptune is from the Earth's sun. Observations of AB Aur b may challenge conventional thinking about how planets are formed. It was viewed by the Subaru Telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope.[13]

Rings, gaps, spirals, dust concentrations and shadows in protoplanetary disks could be caused by protoplanets. These structures are not completely understood and are therefore not seen as a proof for the presence of a protoplanet.[14]

One new emerging way to study the effect of protoplanets on the disk are molecular line observations of protoplanetary disks in the form of gas velocity maps.[14] HD 97048 b is the first protoplanet detected by disk kinematics in the form of a kink in the gas velocity map.[15] Other disks like around IM Lupi or HD 163296 show similar kinks in their gas velocity map.[16][17] Another candidate exoplanet, called HD 169142 b, was first directly imaged in 2014.[18] HD 169142 b additionally shows multiple lines of evidence to be a protoplanet.[19]

List of confirmed protoplanets (described as "protoplanets" in literature)
Star Exoplanet Mass






Distance to earth


Year of Discovery Detection technique
LkCa 15 2011
HD 100546 HD 100546 b


4-13[21] 249[22] 53±2 108[23] 2015[24] Direct imaging
PDS 70 PDS 70 b 3±1 119 20±2 112[23] 2018[25] Direct Imaging
PDS 70 PDS 70 c 8±4 227[22] 34+6
112 2019[25] Direct Imaging
HD 97048 HD 97048 b 2.5±0.5 956[22] 130 184[23] 2019[26] Disk Kinematics
AB Aurigae AB Aur b


9 94±49 156[23] 2022[28] Direct imaging
HD 169142 HD 169142 b 3±2 167[22] 37.2±1.5 114 2023[29] Direct imaging[19]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Cessna, Abby (26 July 2009). "Planetesimals". Universe Today. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  2. ^ Ahrens, T J (1 May 1993). "Impact Erosion of Terrestrial Planetary Atmospheres". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 21 (1): 525–555. doi:10.1146/annurev.ea.21.050193.002521. hdl:2060/19920021677. ISSN 0084-6597. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  3. ^ McBride, Neil; Iain Gilmour; Philip A. Bland; Elaine A. Moore; Mike Widdowson; Ian Wright (2004). An Introduction to the Solar System. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780521837354.
  4. ^ Cessna, Abby (2009). "Protoplanets". Universe Today.
  5. ^ "NASA Selects Investigations for Future Key Planetary Mission". 30 September 2015.
  6. ^ Kelley, Michael S; Michael J. Gaffey (2000). "9 Metis and 113 Amalthea: A Genetic Asteroid Pair". Icarus. 144 (1): 27–38. Bibcode:2000Icar..144...27K. doi:10.1006/icar.1999.6266.
  7. ^ "BIG PIC: 2 Pallas, the Asteroid with Protoplanetary Attitude". Discovery Space. Discovery Communications. 2009-10-08. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
  8. ^ Klotz, Irene (2011-10-27). "ASTEROID FAILS TO MAKE IT BIG: A newly studied asteroid is actually a planetary building block that stopped growing". Discovery News. Discovery Communications. Retrieved 2011-10-27.
  9. ^ Alan Boyle (2009-10-08). "Protoplanet frozen in time". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 2009-10-10. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
  10. ^ "The Birth of a Giant Planet?". European Southern Observatory. 28 February 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
  11. ^ Quanz, Sasch P.; Amara, Adam; Meyer, Michael P.; Kenworthy, Matthew P.; et al. (2013). "A young protoplanet candidate embedded in the circumstellar disk of HD 100546". Astrophysical Journal. 766 (1). L1. arXiv:1302.7122. Bibcode:2013ApJ...766L...1Q. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/766/1/l1. S2CID 56140977.
  12. ^ Garufi, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Schmid, H. M.; Mulders, G. D.; Avenhaus, H.; Boccaletti, A.; Ginski, C.; Langlois, M.; Stolker, T.; Augereau, J.-C.; Benisty, M.; Lopez, B.; Dominik, C.; Gratton, R.; Henning, T.; Janson, M.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M. R.; Pinte, C.; Sissa, E.; Vigan, A.; Zurlo, A.; Bazzon, A.; Buenzli, E.; Bonnefoy, M.; Brandner, W.; Chauvin, G.; Cheetham, A.; Cudel, M.; Desidera, S.; Feldt, M.; Galicher, R.; Kasper, M.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Lannier, J.; Maire, A. L.; Mesa, D.; Mouillet, D.; Peretti, S.; Perrot, C.; Salter, G.; Wildi, F. (April 2016). "The SPHERE view of the planet-forming disk around HD 100546". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 588: A8. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527940. ISSN 0004-6361. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  13. ^ "Gigantic Jupiter-like alien planet observed still 'in the womb'". CBC News. April 5, 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  14. ^ a b Pinte, Christophe; Teague, Richard; Flaherty, Kevin; Hall, Cassandra; Facchini, Stefano; Casassus, Simon (2022-03-01). "Kinematic Structures in Planet-Forming Disks". arXiv:2203.09528. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ Pinte, C.; van der Plas, G.; Ménard, F.; Price, D. J.; Christiaens, V.; Hill, T.; Mentiplay, D.; Ginski, C.; Choquet, E.; Boehler, Y.; Duchêne, G.; Perez, S.; Casassus, S. (2019-08-01). "Kinematic detection of a planet carving a gap in a protoplanetary disk". Nature Astronomy. 3 (12): 1109–1114. arXiv:1907.02538. Bibcode:2019NatAs...3.1109P. doi:10.1038/s41550-019-0852-6. ISSN 2397-3366. S2CID 195820690.
  16. ^ Verrios, Harrison J.; Price, Daniel J.; Pinte, Christophe; Hilder, Thomas; Calcino, Josh (2022-07-01). "Kinematic Evidence for an Embedded Planet in the IM Lupi Disk". The Astrophysical Journal. 934 (1): L11. arXiv:2207.02869. Bibcode:2022ApJ...934L..11V. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ac7f44. ISSN 0004-637X.
  17. ^ Calcino, Josh; Hilder, Thomas; Price, Daniel J.; Pinte, Christophe; Bollati, Francesco; Lodato, Giuseppe; Norfolk, Brodie J. (2022-04-01). "Mapping the Planetary Wake in HD 163296 with Kinematics". The Astrophysical Journal. 929 (2): L25. arXiv:2111.07416. Bibcode:2022ApJ...929L..25C. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ac64a7. ISSN 0004-637X. S2CID 244117638.
  18. ^ Reggiani, Maddalena; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meyer, Michael R.; Pueyo, Laurent; Absil, Olivier; Amara, Adam; Anglada, Guillem; Avenhaus, Henning; Girard, Julien H.; Carrasco Gonzalez, Carlos; Graham, James; Mawet, Dimitri; Meru, Farzana; Milli, Julien; Osorio, Mayra (2014-09-01). "Discovery of a Companion Candidate in the HD 169142 Transition Disk and the Possibility of Multiple Planet Formation". The Astrophysical Journal. 792 (1): L23. arXiv:1408.0813. Bibcode:2014ApJ...792L..23R. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/792/1/L23. ISSN 0004-637X. S2CID 37427761.
  19. ^ a b Hammond, Iain; Christiaens, Valentin; Price, Daniel J.; Toci, Claudia; Pinte, Christophe; Juillard, Sandrine; Garg, Himanshi (2023-02-01). "Confirmation and Keplerian motion of the gap-carving protoplanet HD 169142 b". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 522 (1): L51–L55. arXiv:2302.11302. Bibcode:2023MNRAS.522L..51H. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slad027.
  20. ^ Rameau, Julien; Follette, Katherine B.; Pueyo, Laurent; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell; Wang, Jason J.; Vega, David; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Nielsen, Eric L.; Bailey, Vanessa; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Close, Laird M.; Esposito, Thomas M. (2017-06-01). "An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO". The Astronomical Journal. 153 (6): 244. arXiv:1704.06317. Bibcode:2017AJ....153..244R. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa6cae. ISSN 0004-6256. S2CID 19100982.
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  22. ^ a b c d "Orbital Period Calculator | Binary System". Retrieved 2023-03-01.
  23. ^ a b c d Gaia Collaboration (2020-11-01). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gaia EDR3 (Gaia Collaboration, 2020)". VizieR Online Data Catalog: I/350. Bibcode:2020yCat.1350....0G.
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External links[edit]