Page extended-protected

Proud Boys

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Proud Boys
Proud Boys flag.png
Named after"Proud of Your Boy"
Formation2016; 3 years ago (2016)
FounderGavin McInnes
TypeFar-right neo-fascist organization that promotes political violence[1][2]
Region
International
Key people
Enrique Tarrio (Chairman)[3]
WebsiteOfficialProudBoys.com

The Proud Boys is a far-right neo-fascist[9][10][11] organization that admits only men as members and promotes political violence.[2][12][13][14] It is based in the United States and has a presence in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom.[15][16] The group was started in 2016 by Vice Media co-founder and former commentator Gavin McInnes, taking its name from the song "Proud of Your Boy" from the Disney film Aladdin.[17][18] Proud Boys emerged as part of the alt-right, but in early 2017, McInnes began distancing himself from the alt-right, saying the alt-right's focus is race while his focus is what he defines as "Western values". This re-branding effort intensified after the Unite the Right Rally.[19][20]

The group sees men — especially white men — and Western culture as under siege; their views have elements of white genocide conspiracy theory.[21][22][23] While the group claims it does not support white supremacist views, its members often participate in racist rallies, events, and organizations.[24] The organization glorifies violence, and members engage in violence at events it attends; the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) has called it an "alt-right fight club".[24][25][26]

In late November 2018, a news story which attracted national attention[27] reported that the FBI classified the Proud Boys as an extremist group with ties to white nationalism;[13] however, two weeks later, an FBI official, briefing Clark County, Washington law enforcement officials on the group, denied that it was their intent to classify the entire group in this manner, and ascribed the mistake to a misunderstanding. During the briefing FBI agents suggested the use of various websites for more information, including that of the SPLC.[27][28] The official said that their intent was to characterize the possible threat from certain members of the group.[29]

The organization has been described as a hate group by NPR's The Takeaway[30] and the Southern Poverty Law Center.[31] In February 2019, despite having claimed to have broken ties with the group in November 2018,[32][33] McInnes filed a federal defamation suit against the SPLC over their "hate group" designation, saying that it was untrue and had damaged his career.[34] Shortly after McInnes filed the suit, the Canadian far-right media group The Rebel Media, for whom McInnes had previously been a contributor, announced that they had re-hired him.[35]

Organization

Gavin McInnes co-founded Vice Magazine in 1994 but was pushed out in 2008 after several years of turmoil following a New York Times interview in which he talked about his pride in being white. After leaving, he began "doggedly hacking a jagged but unrelenting path to the far-right fringes of American culture", according to a 2017 profile in The Globe and Mail.[36]

The Proud Boys organization was launched in September 2016, on the website of Taki's Magazine, a far-right publication for which Richard Spencer was executive editor.[37] It existed informally before then as something like a McInnes fan club, and the first gathering of the Brooklyn chapter in July 2016 resulted in a brawl in the bar where they met.[17] The name is derived from the song "Proud of Your Boy" from the soundtrack for the film Aladdin, which had become a running theme on McInnes' podcast hosted by Anthony Cumia's Compound Media. McInnes had heard the song at a children's talent show in December 2015 and took immediate dislike to the perceived "fake, humble, and self-serving" nature of the lyrics.[17]

The organization has been described as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center[31] and NPR's The Takeaway,[30] and Spencer, McInnes, and the Proud Boys have been described as hipster racists by Vox[38] and Media Matters for America.[39][40] McInnes says victim mentality of women and other historically oppressed groups is unhealthy: "There is an incentive to be a victim. It is cool to be a victim." He sees white men and Western culture as "under siege" and described criticism of his ideas as "victim blaming".[36] Their views have elements of white genocide conspiracy theory.[21][22][23] The group is part of the "alt lite" and it is "overtly Islamophobic".[41]

In early 2017, McInnes began distancing himself from the alt-right, saying their focus is race and his focus is what he calls "Western values"; the rebranding effort intensified after the Unite the Right Rally.[19][20][42] In 2018, McInnes was saying that the Proud Boys were part of the "new right".[43]

The organization glorifies political violence against leftists, re-enacting political assassinations, wearing shirts that praise Augusto Pinochet's murders of leftists, and participating directly in political violence.[24][25] McInnes has said "I want violence, I want punching in the face. I'm disappointed in Trump supporters for not punching enough."[24][37] He stated, "We don't start fights [...] but we will finish them."[44] Heidi Beirich, the Intelligence Project director for the Southern Poverty Law Center, said that this form of intentional aggression was not common among far-right groups in the past; she said: "'We're going to show up and we're intending to get in fights,' that's a new thing."[45] In August 2018, Twitter shut down the official account for the group, as well as McInnes' account, under its policy prohibiting violent extremist groups; at the time, the group's profile photo was a member punching a counter-protester.[46] In late November 2018, it was reported, based on an internal memo of the Clark County, Washington Sheriff's Office, that the FBI had classified the Proud Boys as an extremist group with ties to white nationalism.[13] Two weeks later, however, the Special Agent in Charge of the FBI's Oregon office denied that the FBI made such designations, ascribing the error by the Sheriff's Office to a confusion over the FBI designating the group as such, as a designation made by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) and other outside agencies.[27]

The organization is opposed to feminism and promotes gender stereotypes in which women are subservient to men.[36][37] The organization has a female-member-only auxiliary wing named "Proud Boys' Girls" that supports the same ideology.[47] The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) states that McInnes and the Proud Boys are misogynistic and states that they call women “lazy” and “less ambitious” than men (and “venerat[e] the housewife"); McInnes has called for “enforced monogamy” and criticized feminism as “a cancer”.[41]

Some men who are not white have joined the Proud Boys, drawn by the organization's advocacy for men, anti-immigrant stance, and embrace of violence.[48] The ADL states that the Proud Boys' "...extreme, provocative tactics – coupled with overt or implicit racism, Islamophobia, anti-Semitism and misogyny and the fact that the group is so decentralized, inconsistent, and spread out – suggest the group should be a significant cause for concern".[41]

Membership

Proud Boys at a rally in Seattle, 2017

The Proud Boys say they have an initiation process that has four stages and includes hazing. The first stage is a loyalty oath, on the order of "I’m a proud Western chauvinist, I refuse to apologize for creating the modern world"; the second is getting punched until the person recites pop culture trivia, such as the names of five breakfast cereals; the third is getting a tattoo and agreeing to not masturbate; and the fourth is getting into a major fight "for the cause."[25][18][49][50][51][52]

The Proud Boys have adopted a black Fred Perry polo shirt with yellow piping as their unofficial uniform.[53] Fred Perry was previously associated with the Mod subculture and skinhead groups,[53][54] including the British National Front.[55] Fred Perry's CEO John Flynn denounced the affiliation with the Proud Boys in a statement to CBC Radio, saying "We don't support the ideals or the group that you speak of. It is counter to our beliefs and the people we work with."[54]

Women and transgender men are not allowed in the organization.[56][37]

The Proud Boys discourages its members from masturbating and watching pornography so as to motivate them to get "off the couch" and meet women.[51] McInnes added no masturbation to the group's core ideas after interacting with Dante Nero, a relationship expert and comedian with a podcast on Riotcast, who came to serve as a sort of "pope" for this idea within the organization.[57]

Leadership

Gavin McInnes founded the group and served as its leader. In November 2018, shortly after news broke that the FBI had classified the Proud Boys as an extremist group with ties to white nationalists — a claim later disavowed by an FBI official, who said they only intended to characterize the potential threat from some members of the group[29] — McInnes said that his lawyers had advised him that quitting might help the nine members being prosecuted for the incidents in October. During the announcement he defended the group, attacked the reporting about it, said white nationalists don't exist, and at times he said things that made it appear he was not quitting, such as "this is 100% a legal gesture, and it is 100% about alleviating sentencing", and said it was a "stepping down gesture, in quotation marks".[32][33]

As of November 2018, the group said its leaders were Enrique Tarrio, designated as "chairman", and the "Elder Chapter", which consists of Harry Fox, Heath Hair, Patrick William Roberts, Joshua Hall, Timothy Kelly, Luke Rofhling and Rufio Panman.[58][3] Jason Lee Van Dyke, who was the organization's lawyer at the time, had been briefly named as chairman to replace Gavin McInnes when he left the group, but the organization announced on November 30 that Van Dyke was no longer associated with the group in any capacity, although his law firm still holds Proud Boys trademarks and is the registered agent for two of the group's chapters.[59] In December 2018, arrest warrant was issued for Van Dyke over his death threat to a person he previously sued.[60]

Although McInnes had earlier said that any Proud Boy member who was known to have attended the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia in 2017 was kicked out of the organization, the new chairman, Enrique Tarrio, admits to having attended the event.[52]

Events

New York University

In February 2017, McInnes arrived at New York University to give a speech, accompanied by a group of about ten Proud Boys. Minor scuffles broke out between Proud Boys and antifa protesters, and the NYPD said that eleven people faced criminal charges. One member of the Proud Boys who encouraged others to fight the "faggots wearing black that won't let us in" was later arrested for punching a reporter from DNAinfo.[61][62][24]

2017 Berkeley protests

At the 2017 March 4 Trump rally in Berkeley, California, Kyle Chapman was recorded hitting a counter-protester over the head with a wooden dowel. Images of Chapman went viral, and the Proud Boys organized a crowdfunding campaign for Chapman's bail after his arrest. After this, McInnes invited Chapman to become involved with the Proud Boys, through which he formed the Fraternal Order of the Alt-Knights.[45]

On April 15, 2017, an alt-right rally was organized in Berkeley by the Liberty Revival Alliance, which did not seek or receive a permit, and was attended by members of the Proud Boys, Identity Evropa (an American neo-Nazi group[63][64][65]) and Oath Keepers (an anti-government, far-right group[66][67][68][69][70]); many of these people traveled to Berkeley from other parts of the country. The rally was counter-protested and violence broke out. 21 people were arrested.[71][72]

2017 Chicago stabbing

In April 2017, a concert organized by the Chicago Fraternal Order of Police to protest Cook County State's Attorney Kim Foxx attracted several people wearing Proud Boy clothing. One of them, Thomas Christensen, got into an argument with another attendee, and ended up stabbing him with what the prosecutor called a "folding dagger" with a 3-inch blade. Christensen was arrested on charges of aggravated battery.[73] In August 2019, Christensen was convicted at a bench trial; the judge rejected Chrsitiansen's claim that he acted in self-defense. After the trial, a friend confirmed that Christiansen was a member of the Proud Boys.[73]

2017 Islamberg caravan

In 2017 Proud Boys joined a caravan to ride through Islamberg, New York, a community of around twenty black Muslim families who moved upstate to escape the racism and violence of New York City, and which has been a target of conspiracy theories from various Islamophobic hate groups and right-wing terrorist plots.[74][75][76]

Portland protests

In 2017 and 2018 Proud Boys participated in several rallies organized by Patriot Prayer in Portland, Oregon and nearby Vancouver, Washington.[77][78][79] Scenes of violence from one of these rallies was turned into a sizzle reel for the Proud Boys and was circulated on social media.[2][80]

Disruption of Halifax Indigenous Peoples' Protest

On July 1, 2017, five Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members who self-identified as Proud Boys disrupted a protest organized by indigenous activists, in Halifax, Nova Scotia, at a statue of Edward Cornwallis, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia. Indigenous activists had previously protested at the site and called for the removal of the statue because of Cornwallis's actions against Natives, including ordering a bounty for scalps of Mi'kmaq people. The Proud Boys carried the Canadian Red Ensign flag from the time of Cornwallis and one of them said to the indigenous protesters, "You are recognising your heritage and so are we."[15]

General Jonathan Vance, the head of the CAF, announced an investigation,[81][82] Rear Admiral John Newton, Commander of the Maritime Fleet of the Royal Canadian Navy, was "personally horrified" by the incident and said the Proud Boys were "clearly a white supremacist group and we fundamentally stand opposed to any of their values."[83] The CAF's investigation concluded by August 2017,[84] Later that month, Newton announced the CAF had taken "appropriate measures to address individual shortcomings" and that four of the members had returned to duty, warning, "Any further inappropriate behavior could result in their termination from the Canadian Armed Forces."[85] In 2018, the statue was removed from the site by the City of Halifax.

Unite the Right rally

In June, McInnes disavowed the planned Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia.[36] However, Proud Boys were at the August 2017 alt-right event, which was organized by white supremacist Jason Kessler.[86] Kessler had joined the Proud Boys some time before organizing the event.[87][88][89] McInnes said he had kicked Kessler out after his views on race had become clear.[36] After the rally, Kessler accused McInnes of using him as a "patsy" and said: "You're trying to cuck and save your own ass."[20] Alex Michael Ramos, one of the men convicted for the assault of DeAndre Harris which took place at the rally, was associated with the Proud Boys and Fraternal Order of Alt-Knights.[90]

2018 Metropolitan Republican Club

In October 2018 McInnes gave a talk at the Metropolitan Republican Club on the Upper East Side of Manhattan. He stepped out of his car wearing glasses with Asian eyes drawn on the front and pulled a samurai sword out of its sheath. Police forced him inside. Later, inside the event, McInnes and an Asian member of the Proud Boys re-enacted the 1960 murder of Inejiro Asanuma, the leader of the Japanese Socialist Party; a captioned photograph of the actual murder had become a meme in alt-right social media.[37] The audience for the event was described by The New York Times as "a cross-section of New York’s far-right subculture: libertarians, conspiracy theorists and nationalists who have coalesced around their opposition to Islam, feminism and liberal politics."[91]

Anti-fascist activists had started protesting outside the club before the event and had reportedly engaged in vandalism. Following cross-provocations between the opposing sides, the Proud Boys charged towards the protesters, who threw a bottle in response, resulting in a fight.[91][92] NYC police present at the protest reportedly did not respond.[37][93]

On November 21, shortly after news broke that the FBI had classified the Proud Boys as an extremist group with ties to white nationalists — a claim later disavowed by an FBI official, who said they only intended to characterize the potential threat of some members of the group[27] — McInnes said that his lawyers had advised him that quitting might help the nine members being prosecuted for the incidents in October and he said "this is 100% a legal gesture, and it is 100% about alleviating sentencing", and said it was a "stepping down gesture, in quotation marks".[32][33]

The fallout from the incident left the group in internal disarray.[91] After McInnes nominally left the group, the "Elder Chapter" of the group reportedly assumed control. Jason Lee Van Dyke, the group's lawyer, was appointed as the chapter's chairman.[58][94] Van Dyke was previously known for suing news media and anti-fascist activists for reporting on the group, and for making violent online threats with racist language.[95][96] The group then publicly released its new bylaw online, with the names of its "Elder Chapter" members listed and redacted. The redaction was later discovered to be botched, as the list of names can be accessed by selecting over the black bar of the released document.[58] A day later, the chapter announced that Van Dyke was no longer leader of the group, and Enrique Tarrio is the group's new chairman.[3]

Arrests and prosecutions of Proud Boys in connection with incident

Video evidence from three separate videos showed conclusively that the Proud Boys has instigated the fight after the Metropolitan Republican Club event. John Miller, New York City's deputy police commissioner for intelligence and counterterrorism, said that "incidents like [the post-MRC fight] make it more likely" that the Proud Boys would be "higher on the radar" of authorities.[91]

Ten men connected to the Proud Boys were arrested in connection with the October 2018 incident.[97] Seven Proud Boys pleaded guilty to various charges including riot, disorderly conduct and attempted assault.[97][98] Two of the men who accepted plea deals were sentenced to five days of community service and did not receive jail time.[99] In August 2019, two of the Proud Boys, Maxwell Hare and John Kinsman, were convicted following a jury trial of attempted gang assault, attempted assault and riot; the jury deliberated a day and a half of deliberations before rejecting their claims of self-defense.[97] Hare and Kinsman were each sentenced to four years in prison.[100] The final defendant is awaiting trial.[97][98]

The four anti-fascist victims of the beating are not cooperating with prosecutors, even to the extent of revealing their identities, and are known only as "Shaved Head", "Ponytail", "Khaki" and "Spiky Belt". Because of their non-cooperation, the Proud Boys could not be charged with assault – which requires evidence of injury – and were instead charged with riot and attempted assault, which merely require an attempt to cause injury. Without the victims to testify, the bulk of the evidence in the trial came from videos of the incident, including footage shot by a video documentarian, and video from security cameras.[97][98]

Threat to Portland mayor

In January 2019, Reggie Axtell, a member of the Proud Boys, threatened Ted Wheeler, Portland, Oregon's Democratic mayor, in a Facebook video post. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, Axtell said in the video that Wheeler's "days are fucking numbered ... I promise you this, Ted Wheeler: I’m coming for you, you little punk." Axtell also said that he would "unmask every [anti-fascist] son of a bitch that I come across", referring to a campaign initiated by Patriot Prayer leader Joey Gibson, Proud Boy Tusitala "Tiny" Toese and former Proud Boy Russell Schultz to tear off the bandanas of anti-fascist (antifa) demonstrators and taking pictures of their faces, thereby "demasking" them. The announcement of the campaign came shortly after an altercation that took place when Proud Boys and Patriot Prayer members attempted and failed to invade a chapter meeting of the left-wing organization Democratic Socialists of America. The groups clashed with anti-fascist activists nearby after being denied entry to the meeting, and claimed to be attacked.[101][102][103]

Connection with Roger Stone

Roger Stone, the long-time informal advisor to Donald Trump, has close connections to the Proud Boys. According to University of Nevada researcher Samantha Kutner, during McInnes' time as head of the group, Stone was "one of only three approved media figures allowed to speak" about the group. A photo of Stone, Fox News anchor Tucker Carlson and two Proud Boys in the Fox News greenroom was posted by Stone on Instagram in May 2018.

In February 2018, the Proud Boys posted a video on Facebook which they described as Stone undergoing a "low-level initiation" into the group. As part of the initiation, Stone says "Hi, I’m Roger Stone. I’m a Western chauvinist. I refuse to apologize for creating the modern world," making him a "first-degree" member, which Kutner characterizes as being a "sympathizer". Stone denies being a member of the group.

Stone has used members of the Proud Boys as his personal bodyguards. In March 2018, when Stone attended the Republican Dorchester Conference near Salem, Oregon, he was concerned about his safety and used members of the Proud Boys to be his private security; Stone was photographed with the Proud Boys members. In September 2018, Stone was escorted to and from the right-wing Mother of All Rallies by Proud Boys. Stone says that the Proud Boys are "volunteers" and are necessary due to the number of death threats he has received.

In late January 2019, when Stone was arrested by the FBI on seven criminal counts in connection with the Mueller investigation, Enrique Tarrio, the chairman of the Proud Boys, met Stone as he left the courthouse in Florida. Tarrio, who wore a "Roger Stone Did Nothing Wrong" t-shirt — sold by a company owned by Tarrio — told a local TV reporter that the indictment was nothing but "trumped-up charges", and was later seen visiting Stone's house. The next day, in Washington D.C., a small number of Proud Boys demonstrated outside the courthouse where Stone pleaded not guilty to the charges, carrying "Roger Stone did nothing wrong" signs and others that promoted the InfoWars conspiracy website. The Proud Boys got into an argument with anti-Stone hecklers[104][4][105]

McInnes lawsuit against the SPLC

Although McInnes has supposedly cut his ties with the Proud Boys in November 2018, stepping down as chairman,[32][33] in February 2019 he filed a defamation lawsuit against the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) in federal court in Alabama, over the SPLC's designation of the Proud Boys as a "general hate" group.[34][106] The SPLC says on its website that "McInnes plays a duplicitous rhetorical game: rejecting white nationalism and, in particular, the term 'alt-right' while espousing some of its central tenets," and that the group's "rank-and-file [members] and leaders regularly spout white nationalist memes and maintain affiliations with known extremists. They are known for anti-Muslim and misogynistic rhetoric. Proud Boys have appeared alongside other hate groups at extremist gatherings like the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville".[31][106] McInnes is represented by Ronald Coleman. In addition to defamation, McInnes claims tortious interference with economic advantage, "false light invasion of privacy," and "aiding and abetting employment discrimination".[107]

The SPLC filed a motion to dismiss the lawsuit in July 2019.[108]

Mcinnes re-hired by Rebel Media

The day after filing the suit McInnes announced that he had been re-hired by the Canadian far-right media group The Rebel Media.[35]

1776.shop

In February 2019, Slate magazine reported that Square, Chase Paymentech, and PayPal had pulled their payment processing services from 1776.shop, an online far-right merchandise site associated with the Proud Boys. 1776.shop lists itself as a project of Fund the West LLC, a Miami business registered to Henry Tarrio. In the past, Enrique Tarrio, the chairman of Proud Boys, has claimed that he is the "business owner" of 1776.shop, raising the probability that "Henry Tarrio" and "Enrique Tarrio" are the same person. Henry Tarrio is also the registered owner of "Proudboys LLC", which uses the same address as Fund the West.[109]

May 2019 federal lawsuit

On May 17, 2019, Bill Burke of Ohio filed a $3 million lawsuit against the Proud Boys, Kessler, and multiple other people and groups associated with the Unite the Right rally. Burke was seriously injured in the August 2017 Charlottesville car attack which followed the event.[110][111] The 64-page initial complaint alleges that the named parties "conspired to plan, promote and carry out the violent events in Charlottesville". According to Burke, his physical and mental injuries have led to "severe psychological and emotional suffering".[112][113]

"Demand Free Speech" rally

A Proud Boys rally called "Demand Free Speech"[114] took place on July 6, 2019, in Washington, D.C.'s Freedom Plaza and Pershing Park, drawing about 250 people.[115][116][117] McInnes, Laura Loomer and Milo Yiannopoulos appeared, but former Trump advisor Roger Stone and Jacob Wohl did not. A counter-protest/dance party across the street drew more people than the main rally. Police said there were only minor skirmishes between the far-right and antifa, and no arrests were made.[115][116][117]

Republican candidate Omar Navarro, a perennial challenger for Democratic Congresswoman Maxine Waters' congressional seat, withdrew from speaking at the event, tweeting that his ex-girlfriend DeAnne Lorraine, a self-described "MAGA relationship expert," had threatened him, using cocaine and having sex with members of the Proud Boys.[114] In response to Navarro's tweets, the Proud Boys issued a video featuring former Infowars staff member Joe Biggs and Ethan Nordean – the star of a viral video showing him beating up an antifa protester – in which they "banished" Navarro from the Proud Boys. The Proud Boys' chairman, Enrique Tarrio, described the group as "pro-drugs". Other speakers who had been scheduled for the rally, including Pizzagate promoters Mike Cernovich and Jack Posobiec, had already cancelled their appearances, for reasons not apparently related to Navarro's charges.[114]

Menacing critics

In July 2019, it was reported that on several occasions Proud Boys had gone to the homes of their critics and menaced them. In June 2018, Vic Berger, who posts videos online mocking far-right figures, including Proud Boy founder Gavin McInnes, was visited at his home by a Proud Boy who told him that "You’re really hurting the Proud Boys. You need to stop making these videos." Berger later came into possession of an internal Proud Boy document which called for Proud Boys to find the addresses of their opponents and those of their relatives and "SHOW THEM THERE ARE CONSEQUENCES!!!" Then, on June 29, 2019, a group of Proud Boys showed up at 11 p.m. at the Philadelphia home of Gwen Snyder, who tracks the movements of the Proud Boys. Snyder wasn't home at the time, so the group spoke to a neighbor, telling them that Snyder needed to stop posting on Twitter the names of Proud Boys and other information about them; "You tell that fat bitch she better stop", one of the group allegedly said. Snyder reported the threat to the Philadelphia police, giving them security camera footage of the incident. Prior to the menacing of Snyder, an anonymous Proud Boy posted on Telegram, an encrypted Russian messaging app, a comment which called for action against "Philly's biggest shit stains."[118]

Taunting soccer fans

After Major League Soccer (MLS) ruled that the Emerald City Supporters (ECS), anti-fascist fans of the Seattle Sounders Football Club, could not the fly the flag of the 1930s anti-Nazi Iron Front paramilitary group at Sounders' matches, eleven members of the Proud Boys met the group of about 100 people as they marched into the stadium on August 4, 2019 to taunt and yell expletives at them. There was additional police coverage, with the only incident occurring when the Proud Boys attempted to enter a bar which is a known place for ECS members to gather. The MLS had categorized the Iron Front flag as "political imagery", which is forbidden under league rules, however a number of groups in Seattle and elsewhere are challenging the League's ruling.[119]

"End Domestic Terrorism" rally

The Proud Boys and radio talk show host and former InfoWars staff member Joe Biggs organized a demonstration held in Portland on August 17, 2019 which members of numerous far-right groups attended.[120][121] The rally, which was sometimes subtitled "Better Dead Than Red",[122] was intended to promote the idea that the "antifa" anti-fascist movement should be classified as "domestic terrorism". It received national attention, including a Tweet from President Donald Trump.[123][124] The event drew more counter-demonstrators than participants – with at least one group urging its members in advance not to attend – and ended with the Proud Boys requesting a police escort to leave.[121]

Haverford, Pennsylvania volunteer fire company

In September 2019, Haverford Township, Pennsylvania announced that one of its volunteer fire companies, the Bon Air Fire Company, had been permanently relieved of duty at the end of business the previous day because of its unwillingness to dismiss a leader in the fire company, Bruce McClay Jr., who was in the "initiation" process of joining the Proud Boys; McClay had offered his resignation, but the fire company had declined to accept it.[125][126] Four days after the township cut ties with the Bon Aire Fire Company, the fire company reversed its decision and accepted McClay's resignation, saying its initial decision to refuse it was a "mistake"; this cleared the way for the township to re-open the company.[127]

Subgroups

Fraternal Order of the Alt-Knights

In 2017, Kyle Chapman, nicknamed "Based Stickman" due to the wooden dowel incident mentioned above, formed a paramilitary wing of the Proud Boys called the "Fraternal Order of the Alt-Knights" (FOAK).[45] Alt-right figure Augustus Sol Invictus acted as FOAK's second-in-command until he left the group.[31]

See also

References

  1. ^ Colleen Long, 11 arrests at NYU protest over speech by 'Proud Boys' leader, Associated Press (February 3, 2017): "a far-right men's organization"
  2. ^ a b c Wilson, Jason (July 14, 2018). "Who are the Proud Boys, 'western chauvinists' involved in political violence?". the Guardian.
  3. ^ a b c Merlan, Anna. "The Proud Boys' Hilarious Slow-Motion Disintegration Continues". Splinter. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  4. ^ a b Weill, Kelly (January 29, 2019) "How the Proud Boys Became Roger Stone’s Personal Army" The Daily Beast
  5. ^ The Associated Press, . "3 arrested in NYC clashes following speech by leader of far-right Proud Boys group". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 3, 2019.
  6. ^ "Proud Boys Founder Gavin McInnes Wants Neighbors to Take Down Anti-Hate Yard Signs". lawandcrime.com. Retrieved February 3, 2019.
  7. ^ Mathias, Christopher (October 18, 2018). "The Proud Boys, The GOP And 'The Fascist Creep'". Huffington Post. Retrieved February 3, 2019.
  8. ^ Producers, Parasites, Patriots. University of Minnesota Press. 2019. p. 2.
  9. ^ [4][5][6][7][8]
  10. ^ Reinstein, and Baer, Stephanie K. (October 5, 2018) "Members Of A Far-Right Men’s Group Violently Beat Up Protesters And Weren’t Arrested. New York Police Won’t Say Why" Buzzfeed News. Quote: "New York Public Advocate Letitia James called on the NYPD to arrest all the Proud Boys involved in the beating.
    "I am disturbed and disgusted by the videos I’ve seen of members of the neo-fascist, white supremacist Proud Boys group engaging in hate-fueled mob violence on the streets of New York City," James said. "New York will not become the next Charlottesville, and we refuse to let the actions of a hateful few define our City."
    James said she would also urge the district attorney to pursue hate crime charges due to "the clear homophobic and anti-immigrant sentiments expressed in the videos."
  11. ^
  12. ^ Lowry, Rich (October 19, 2018). "The Poisonous Allure of Right-Wing Violence". National Review. Retrieved November 13, 2018. McInnes is open about his glorification of violence. In a speech, he described a clash with Antifa outside a talk he gave at NYU last year: "My guys are left to fight. And here's the crucial part: We do. And we beat the crap out of them." He related what a Proud Boy who got arrested told him afterward: "It was really, really fun." According to McInnes: "Violence doesn't feel good. Justified violence feels great. And fighting solves everything."
  13. ^ a b c Wilson, Jason (November 19, 2018). "FBI now classifies far-right Proud Boys as 'extremist group', documents say". The Guardian.
  14. ^ "FBI considers Proud Boys extremists with white-nationalist ties, law enforcement officials say". Washington Post. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  15. ^ a b "'Proud Boys' back in Canada military after crashing indigenous ceremony". BBC News. August 31, 2017.
  16. ^ Gilbert, Simon (July 30, 2017). "Right wing activist warns people to avoid "immigrant city" Coventry which he claims is "awful"". Coventry Telegraph. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  17. ^ a b c Disser, Nicole (July 28, 2016). Gavin McInnes and his Proud Boys want to make white men great again. Bedfordandbowery.com
  18. ^ a b Ellis, Emma Grey (May 22, 2017). "Your Handy Field Guide to the Many Factions of the Far Right, from the Proud Boys to Identity Evropa." Wired.com. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
  19. ^ a b Marantz, Andrew (July 6, 2017). "The Alt-Right Branding War Has Torn the Movement in Two". The New Yorker.
  20. ^ a b c Woodhouse, Leighton Akio (September 21, 2017). "After Charlottesville, the American Far Right is Tearing Itself Apart". The Intercept. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  21. ^ a b Brown, Doug (December 12, 2017). ""Proud Boys" Founder Wants to "Trigger the Entire State of Oregon" by Helping Patriot Prayer's Joey Gibson win the Oregon Person of the Year Poll (Updated)". Portland Mercury.
  22. ^ a b Moser, Bob (October 6, 2017). "Why the "Alt-Lite" Celebrated the Las Vegas Massacre". The New Republic.
  23. ^ a b Walters, Joanna (August 17, 2017). "Neo-Nazis, white nationalists, and internet trolls: who's who in the far right". the Guardian.
  24. ^ a b c d e Weill, Kelly; Shallwani, Pervaiz (October 15, 2018). "NYPD Looks to Charge 9 Proud Boys With Assault for Manhattan Fight". The Daily Beast.
  25. ^ a b c Morlin, Bill (April 25, 2017). "New Alt-Right "Fight Club" Ready for Street Violence". Southern Poverty Law Center.
  26. ^ Carter, Mike (May 1, 2017). "Seattle police wary of May Day violence between pro- and anti-Trump groups". Seattle Times. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  27. ^ a b c d "Head of Oregon's FBI: Bureau doesn't designate Proud Boys as extremist group". oregonlive.com. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  28. ^ McMillan, Keith; Rosenberg, Eli (December 7, 2018). "The FBI says the Proud Boys are not an extremist group after all". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  29. ^ a b Barnes, Luke (December 7, 2018) "FBI does U-turn on Proud Boys ‘extremist’ label" ThinkProgress
  30. ^ a b "Gavin McInnes and the Proud Boys: Misogyny, Authoritarianism, and the Rise of Multiracial White Supremacy". The Takeaway: WNYC Studios. October 16, 2018.
  31. ^ a b c d "Proud Boys". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
  32. ^ a b c d Wilson, Jason (November 22, 2018). "Proud Boys founder Gavin McInnes quits 'extremist' far-right group". The Guardian.
  33. ^ a b c d Prengel, Kate (November 21, 2018). "Gavin McInnes Says He Is Quitting the Proud Boys [VIDEO]". Heavy.com.
  34. ^ a b Associated Press (February 4, 2019) "Proud Boys founder Gavin McInnes sues Southern Poverty Law Center over hate group label" NBC News
  35. ^ a b McLaughlin, Aidan (February 5, 2019). "Gavin McInnes Hired By Conservative Canadian Network Rebel Media". Mediaite. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  36. ^ a b c d e Houpt, Simon (August 18, 2017). "Vice co-founder Gavin McInnes's path to the far-right frontier". Globe and Mail. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  37. ^ a b c d e f Coaston, Jane (October 15, 2018). "The Proud Boys, the bizarre far-right street fighters behind violence in New York, explained". Vox.
  38. ^ Hemmer, Nicole (December 2, 2016). "Tweedy racists and "ironic" anti-Semites: the alt-right fits a historical pattern". Vox.
  39. ^ Theel, Shauna (June 5, 2014). "Meet The Hipster Racist Fox News Guest Attacking Neil deGrasse Tyson". Media Matters for America.
  40. ^ Osnos, Evan (February 6, 2017). "Trump Supporters at the DeploraBall". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  41. ^ a b c "Proud Boys". www.adl.org. Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved August 3, 2019.
  42. ^ Campbell, Jon (February 15, 2017). "Gavin McInnes Wants You to Know He's Totally Not a White Supremacist". Village Voice.
  43. ^ Chung, Frank (August 21, 2018). "Right-wing activist heading to Australia". Northern Star.
  44. ^ "Proud Boys Founder: How He Went From Brooklyn Hipster to Far-Right Provocateur".
  45. ^ a b c Feuer, Alan; Peters, Jeremy W. (June 2, 2017). "Fringe Groups Revel as Protests Turn Violent". The New York Times. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  46. ^ Roettgers, Janko (August 10, 2018). "Twitter Shuts Down Accounts of Vice Co-Founder Gavin McInnes, Proud Boys Ahead of 'Unite the Right' Rally". Variety.
  47. ^ "The Boys and Girls of white nationalism: 'Proud' groups labeled 'extremist' in newly revealed FBI files". NBC News. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  48. ^ Gupta, Arun (September 4, 2018). "Why Young Men of Color Are Joining White-Supremacist Groups". The Daily Beast.
  49. ^ Proud Boys: ‘Willing to go places and disrupt things’ Toronto Sun (July 6, 2017)
  50. ^ Gilmour, David (September 7, 2017). "Meet the Proud Boys, the pro-men, anti-masturbation enemy of 'antifa'". The Daily Dot. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  51. ^ a b Hall, Alexandra (November 26, 2017). "Controversial Proud Boys Embrace 'Western Values,' Reject Feminism And Political Correctness". Wisconsin Public Radio. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  52. ^ a b Staff (December 12, 2018) "Proud Boys founder denies inciting violence, responds to whether he feels responsible for group's behavior" ABC News
  53. ^ a b Flammia, Christine (July 10, 2017). "Fred Perry Wants Nothing to Do With Its Alt-Right Fanboys." Esquire.
  54. ^ a b Fred Perry chairman says he wants nothing to do with Gavin McInnes and his Proud Boys CBC Radio (July 7, 2017)
  55. ^ Jake Wolff, The Proud Boys are the latest losers to try to co-opt the classic polo GQ(July 11, 2017)
  56. ^ Cosgrove, Jaclyn. "The Proud Boys walk into a bar. A fight breaks out. Now a Los Angeles bar deals with the consequences". latimes.com. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  57. ^ "Transcript 626: White Haze". This American Life. December 14, 2017. Audio
  58. ^ a b c Crosbie, Jack (November 28, 2018). "The Proud Boys Just Accidentally Doxxed Their New 'Elders'". Splinter. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  59. ^ Wilson, Jason (November 30, 2018). "Gavin McInnes: founder of far-right Proud Boys denied Australian visa – report". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
  60. ^ LaFerney, Dalton; Duncan, Jenna. "Arrest warrant issued for Jason Van Dyke". Denton Record-Chronicle. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
  61. ^ Offenhartz, Jake (February 3, 2017). "Anti-Fascist Protesters Clash With 'Proud Boys' As Gavin McInnes Speaks At NYU". Gothamist. Archived from the original on March 20, 2017. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
  62. ^ Campbell, Jon (February 15, 2017). "Gavin McInnes Wants You to Know He's Totally Not a White Supremacist". Village Voice. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
  63. ^ "Meet the neo-Nazi coming to put up white pride posters on your campus". The Tab US. February 15, 2017. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  64. ^ Kelley, Brendan (November 27, 2017). "Identity Evropa's Controversial New Ringleader". Southern Poverty Law Center. But not that long ago, in spring of this year, Mosley a/k/a Kline wasn't shy about the bigotry in his polemics whatsoever. In a report for Andrew Anglin's Daily Stormer about a pro-Trump demonstration in March, Mosley wrote, "In Philadelphia, the city of faggotry love, played out an alliance between the Nazi led marchers and local police departments against their oven-dodging enemies… Spoiler, the Nazis won bigly." He continues, "This is a sign that we have moved into a new era in the Nazification of America. Normie Trump supporters are becoming racially aware and Jew Wise."
  65. ^ Gardner, Elena (February 24, 2018). "White supremacist decals found at Gonzaga University". KXLY. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  66. ^ Beckett, Lois; Laughland, Oliver (November 5, 2016). "Specter of election day violence looms as Trump spurs vigilante poll watchers". The Guardian. Retrieved December 1, 2016. One of America's largest anti-government armed militia groups, the Oath Keepers.
  67. ^ "The Oath Keepers: Anti-Government Extremists Recruiting Military and Police". Anti-Defamation League. September 16, 2015. Retrieved December 1, 2016. The Oath Keepers are a large but loosely organized collection of anti‐government extremists who are part of the broader anti‐government "Patriot" movement, which includes militia and 'three percenter' groups, sovereign citizens, and tax protesters, among others...The ideology of the Oath Keepers most closely resembles that of the militia movement...
  68. ^ Skocpol, Theda; Williamson, Vanessa (2012). The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. Oxford University Press. p. 33. Retrieved December 1, 2016. Some anti-government extremists have unquestionably found their way into Tea Party groups—for example, members of the Oath Keepers, a group centered on current and former law enforcement officers.. Expecting the Obama Administration to declare martial law across the country and detain citizens en masse, Oath Keepers proclaim their readiness to engage in armed insurrection to counter this supposed threat from the federal government. ... The possibility of such a confrontation is not entirely rhetorical because members of the Oath Keepers have been tied to various militia groups.
  69. ^ Feuer, Alan (January 16, 2016). "Standoff in Oregon Attracts Supporters Bearing Disparate Grievances". New York Times. Retrieved December 1, 2016. members of the so-called Patriot movement, an umbrella effort of antigovernment activists that includes groups like the Oath Keepers, an organization of law enforcement officers and military veterans.
  70. ^ Crowley, Michael (August 10, 2016). "Trump's long dalliance with violent rhetoric". Politico. Retrieved December 1, 2016. the popular anti-government group Oath Keepers
  71. ^ St. John, Paige; Rocha, Veronica (April 27, 2017). "Conservative and alt-right groups gather for 'free speech' rally in Berkeley". Los Angeles Times.
  72. ^ John, Paige St. (April 28, 2017). "For many at violent Berkeley rally, it wasn't really about Trump or free speech: They came to make trouble". Los Angeles Times.
  73. ^ a b Grimm, Andy (August 30, 2019) "Humboldt Park man guilty in 2017 stabbing at Northerly Island concert" Chicago Sun-Times
  74. ^ Obeidallah, Dean (July 14, 2017). "Trump-Supporting Bigots to Target Upstate New York Muslims". The Daily Beast.
  75. ^ Feuer, Alan; Winston, Ali (October 19, 2018). "Founder of Proud Boys Says He's Arranging Surrender of Men in Brawl". The New York Times. Driving in a caravan toward Islamberg, an Islamic community in upstate New York, Mr. Young discussed his impressions of Muslims on the video. “They are literally a virus,” he said. “They eat and feed off the host nation until it’s dead."
  76. ^ Coutts, Sharona (August 28, 2017). "How Hate Goes 'Mainstream': Gavin McInnes and the Proud Boys". Rewire.News.
  77. ^ Wilson, Jason (August 5, 2018). "Portland far-right rally: police charge counterprotesters with batons drawn". the Guardian. The Guardian. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
  78. ^ Matarrese, Andy (September 10, 2017). "Protesters clash in Patriot Prayer demonstration on Vancouver waterfront". The Columbian.
  79. ^ Flaccus, Gillian (August 3, 2018). "Portland prepares for right-wing, anti-fascist rallies". Associated Press via The Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on August 4, 2018.
  80. ^ Neiwert, David (October 15, 2018). "Patriot Prayer again brings violence to Portland with 'flash march' downtown, rounding out a weekend of far-right violence". Southern Poverty Law Center.
  81. ^ Tasker, John Paul. "Head of Canada's Indigenous veterans group hopes Proud Boys don't lose their CAF jobs". CBC. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  82. ^ McMillan, Elizabeth (July 4, 2017). "Forces members who disrupted Indigenous rally face 'severe consequences'". CBC. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  83. ^ Roache, Trina (July 5, 2017). "The military apologizes while a grandmother demands action on "Proud Boys" behavior". APTN National News. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  84. ^ Previl, Sean (August 14, 2017). "Investigation into 'Proud Boys' incident in Halifax concluded: military official". Global News. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  85. ^ "No criminal or disciplinary charges for Canadian military "Proud Boys" – group now back on the job". Ottawa Citizen. August 31, 2017. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  86. ^ Yager, Jordy (August 23, 2017). "Living Next Door to a White Supremacist". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
  87. ^ Strickland, Patrick (August 13, 2017). "Unite the Right: White supremacists rally in Virginia". Al Jazeera. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  88. ^ Porter, Tom (August 12, 2017). "Who are the alt-right leaders and provocateurs addressing the Charlottesville white nationalist rally?". Newsweek. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  89. ^ Lind, Dara (August 12, 2017). "Unite the Right, the violent white supremacist rally in Charlottesville, explained". Vox. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  90. ^ "Charlottesville Beating Suspect Is Guilty". njtoday.net. May 3, 2018.
  91. ^ a b c d Moynihan, Colin, and Winston, Ali (December 23, 2018). "Far-Right Proud Boys Reeling After Arrests and Scrutiny". The New York Times
  92. ^ "Far-right 'Proud Boys' jailed over New York City clash with anti-fascists". BBC News. October 23, 2019. Retrieved October 24, 2019.
  93. ^ Southall, Ashley; Pager, Tyler (October 14, 2018). "Proud Boys Fight at G.O.P. Club Spurs Calls for Inquiry; Cuomo Blames Trump". The New York Times.
  94. ^ Campbell, Andy (November 26, 2018). "The Proud Boys Are Imploding". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  95. ^ Campbell, Andy (November 14, 2017). "Lawyer Suing Anti-Fascist For Calling Him Nazi Sent Death Threats, Racial Slurs On Twitter". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  96. ^ Campbell, Andy (September 19, 2018). "Proud Boys Lawyer Arrested For Lying To Cops, Can Still Practice Law". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  97. ^ a b c d e Moynihan, Conlin (August 19, 2019) "Two Members of Proud Boys Convicted in Brawl Near Republican Club", The New York Times
  98. ^ a b c Moynihan, Colin (July 30, 2019) "Far-Right Proud Boys Go on Trial, but Anti-Fascists Are Boycotting" The New York Times
  99. ^ Staff (March 1, 2019) "Two Proud Boys Plead Guilty in NYC Attack" The Daily Beast
  100. ^ Moynihan, Colin (October 22, 2019). "2 Proud Boys Sentenced to 4 Years in Brawl With Anti-Fascists at Republican Club". The New York Times. Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  101. ^ "Proud Boy Threatens Portland Mayor: 'I'm Coming For You'". Southern Poverty Law Center. January 25, 2019. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  102. ^ Anapol, Avery (January 29, 2019). "'Proud Boys' threatens Portland mayor in Facebook video: report". TheHill. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  103. ^ Wilson, Jason (January 29, 2019). "Portland: far-right activist threatens mayor as groups change tactics". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  104. ^ Barnes, Luke (January 28, 2019) "Roger Stone’s Proud Boy allies are still backing him" ThinkProgress
  105. ^ Arciga, Julia and Sommer, Will (January 29, 2109) "Roger Stone Pleads Not Guilty, While Proud Boys and InfoWars Fight the #Resistance Outside" The Daily Beast
  106. ^ a b Kennedy, Merrit (February 5, 2019) "Proud Boys Founder Files Defamation Lawsuit Against Southern Poverty Law Center" NPR
  107. ^ Jackson, Daniel (February 5, 2019). "Proud Boys Founder Sues Over Hate-Group Label". Courthouse News Service. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  108. ^ Tim Cushing, SPLC Asks Court To Toss Proud Boy Founder's Defamation Lawsuit By Asking 'Where's The Lie?', TechDirt (July 11, 2019).
  109. ^ Glaser, April (February 7, 2019) "The Swag Shop of the Far Right" Slate
  110. ^ Morris, Conor (May 19, 2019). "Victim of Charlottesville attack sues racist groups, organizers of rally". The Athens NEWS. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  111. ^ "Docket for Burke v. Fields Jr., 2:19-cv-02006 - CourtListener.com". CourtListener. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  112. ^ "Ohio man sues white supremacists over 2017 Virginia rally". Star Tribune. Associated Press. May 17, 2019. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  113. ^ "Irish American sues neo-Nazi groups after suffering injuries at Charlottesville". IrishCentral.com. May 22, 2019. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  114. ^ a b c Sommer, Will (July 5, 2019) "Proud Boys Rally Rocked by Sex, Cocaine Allegations" The Daily Beast
  115. ^ a b Sanchez, Olivia (July 6, 2019) "Far-right extremists Proud Boys outnumbered by counter-protesters at Washington, DC, rally" USA Today
  116. ^ a b Somer, Will (July 6, 2019) "Proud Boys’ D.C. Free-Speech Rally Goes Off With a Whimper" The Daily Beast
  117. ^ a b Herman, Peter; Jamison, Peter; Natanson; and Williams, Clarence (July 6, 2019) "Right-wing rally triggers skirmishes with Antifa protesters as D.C. police work to prevent violence" The Washington Post
  118. ^ Sommer, Will (July 29, 2019) "Far Right Proud Boys Attempt to Menace Critic With Late-Night Threat" The Daily Beast
  119. ^ Evans, Jayda (August 4, 2019) "Fans marching to Sounders match hear curses from people who pledge allegiance to Proud Boys" Seattle Times
  120. ^ Staff (August 18, 2019) "Far-right groups and Antifa face off in Portland" Archived August 18, 2019, at the Wayback Machine USA Today
  121. ^ a b Mathias, Christopher and Campbell, Andy (August 18, 2019) "Proud Boys, Outnumbered By Anti-fascists, Get Police Escort After 30-Minute Rally" Archived August 18, 2019, at the Wayback Machine Huff Post
  122. ^ Bernstein, Maxine (August 6, 2019). "Portland police chief to protesters intent on violence: 'Don't come. We don't want you here. I don't care what side you're on.'". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on August 13, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  123. ^ Simon, Mallory; Sidner, Sara. "Portland braces for dueling protests: What we know". CNN. Archived from the original on August 15, 2019. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  124. ^ Turnquist, Kristi (August 15, 2019). "Fox News host warns 'all hell's going to break loose' at Portland protests this weekend". OregonLive. Archived from the original on August 15, 2019. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  125. ^ Park, Katie (September 4, 2019) "Haverford shuts down fire company over Proud Boys controversy" The Philadelphia Inquirer
  126. ^ Fieldstadtm Elisha (September 5, 2019) "Pennsylvania fire company is closed for failing to address volunteer's Proud Boys ties" NBC News
  127. ^ Helsel, Phil (September 10, 2019) "Pennsylvania fire company shuttered over Proud Boys ties to reopen after resignation" NBC News

Further reading